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Encyclopedia > Arthur Balfour
Arthur James Balfour
Arthur Balfour

In office
11 July 1902 – 5 December 1905
Monarch Edward VII
Preceded by Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman

Born 25 July 1848(1848-07-25)
Whittingehame, East Lothian, Scotland
Died 19 March 1930 (aged 81)
Woking, Surrey, England
Political party Conservative
Spouse none
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge
Religion Church of Scotland and Church of England

Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930) was a British Conservative politician and statesman, and the Prime Minister from 1902 to 1905, a time when his party and government became divided over the issue of tariff reform. Later, as Foreign Secretary, he authored the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which supported the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale GBE (9 January 1873-7 July 1957), known as Sir Arthur Balfour, 1st Baronet, from 1929 to 1935, was a British steel manufacturer. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3811x4520, 2124 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arthur Balfour List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom User:Lofty ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (Albert Edward) (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and Prime Minister on three occasions, for a total of over 13 years. ... Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) , also known as Andie McDowell, was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Whittingehame is a small village in East Lothian, close to Haddington, East Linton and Traprain Law, and is an attractive corner of a very agreeable part of Scotland. ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , See Woking (borough) for the administrative district. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Arthur James Balfour. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi...

Contents

Background and early career

Arthur Balfour was born at Whittingehame, and was the eldest son of James Maitland Balfour (1820-1956) of East Lothian, Scotland, and Lady Blanche Gascoyne-Cecil (d. 1872, aged forty-seven). His father was an MP; his mother, a member of the Cecil family descended from Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, was the daughter of the 2nd Marquess of Salisbury and a sister to the 3d Marquess, the future Prime Minister. He was the eldest son, the third of eight children, and had four brothers and three sisters. Arthur Balfour was educated at Eton (1861-1966) where he studied with the influential Master William Johnson Cory, and Trinity College, Cambridge (1866-1969), where he received a Second-Class Honours Degree. His younger brother was the renowned Cambridge embryologist Francis Maitland Balfour (1851-1982). Whittingehame is a small village in East Lothian, close to Haddington, East Linton and Traprain Law, and is an attractive corner of a very agreeable part of Scotland. ... James Maitland Balfour, of Whittinghame, was born on the 5 January 1820, son of James Balfour and Lady Eleanor Maitland, a daughter of the eighth Earl of Lauderdale. ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. ... This article is about the country. ... ] The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 1563–24 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the... James Brownlow William Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury (17 April 1791 - 12 April 1868) was an English statesman. ... Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and Prime Minister on three occasions, for a total of over 13 years. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... William Johnson Cory (1823 - 1892, born William Johnson) was a poet, born at Torrington, and educated at Eton, where he was afterwards a renowned master, nicknamed Tute (short for tutor) by his pupils. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Francis Maitland Balfour (November 10, 1851 - July 19, 1882) was a British biologist. ...


Although he coined the saying, "Nothing matters very much and most things don't matter at all," Balfour was distraught at the early death from typhus in 1875 of his cousin May Lyttleton, whom he had hoped to marry: Balfour remained a bachelor for the rest of his life, his serious intention to marry never renewed. His household was maintained by his (also) unmarried sister Alice. In middle age Balfour had a long friendship with Mary Wemyss, later Countess of Elcho. It is unclear whether the relationship was sexual. For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


In 1874 he was elected Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Hertford and represented that constituency until 1885. In the spring of 1878 Balfour became Private Secretary to his uncle, Lord Salisbury. In that capacity he accompanied Salisbury (then Foreign Secretary) to the Congress of Berlin and gained his first experience in international politics in connection with the settlement of the Russo-Turkish conflict. At the same time he became known in the world of letters; the academic subtlety and literary achievement of his Defence of Philosophic Doubt (1879) suggested that he might make a reputation for himself as a philosopher. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Hertford (standard pronunciations /hɑtֽfəd/ and /hɑֽfəd/; local pronunciation /[h]ɑːʔֽfəd/) is the county town of Hertfordshire, England, and is in the East Hertfordshire district of that county. ... A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a junior role given to a United Kingdom Member of Parliament (MP). ... Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and Prime Minister on three occasions, for a total of over 13 years. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ...


