FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Arthashastra" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Arthashastra

The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya.[3] Chanakya (c. ... Cāṇakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty DVD cover of the popular eight-part series based on the Chanakya C... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Cāṇakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty DVD cover of the popular eight-part series based on the Chanakya C...

Contents

Date and authorship

Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire at its largest extent under Ashoka.
Imperial Symbol:
The Lion Capital of Ashoka
Founder Chandragupta Maurya
Preceding State(s) Mahajanapadas, mainly Magadha
Languages Sanskrit
Pali
Prakrit
Greek (northwest)
Aramaic (northwest)
Religions Hinduism
Jainism
Buddhism
Capital Pataliputra
Head of State Samraat (Emperor)
First Emperor Chandragupta Maurya
Last Emperor Brhadrata
Government Centralized Absolute Monarchy with Divine Right of Kings as described in the Arthashastra
Divisions 4 provinces:
Tosali
Ujjain
Suvarnagiri
Takshashila
Semi-independent tribes
Administration Inner Council of Ministers (Mantriparishad) under a Mahamantri with a larger assembly of ministers (Mantrinomantriparisadamca).
Extensive network of officials from treasurers (Sannidhatas) to collectors (Samahartas) and clerks (Karmikas).
Provincial administration under regional viceroys (Kumara or Aryaputra) with their own Mantriparishads and supervisory officials (Mahamattas).
Provinces divided into districts run by lower officials and similar stratification down to individual villages run by headmen and supervised by Imperial officials (Gopas).
Area 5 million km² [15] (Southern Asia and parts of Central Asia)
Population 50 million [16] (one third of the world population [17])
Currency Silver Ingots (Panas)
Existed 322–185 BCE
Dissolution Military coup by Pusyamitra Sunga
Succeeding state Sunga Empire

The traditional identification of Kauṭilya and Vishnugupta with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya would date the Arthaśāstra to the 4th century BCE.[4] The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... Image File history File links Mauryan_map. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four lions standing back to back. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: India Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Greek: Sandrakottos) (born c. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Sanskrit ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Pali may refer to: Pāli, a Middle Indo-Aryan language Pali, Rajasthan, a town and district in Rajasthan, western India Pali, a Hawaiian word, meaning cliffs Nuuanu Pali, a region on the Hawaiian island of Oahu Ballaleshwar Pali, the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra This is... Prakrit (Sanskrit prāká¹›ta प्राकृत (from pra-ká¹›ti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: eternal law; in several modern Indian languages[1] also known as ), is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Jaina redirects here. ... Template:Buttism Buttism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, a philosophy, and a system of psychology. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Samraat (Sanskrit samrãṭ) is an Ancient Indian title meaning Emperor. The title of empress is Samragyi (in Sanskrit, samrãjñī). Categories: | | ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: India Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Greek: Sandrakottos) (born c. ... Brhadrata was the last ruler of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Look up Administration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mantriparishad was the council of ministers that was part of the administrative system of the Maurya Empire in Ancient India. ... Mantri is a word of Sanskrit origin, used in Asian cultures with a Hindu tradition (even if later converted, usually to buddhism or Islam), for various public offices, from fairly humble to ministerial rank, either alone or in a pleiad of compounds. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Kumara is the general Polynesian word for the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas Kumara is also the name of a town on the West Coast of New Zealand Kumara or Kumaraswami is a name for Kartikeya, the Hindu god of war This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... UN Subregion of South Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... An ingot is a mass of metal or semiconducting material, heated past the melting point, and then recast, typically into the form of a bar or block. ... This page attempts to list the many extinct states, countries, nations, lands or territories that have ceased to exist as political entities, grouped geographically and by constitutional nature. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Cāṇakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty DVD cover of the popular eight-part series based on the Chanakya C...


Most modern day historians are of the opinion that this document definitely dates back to the early Mauryan era. Many administrative terms used are similar to those used in the edicts of Ashoka. The Magadha kingdom under the Nanda Dynasty is given as a case study. The language of many fragments is archaic. Certain inconsistencies may be explained by the fact that the document has probably seen many revisions by various authors at different times. It has been suggested that Vishnugupta was a later editor of the original work by Chanakya Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ...


However, certain affinities with smrtis and references that would be anachronistic for the 4th century BC suggest assigning the Arthaśāstra to the 2nd through 4th centuries CE.[5] Smriti (what is fit/deserves to be remembered) refers to a canon of Hindu religious scripture. ...