Balfour divided his time between the political arena and the academy. Released from his duties as private secretary by the general election of 1880, he began to take a more active part in parliamentary affairs. He was for a time politically associated with Lord Randolph Churchill, Sir Henry Drummond Wolff and John Gorst. This quartet became known as the "Fourth Party" and gained notoriety for the leader Lord Randolph Churchill's free criticism of Sir Stafford Northcote, Lord Cross and other prominent members of the "old gang". Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill (13 February 1849 – 24 January 1895) was a British statesman. ... Caricature from Punch, 1882 Sir Henry Drummond-Wolff (1830 - October 11, 1908), son of Joseph Wolff, was a well-known English diplomat and Conservative politician, who started as a clerk in the foreign office and was created KCMG in 1862 for various services abroad. ... Sir John Eldon Gorst, (1835-1916), was a British lawyer and politician. ... The Fourth Party was a label given to a quartet of British MPs, Lord Randolph Churchill, Henry Drummond Wolff, John Gorst and Arthur Balfour, in the 1880-1885 parliament. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Rt Hon. ...


Service in Lord Salisbury's governments

Lord Salisbury made Balfour President of the Local Government Board in 1885 and later Secretary for Scotland in 1886, with a seat in the cabinet. These offices, while having few opportunities for distinction, served as a sort of apprenticeship for Balfour. In early 1887 Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, resigned because of illness and Salisbury appointed his nephew in his place. The selection took the political world by surprise and possibly led to the British phrase "Bob's your uncle!". Balfour surprised his critics by his ruthless enforcement of the Crimes Act, earning the nickname "Bloody Balfour". Balfour's skill for steady administration did much to dispel his reputation as a political lightweight. The President of the Local Government Board was a ministerial post, frequently a Cabinet position, in the United Kingdom, established in 1871. ... The Secretary for Scotland was the former title of the chief minister in charge of the Scotland Office in the United Kingdom government. ... The Rt Hon. ... The Chief Secretary was the most important position for determining British policy in Ireland after the Lord Lieutenant, and was frequently a cabinet level position in the 19th and early twentieth centuries. ...


In Parliament he resisted any overtures to the Irish Parliamentary Party on Home Rule, and, allied with Joseph Chamberlain's Liberal Unionists, strongly encouraged Unionist activism in Ireland. Balfour also broadened the basis of material prosperity to the less well off by creating the Congested Districts Board in 1890. It was during this period of 1886-1892 that he sharpened his gift of oratory and gained a reputation as one of the most effective public speakers of the age. Impressive in matter rather than in delivery, his speeches were logical and convincing, and delighted an ever wider audience. The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) (commonly called the Irish Party) was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The Rt. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | UK political parties | Historical liberal parties ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... The Congested Districts Board was formed in 1891 to allieviate poverty and congested living conditions in the west of Ireland. ...


On the death of W.H. Smith in 1891, Balfour became First Lord of the Treasury -- the last one in British history not to have been concurrently Prime Minister as well -- and Leader of the House of Commons. After the fall of the government in 1892 he spent three years as Leader of the Opposition. On the return of the Conservatives to power in 1895, he resumed the leadership of the House. His management of the abortive education proposals of 1896 were thought to show a disinclination for the continuous drudgery of parliamentary management. Yet he had the satisfaction of seeing a bill pass providing Ireland with an improved system of local government, and took an active role in the debates on the various foreign and domestic questions that came before parliament between 1895 to 1900. The Rt Hon. ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ...


During the illness of Lord Salisbury in 1898, and again in Lord Salisbury's absence abroad, Balfour was put in charge of the Foreign Office, and it was his job to conduct the critical negotiations with Russia on the question of railways in North China. As a member of the cabinet responsible for the Transvaal negotiations in 1899, he bore his full share of controversy, and when the war began disastrously, he was the first to realize the need to put the full military strength of the country into the field. His leadership of the House of Commons was marked by considerable firmness in the suppression of obstruction, yet there was a slight revival of the criticisms of 1896. Balfour's inability to get the maximum amount of work out of the House was largely due to the Second Boer War and its sequal, a crisis that absorbed the intellectual energies of the House and the physical resources of the United Kingdom as a whole.[citation needed] The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


Prime Minister

Arthur Balfour
Arthur Balfour

On Lord Salisbury's resignation on 11 July 1902, Balfour succeeded him as Prime Minister, with the approval of all sections of the Unionist party. The new Prime Minister came into power practically at the same moment as the coronation of Edward VII and the end of the South African War. For a while no cloud appeared on the horizon. The Liberal party was still disorganized over their attitude towards the Boers. The two chief items of the ministerial parliamentary program were the extension of the new Education Act to London and the Irish Land Purchase Act, by which the British exchequer would advance the capital for enabling tenants in Ireland to buy land. A notable achievement of Balfour's government was the establishment of the Committee on Imperial Defence. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 2581 pixel, file size: 273 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 2581 pixel, file size: 273 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... The Committee of Imperial Defence was an important (albeit ad hoc) part of the government of Great Britain and the British Empire from just after the Boer War until the start of World War II. It was responsible for research, and some co-ordination, on issues of military strategy. ...


In foreign affairs, Balfour and his foreign secretary, Lord Lansdowne presided over a dramatic improvement in relations with France, culminating in the Entente Cordiale of 1904. The period also saw the acute crisis of the Russo-Japanese War, when Britain, an ally of the Japanese, came close to war with Russia as a result of the Dogger Banks Incident. On the whole, Balfour left the conduct of foreign policy to Lansdowne, being largely busy himself with domestic problems. The Most Honourable Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE (14 January 1845 – 3 June 1927) was a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of...


The budget was certain to show a surplus and taxation could be remitted. Yet as events proved, it was the budget that would sow dissension, override all other legislative concerns, and in the end signal the beginning of a new political movement. Charles Thomson Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Joseph Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform — these were taxes on imported goods with trade preference given to the Empire, with the threefold goal of protecting British industry from competition, strengthening the British Empire in the face of growing German and American economic power, and providing a source of revenue, other than raising taxes, for the costs of social welfare legislation. As the session proceeded, the rift grew in the Unionist ranks. Tariff Reform proved popular with Unionist supporters, but the threat of higher prices for food imports made the policy an electoral albatross. Hoping to split the difference between the free traders and tariff reformers in his cabinet and party, Balfour came out in favor of retaliatory tariffs -- tariffs designed to punish other powers that had tariffs against British goods, supposedly in the hope of encouraging global free trade. Charles Thomson Ritchie, by Carlo Pellegrini, 1885. ... The Rt. ...


This was not, however, sufficient for either the free traders or the more extreme tariff reformers in the government. With Balfour's agreement, Chamberlain resigned from the Cabinet in late 1903 to stump the country in favour of Tariff Reform. At the same time, Balfour tried to balance the two factions by accepting the resignation of three free-trading ministers, including Chancellor Ritchie, but the almost simultaneous resignation of the free-trader Duke of Devonshire (who as Lord Hartington had been the Liberal Unionist leader of the 1880s) left Balfour's Cabinet looking weak. By 1905 relatively few Unionist MPs were still free traders (the young Winston Churchill crossed over to the Liberals in 1904 when threatened with deselection at Oldham), but Balfour's long balancing act had drained his authority within the government.


Balfour eventually resigned as Prime Minister in December of 1905, hoping in vain that the Liberal leader Campbell-Bannerman would be unable to form a strong government. These hopes were dashed when Campbell-Bannerman faced down an attempt (the "Relugas Compact") to "kick him upstairs" to the House of Lords. The Conservatives were defeated by the Liberals at the general election the following January (in terms of MPs, a Liberal landslide), with Balfour himself losing his seat at Manchester East. Only 157 Conservatives were returned to the House of Commons, at least two-thirds of them followers of Chamberlain, who briefly chaired the Conservative MPs until Balfour won a safe seat in the City of London. Manchester East was one of several Parliamentary constituencies created in 1885 from the former Manchester constituency. ... The City of London was a former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. ...