Thomas R. Trautmann and I.W. Mabbett concur that the Arthaśāstra is a composition from no earlier than the 2nd century AD, but based on earlier material.[6] Thomas R. Trautmann is an American historian. ...


K.C. Ojha puts forward the view that the traditional identification of Viṣṇugupta with Kauṭilya was caused by a confusion of editor and originator and suggests that Viṣṇugupta is in fact a redactor of the original work of Kauṭilya.[7]


Thomas Burrow goes even further and says that Cāṇakya and Kauṭilya are actually two different people.[8]


Translation of the title

Different scholars have translated the word "arthaśāstra" in different ways.

  • R.P. Kangle – "science of politics," a treatise to help a king in "the acquisition and protection of the earth."[9]
  • A.L. Basham – a "treatise on polity"[10]
  • D.D. Kosambi – "science of material gain"[11]
  • G.P. Singh – "science of polity"[12]
  • Roger Boesche – "science of political economy"[13]

Professor Arthur Llewellyn Basham was a historian with the Australian National University in Canberra. ... D.D. Kosambi (October 9, 1876-June 24, 1947) is a prominent Indian Marxist historian who pioneered Marxist studies of ancient Indian history. ...

Themes

Roger Boesche describes the Arthaśāstra as "a book of political realism, a book analyzing how the political world does work and not very often stating how it ought to work, a book that frequently discloses to a king what calculating and sometimes brutal measures he must carry out to preserve the state and the common good."[14]


Centrally, Arthanonoastra argues for an autocracy managing an efficient and solid economy. It discusses the ethics of economics and the duties and obligations of a king. The scope of Arthashastra is, however, far wider than statecraft, and it offers an outline of the entire legal and bureaucratic framework for administering a kingdom, with a wealth of descriptive cultural detail on topics such as mineralogy, mining and metals, agriculture, animal husbandry and medicine. The Arthashastra also focuses on issues of welfare (for instance, redistribution of wealth during a famine) and the collective ethics that hold a society together. An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ethikos, meaning arising from habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of value or quality. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of valuable goods and services. ... This page is about the sociological concept. ... It has been suggested that Welfare capitalism be merged into this article or section. ...


Books of Arthashashtra

Arthashastra is divided into 15 books:

  • I Concerning Discipline
  • II The Duties of Government Superintendents
  • III Concerning Law
  • IV The Removal of Thorns
  • V The Conduct of Courtiers
  • VI The Source of Sovereign States
  • VII The End of the Six-Fold Policy
  • VIII Concerning Vices and Calamities
  • IX The Work of an Invader
  • X Relating to War
  • XI The Conduct of Corporations
  • XII Concerning a Powerful Enemy
  • XIII Strategic Means to Capture a Fortress
  • XIV Secret Means
  • XV The Plan of a Treatise

The Rajarishi

Arthashastra deals in detail with the qualities and disciplines required for a Rajarishi - a wise and virtuous king. Rajarshi or Rajarishi (from Sanskrit rajan king + rishi) is in Hinduism and Hindu mythology, a royal saint and rishi. ...

"In the happiness of his subjects lies the king's happiness, in their welfare his welfare. He shall not consider as good only that which pleases him but treat as beneficial to him whatever pleases his subjects" - Kautilya

According to Kautilya, a Rajarishi is one who:

  • Has self-control, having conquered the inimical temptations of the senses;
  • Cultivates the intellect by association with elders;
  • Keeps his eyes open through spies;
  • Is ever active in promoting the security & welfare of the people;
  • Ensures the observance (by the people) of their dharma by authority & example;
  • Improves his own discipline by (continuing his) learning in all branches of knowledge; and
  • Endears himself to his people by enriching them & doing good to them.

Such a disciplined king should: -

  • Keep away from another's wife;
  • Not covet another's property;
  • Practice ahimsa (non-violence towards all living things);
  • Avoid day dreaming, capriciousness, falsehood & extravagance; and
  • Avoid association with harmful persons and indulging in (harmful) activities.

Kautilya says that artha (Sound Economies) is the most important; dharma & kama are both dependent on it. A Rajarishi shall always respect those councillors and purohitas who warn him of the dangers of transgressing the limits of good conduct, reminding him sharply (as with a goad) of the times prescribed for various duties and caution him even when he errs in private. Chanakya (c. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धमा) (Natural Law) refers to the underlying order in Nature and human behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Best understood as aesthetics, the definition of Kama involves sensual gratification, sexual fulfillment, pleasure of the senses, love, and the ordinary enjoyments of life regarded as one of the four ends of man (purusharthas). ...