Arthur Balfour's Government, July 1902-December 1905

Changes The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Hardinge Stanley Giffard, 1st Earl of Halsbury (3 September 1825 - 1921) was a leading barrister, politician and government minister, serving as Solicitor General and Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire (23 July 1833 - 24 March 1908) was a British Liberal statesman, previously known (1858-1891) as Marquess of Hartington (a courtesy title). ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... Aretas Akers-Douglas, 1st Viscount Chilston, GBE (October 21, 1851) - (January 15, 1926) was a British Conservative statesman and politician. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... The Most Honourable Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE (14 January 1845 – 3 June 1927) was a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... The Rt. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... William St John Fremantle Brodrick, 1st Earl of Midleton (1856 - 1942) was an English statesman. ... The secretary of war in cabinet position was Henry Knox. ... Lord George Francis Hamilton (17 December 1845 - 22 September 1927) was a British Conservative politician of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... William Waldegrave Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne (1859–1942), was a British politician. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Charles Thomson Ritchie, by Carlo Pellegrini, 1885. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Gerald William Balfour, 2nd Earl of Balfour PC (9 April 1853 - 14 January 1945) was a British nobleman and Conservative politician. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... Sir William Hood Walrond, 1st Baron Waleran PC DL JP (26 February 1849 - 17 May 1925) was a British Conservative politician. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ... Alexander Hugh Bruce, 6th Lord Balfour of Burleigh, KT, GCMG (January 13, 1849) - (July 6, 1921) was a Scottish Conservative & Unionist politician and statesman. ... The Secretary for Scotland was the former title of the chief minister in charge of the Scotland Office in the United Kingdom government. ... George Wyndham (1863 - 1913) was a significant English political figure. ... The Chief Secretary was the most important position for determining British policy in Ireland after the Lord Lieutenant, and was frequently a cabinet level position in the 19th and early twentieth centuries. ... Walter Hume Long, 1st Viscount Long (13 July 1854 - 26 September 1924 was a British Unionist politician. ... The President of the Local Government Board was a ministerial post, frequently a Cabinet position, in the United Kingdom, established in 1871. ... The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food was a UK cabinet position, responsible for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. ... Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry (16 July 1852 - 8 February 1915) was a British Conservative politician who in various capacities in the Conservative administrations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Secretary of State for Education and Skills is the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government. ... Edward Gibson, 1st Baron Ashbourne (September 4, 1837 - May 22, 1913) was an Irish lawyer and Lord Chancellor of Ireland. ... The office of Lord Chancellor of Ireland was the highest judicial office in Ireland from earliest times until the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922. ... Robert George Windsor-Clive, 1st Earl of Plymouth (27 August 1857 - 6 March 1923) was an English nobleman. ... The First Commissioner of Works and Public Buildings replaced the First Commissioner of Woods and Forests in 1851. ... The Rt. ... In the United Kingdom, the Postmaster General is a now defunct ministerial position. ...

William Hillier Onslow, 4th Earl of Onslow was the Governor of New Zealand from 1889 until 1892. ... Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry (16 July 1852 - 8 February 1915) was a British Conservative politician who in various capacities in the Conservative administrations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire (23 July 1833 - 24 March 1908) was a British Liberal statesman, previously known (1858-1891) as Marquess of Hartington (a courtesy title). ... James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC (October 23, 1861 – April 4, 1947) was the eldest son and heir of the Victorian statesman Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. ... The Rt. ... Charles Thomson Ritchie, by Carlo Pellegrini, 1885. ... Alfred Lyttelton (7 February 1857 - 5 July 1913) was a British politician and cricketer. ... The Rt. ... William St John Fremantle Brodrick, 1st Earl of Midleton (1856 - 1942) was an English statesman. ... Lord George Francis Hamilton (17 December 1845 - 22 September 1927) was a British Conservative politician of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Andrew Graham Murray whilst Lord Advocate, by Leslie Ward, 1896. ... Walter Hume Long, 1st Viscount Long (13 July 1854 - 26 September 1924 was a British Unionist politician. ... George Wyndham (1863 - 1913) was a significant English political figure. ... Gerald William Balfour, 2nd Earl of Balfour PC (9 April 1853 - 14 January 1945) was a British nobleman and Conservative politician. ... James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC (October 23, 1861 – April 4, 1947) was the eldest son and heir of the Victorian statesman Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. ... Frederick Archibald Vaughan Campbell, 3rd Earl Cawdor (1847-1911) was a British Conservative politician. ... William Waldegrave Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne (1859–1942), was a British politician. ... Ailwyn Edward Fellowes, 1st Baron Ailwyn KCVO KBE PC (10 November 1855 – 23 September 1924) was a British peer and MP. Fellowes was born at Haverland Hall in Norwich, the son of Edward Fellowes (later Baron de Ramsey) and attended Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. ...

Later career

After the disaster of 1906 Balfour remained party leader, his position strengthened by Joseph Chamberlain's removal from active politics after his stroke in July 1906, but he was unable to make much headway against the huge Liberal majority in the House of Commons. An early attempt to score a debating triumph over the government, made in Balfour's usual abstruse, theoretical style, saw Campbell-Bannerman respond with: "Enough of this foolery," to the delight of his supporters in the House. Balfour made the controversial decision, with Lord Lansdowne, to use the heavily Unionist House of Lords as an active check on the political program and legislation of the Liberal party in the House of Commons. Numerous pieces of legislation were vetoed or altered by amendments between 1906 and 1909, leading David Lloyd George to remark that the Lords had become "not the watchdog of the Constitution, but Mr. Balfour's poodle." The issue was eventually forced by the Liberals with Lloyd George's so-called People's Budget, provoking the constitutional crisis that eventually led to the Parliament Act of 1911, which replaced the Lords' veto authority with a greatly reduced power to only delay bills for up to two years. After the Unionists had failed to win an electoral mandate at either of the General Elections of 1910 (despite softening the Tariff Reform policy with Balfour's promise of a referendum on food taxes), the Unionist peers split to allow the Parliament Act to pass the House of Lords, in order to prevent a mass-creation of new Liberal peers by the new King, George V. The exhausted Balfour resigned as party leader after the crisis, and was succeeded in late 1911 by Andrew Bonar Law. The Most Honourable Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE (14 January 1845 – 3 June 1927) was a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Peoples Budget was proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, and was a key issue of contention between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, ultimately leading to two general elections in 1910 and the enactment of the Parliament Act 1911. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. ...


Balfour remained an important figure within the party, however, and when the Unionists joined Asquith's coalition government in May 1915, Balfour succeeded Winston Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty. When Asquith's government collapsed in December 1916, Balfour, who seemed for a time a potential successor to the premiership, became Foreign Secretary in Lloyd George's new administration, but was not actually included in the small War Cabinet, and was frequently left out of the inner workings of the government. Balfour's service as Foreign Secretary was most notable for the issuance of the Balfour Declaration of 1917, a letter to Lord Rothschild promising the Jews a "national home" in Palestine, then part of the Ottoman Empire. Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... “Churchill” redirects here. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ...


Balfour resigned as Foreign Secretary following the Versailles Conference in 1919, but continued on in the government (and the Cabinet after normal peacetime political arrangements resumed) as Lord President of the Council. In 1921-22 he represented the British Empire at the Washington Naval Conference. This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 35 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... The Washington Naval Conference was a diplomatic conference, called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. ...


In 1922 he, along with most of the Conservative leadership, resigned with Lloyd George's government following the Conservative back-bench revolt against the continuance of the coalition. Bonar Law soon became Prime Minister. In 1922 Balfour was created Earl of Balfour. Like many of the Coalition leaders he did not hold office in the Conservative governments of 1922-4, although as an elder statesman he was consulted by the King in the choice of Baldwin as Bonar Law's successor as Conservative leader in May 1923. When asked by a lady whether "dear George" (the much more experienced Lord Curzon) would be chosen he replied, referring to Curzon's wealthy wife Grace, "No, dear George will not but he will still have the means of Grace." The title of Earl of Balfour was created in 1922 in the Peerage of the United Kingdom for Arthur Balfour, the former Conservative prime minister. ... The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925) was a British Conservative statesman who served as Viceroy of India and Foreign Secretary. ...


Balfour was again not initially included in Stanley Baldwin's second government in 1924, but in 1925 he once again returned to the Cabinet, serving in place of the late Lord Curzon as Lord President of the Council until the government ended in 1929. Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ...