Duties of the King

If the king is energetic, his subjects will be equally energetic. If he is slack (and lazy in performing his duties), the subjects will also be lax and thereby eat into his wealth. Besides, a lazy king will easily fall into the hands of enemies. Hence the maharaj should himself always be energetic. He shall divide the day and the night, each into eight periods of one and half hours, and perform his duties as follows:

First period after sunrise Receive reports on defence, revenue, expenditure
Second period after sunrise Public audiences, to hear petitions of city & country people
Third period after sunrise Personal: bath, meals, study
Last period before noon Receive revenues, tributes, appoint ministers and other high officials & allot tasks to them
First period after noon Write letters & dispatches, confer with councillors, receive secret information from spies
Second period after noon Personal: recreation, time for contemplation
Third period after noon Inspect & review forces
Last period before sunset Consult with Chief of Defence
First period after sunset Interview with secret agents
Second period after sunset Personal: bath, meals, study
Three periods Retire to the bed chamber to the sound of music, sleep
Second period after midnight After waking to the sound of music, meditate on political matters & on work to be done
Third period after midnight Consult with councilors, send out spies
Last period before sunrise Religious, household & personal duties, meetings with his teacher, adviser on rituals, purohitas, personal physician, chief cooks & astrologer

Or some other time table which suits the king.


Hence the king shall be ever active in the management of the economy. The root of wealth is (economic) activity and lack of it (brings) material distress. In the absence of (fruitful economic) activity, both current prosperity and future growth will be destroyed. A king can achieve the desired objectives & abundance of riches by undertaking (productive) economic activity.


An ideal king is one who has the highest qualities of leadership, intellect, energy & personal attributes.


The qualities of leadership (which attracts followers) are: birth in a noble family, good fortune, intellect & prowess, association with elders, being righteous, truthful, resolute, enthusiastic & disciplined, not breaking his promises, showing gratitude (to those who help him), having lofty aims, not being dilatory, being stronger than neighbouring kings & having ministers of high quality. Look up Leadership in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The qualities of intellect are: desire to learn, listening (to others), grasping, retaining, understanding thoroughly and reflecting on knowledge, rejecting false views and adhering to the true ones. An energetic king is one who is valorous, determined, quick, and dexterous. As regards personal attributes, an ideal king should be eloquent, bold and endowed with sharp intellect, a strong memory and a keen mind. He should be amenable to guidance. He should be well trained in all the arts and be able to lead the army. He should be just in regarding and punishing. He should have the foresight to avail himself of the opportunities (by choosing) the right time, place and type of action. He should know how to govern in normal times and in times of crisis. He should know when to fight and when to make peace, when to lie in wait, when to observe treaties and when to strike at an enemy's weakness. He should preserve his dignity at all times and not laugh in an undignified manner. He should be sweet in speech, look straight at people and avoid frowning. He should eschew passion, anger, greed, obstinacy, fickleness and backbiting. He should conduct himself in accordance with advice of elders. Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ...


Internal Strife

Kautilya says - Quarrels among people can be resolved by winning over the leaders or by removing the cause of the quarrel - people fighting among people themselves help the king by their mutual rivalry. Conflicts (for power) within the royal family, on the other hand, bring about harassment and destruction to the people and double the exertion that is required to end such conflicts. Hence internal strife in royal family for power is worse than quarrels among people. (Royal family - top management, people - lower level employees) King must be well versed in descretion and shrewd in judgement. Chanakya (c. ...


Comments on Vices

Vices(CORRUPTION) are due to ignorance and indiscipline; an unlearned man does not perceive the injurious consequences of his vices. He summarizes: subject to qualification that gambling is most dangerous in cases where there is more than one entity sharing power, the vice with the most serious consequence is addiction to drink, followed by, lusting after women, gambling, and lastly hunting.


Training of a future King

Importance of self-discipline Discipline is of two kinds - inborn and acquired. (There must be an innate capacity for self discipline for the reasons given below). Instruction & training can promote discipline only in a person capable of benefiting from them, people incapable of (natural) self-discipline do not benefit. Learning imparts discipline only to those who have the following mental facilities - obedience to a teacher, desire and ability to learn, capacity to retain what is learnt, understanding what is learnt, reflecting on it and (finally) ability to make inferences by deliberating on the knowledge acquired. Those who are devoid of such mental faculties are not benefited (by any amount of training) One who will be a king should acquire discipline and follow it strictly in life by learning the sciences from authoritative teachers.