Apart from a number of colds and occasional influenza, Balfour had enjoyed good health until the year 1928. He remained until then a regular tennis player. At the end of that year most of his teeth had to be removed and he began to suffer from the unremitting circulatory trouble which ended his life. Late in January 1929 Balfour was conveyed from Whittingehame to Fisher's Hill, his brother Gerald's home near Woking, Surrey. In the past he had suffered from occasional bouts of phlebitis and by the autumn of 1929 he was immobilized by it. Finally, soon after receiving a visit from his friend Chaim Weizmann, Balfour died at Fisher's Hill on 19 March 1930. At his own request a public funeral was declined and he was buried on 22 March beside members of his family at Whittingehame. Despite the snowy weather, attenders came from far and wide. By special remainder, the title passed to his brother Gerald. Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... , See Woking (borough) for the administrative district. ... This article is about the English county. ... Phlebitis is an inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Whittingehame is a small village in East Lothian, close to Haddington, East Linton and Traprain Law, and is an attractive corner of a very agreeable part of Scotland. ...


Lord Balfour's estate was probated £76,433 5s. 2d. on August 27, 1930. is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Writings and academic achievements

Balfour's writings include:

  • Essays and Addresses (1893).
  • The Foundations of Belief, being Notes introductory to the Study of Theology (1895).
  • Questionings on Criticism and Beauty (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1909), based on his 1909 Romanes Lecture.
  • Theism and Humanism (1915), based on his first series of Gifford Lectures given in 1914 and is still in print. In 1962, Oxford writer C. S. Lewis told Christian Century that Theism and Humanism was one of the ten books that most influenced his thought.
  • Theism and Thought (1923) based on the second in his Gifford Lectures, which were given in 1922.

He was made LL.D. of the University of Edinburgh in 1881; of the University of St Andrews in 1885; of Cambridge University in 1888; of Dublin and Glasgow Universities in 1891; Lord Rector of St Andrews University in 1886; of Glasgow University in 1890; Chancellor of Edinburgh University in 1891; member of the senate London University in 1888; and DCL of Oxford University in 1891. He was president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1904, and became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1888. He was known from early life as a cultured musician, and became an enthusiastic golf player, having been captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in 1894-1895. He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1914 to 1915. The Romanes Lecture is a prestigious free public lecture given annually at the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford. ... The Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (d. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... The magazine Christian Century was originally founded as The Christian Oracle, a denominational magazine of the Disciples of Christ in 1884 in the United States. ... The Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (d. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... University of St Andrews The University of St Andrews was founded between 1410-1413 and is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in the United Kingdom. ... The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy (more generally known as the Aristotelian Society) was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880[1] which resolved to constitute a society of about twenty and to include ladies; the society to meet fortnightly, on Mondays at 8 oclock...


He was also a member of the Society for Psychical Research, a society dedicated to studying psychic and paranormal phenomena, and its president from 1892-1894. The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a non-profit organization which started in the United Kingdom and later acquired branches in other countries. ... Psychic (sīkĭk) refers in part to the human mind or psyche (ex. ... Anomalous phenomena are phenomena which are observed and for which there are no suitable explanations in the context of a specific body of scientific knowledge, e. ...


Succession

Parliament of the United Kingdom (1801–present)
Preceded by
Robert Dimsdale
Member of Parliament for Hertford
1874–1885
Succeeded by
Abel Smith
Preceded by
new constituency
Member of Parliament for Manchester East
1885–1906
Succeeded by
Thomas Gardner Horridge
Preceded by
Alban Gibbs
Member of Parliament for the City of London
1906–1922
Succeeded by
Edward Grenfell
Political offices
Preceded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1902-1905
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Lord Privy Seal
1901-1903
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Leader of the British Conservative Party
1902-1911
Succeeded by
Andrew Bonar Law
Preceded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Leader of the British Conservative Party
1902-1911
Succeeded by
Andrew Bonar Law
Preceded by
W.H. Smith
with
The Marquess of Salisbury
in the House of Lords
Leader of the British Conservative Party in the House of Commons
1891-1911
Succeeded by
Andrew Bonar Law
with
The Marquess of Lansdowne
in the House of Lords
Preceded by
The Earl of Rosebery
First Lord of the Treasury
1895-1905
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Preceded by
W.H. Smith
First Lord of the Treasury
1891-1892
Succeeded by
William Ewart Gladstone
Leader of the House of Commons
1891-1892
Preceded by
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Leader of the Opposition
1905–1911
Succeeded by
Andrew Bonar Law
Preceded by
Sir Charles Dilke
President of the Local Government Board
1885–1886
Succeeded by
Joseph Chamberlain
Preceded by
The Earl of Dalhousie
Secretary for Scotland
1886–1887
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Lothian
Preceded by
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1887–1891
Succeeded by
William Lawies Jackson
Preceded by
Winston Churchill
First Lord of the Admiralty
1915–1916
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Carson
Preceded by
The Viscount Grey of Fallodon
Foreign Secretary
1916–1919
Succeeded by
The Earl Curzon of Kedleston
Preceded by
The Earl Curzon of Kedleston
Lord President of the Council
1919–1922
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by
The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Lord President of the Council
1925–1929
Succeeded by
The Lord Parmoor
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Lord Reay
Rector of the University of St Andrews
1886 - 1889
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Dufferin and Ava
Preceded by
Earl of Lytton
Rector of the University of Glasgow
1890—1893
Succeeded by
John Eldon Gorst
Preceded by
Lord Glencorse
Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh
1891 – 1930
Succeeded by
J. M. Barrie
Preceded by
The Lord Rayleigh
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
1919-1930
Succeeded by
The Earl Baldwin of Bewdley
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Earl of Balfour
1922–1930
Succeeded by
Gerald William Balfour
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Arthur Balfour

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The Most Honourable Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE (14 January 1845 – 3 June 1927) was a British politician and Irish peer who served successively as Governor General of Canada, Viceroy of India, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, KG, PC (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister, also known as Archibald Primrose (1847-1851) and Lord Dalmeny (1851-1868). ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... 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The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. ... Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, 2nd Baronet (September 4, 1843 - January 26, 1911) was an English politician, son of Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, 1st Baronet. ... The President of the Local Government Board was a ministerial post, frequently a Cabinet position, in the United Kingdom, established in 1871. ... The Rt. ... Sir John William Ramsay (1847 - 1887), 13th Earl of Dalhousie was a British politician. ... The Secretary for Scotland was the former title of the chief minister in charge of the Scotland Office in the United Kingdom government. ... Schomberg Henry Kerr (1833 - 1900), 9th Marquis of Lothian, was a British diplomat and politician. ... The Rt Hon. ... 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The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, British statesman The Most Honourable George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 – March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, British statesman The Most Honourable George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 – March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (October 23, 1861 - April 4, 1947) was the eldest son and heir of the Victorian statesman Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury. ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, British statesman The Most Honourable George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 – March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Charles Alfred Cripps, 1st Baron Parmoor KCVO PC (October 3, 1852 - June 30, British politician who switched from the Conservative to the Labour Party and was a strong supporter of the League of Nations and of Church of England causes. ... Donald James Mackay, 11th Lord Reay and 1st Baron Reay (in the Netherlands: Donald Jacob, Baron Mackay, Lord of Ophemert and Zennewijnen) KT, GCSI, GCIE, PC, DL, JP (22 December 1839-1 August 1921) was a Scottish peer and politician. ... The Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews is chosen every three years by the students of the University of St Andrews. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 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This is a list of Chancellors of the University of Cambridge, from about 1246 to the present day: Hugh de Hotton, c. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801. ... The title of Earl of Balfour was created in 1922 in the Peerage of the United Kingdom for Arthur Balfour, the former Conservative prime minister. ... Gerald William Balfour, 2nd Earl of Balfour PC (9 April 1853 - 14 January 1945) was a British nobleman and Conservative politician. ... 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References

Torrance, David, The Scottish Secretaries (Birlinn 2006)


Further reading

  • Piers Brendon, Eminent Edwardians (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1980) ISBN 0-395-29195-X
  • Ewen Green Balfour (20 British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century; Haus Publishing Limited, 2006). ISBN 1904950558

Ewen Henry Harvey Green (October 16, 1958 − September 16, 2006), known as E.H.H. Green or Ewen Green, was a British historian famed for his work on 20th-century Britain and, in particular, the history of the 20th-century Conservative Party. ...

See also

The Gathering of Israel, as foretold by numerous Old Testament prophets, refers to recovery or return of Israels Lost Tribes to the lands of their inheritance. ...

External links

  • More about Arthur James Balfour on the Downing Street website.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Arthur Balfour
Persondata
NAME Balfour, Arthur James, 1st Earl of Balfour
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
DATE OF BIRTH 25 July 1848
PLACE OF BIRTH Whittingehame, East Lothian, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH 19 March 1930
PLACE OF DEATH Woking, Surrey, England

 
 

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