The training of a Prince

With improving his self-discipline, he should always associate with learned elders, for in them alone has discipline its firm roots. For a trained intellect ensues yoga (successful application), from yoga comes self-possession. This is what is meant by efficiency in acquiring knowledge. Only a king, who is wise, disciplined, devoted to a just governing of the subjects & conscious of the welfare of all beings, will enjoy the earth unopposed.


Maintenance of Law and Order

A conducive atmosphere is necessary for the state's economy to thrive. This requires that a state's law and order be maintained. Arthashastra specifies fines and punishments to support strict enforcement of laws. The science of law enforcement is also called Dandaniti.


References

  1. ^ Mabbett, I. W. (April 1964). "The Date of the Arthaśāstra". Journal of the American Oriental Society 84 (2): 162–169. ISSN 0003-0279.
    Trautmann, Thomas R. (1971). Kauṭilya and the Arthaśāstra: A Statistical Investigation of the Authorship and Evolution of the Text. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 10. “while in his character as author of an arthaśāstra he is generally referred to by his gotra name, Kauṭilya.” 
  2. ^ Mabbett 1964
    Trautmann 1971:5 "the very last verse of the work...is the unique instance of the personal name Viṣṇugupta rather than the gotra name Kauṭilya in the Arthaśāstra.
  3. ^ Mabbett 1964 "References to the work in other Sanskrit literature attribute it variously to Viṣṇugupta, Cāṇakya and Kauṭilya. The same individual is meant in each case. The Pańcatantra explicitly identifies Chanakya with Viṣṇugupta."
  4. ^ Mabbett 1964
  5. ^ Trautmann 1971:"The Ages of the Arthaśāstra", 167–187.
    Mabbett 1964
  6. ^ Trautmann 1971:185 "If the Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra in its present form is not so old as it pretends, the śāstra itself is certainly old, predating the dharma smṛtis."
    Mabbett 1964 "The content of the text is consistent with authorship in about the third century, A.D., and raises some questions which must be answered if it is to be assigned to the fourth B.C. Against this must be set the verses naming and characterising Kauṭilya, and the references in later literature. What emerges is that there is no necessary incompatibility between the essential claims that Cāṇakya was responsible for the doctrines of the Arthaśāstra, and that the text we know is a product of the later time. These do not conflict. The work could have been written late on the basis of earlier teachings and writings. Sanskrit literature being so full of derivative, traditional and stratified material, this possibility is a priori strong. Those who favour the early date usually admit the probability of interpolations....Those who favour a later date usually admit the probability that the work draws on traditional material. The controversy is therefore spurious. It is entirely possible that the Mauryan Kauṭilya wrote an arthaśāstra and that a later editor rewrote his work, or compressed it, or compiled a text from the teachings of his school."
  7. ^ Mabbett 1964
  8. ^ Trautmann 1971:67 'T. Burrow ("Cāṇakya and Kauṭalya", Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 48–49 1968, p. 17 ff.) has now shown that Cāṇakya is also a gotra name, which in conjunction with other evidence makes it clear that we are dealing with two distinct persons, the minister Cāṇakya of legend and Kauṭilya the compiler of the Arthaśāstra. Furthermore, this throws the balance of evidence in favor of the view that the second name was originally spelt Kauṭalya and that after the compiler of the Arth. came to be identified with the Mauryan minister it was altered to Kauṭilya (as it appears in Āryaśūra, Viśākhadatta and Bāna) for the sake of the pun. We must then assume that the later spelling subsequently replaced the earlier in the gotra lists and elsewhere.'
  9. ^ Boesche, Roger (January 2003). "Kautilya's Arthaśāstra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India". The Journal of Military History 67 (1): 9–37. ISSN 0899-3718.
  10. ^ Boesche 2003
  11. ^ Boesche 2003
  12. ^ Boesche 2003
  13. ^ Boesche 2003
  14. ^ Boesche, Roger (2002). The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya and His Arthashastra. Lanham: Lexington Books, 17. ISBN 0-7391-0401-2. 
  • Kautilya Arthashastra, R. P. Kangle, tr. 3 vols. Laurier Books, Motilal, New Delhi (1997) ISBN: 8120800427
  • Kautilya: The Arthashastra. L.N. Rangarajan (Ed., Rearranger & Translator), 1992, Penguin Classics, India. ISBN 0-14-044603-6.

Thomas R. Trautmann is an American Historian. ... A gotra (lit. ... A gotra (lit. ... A gotra (lit. ... A gotra (lit. ...

External links

  • Kautilya's Arthashastra 1915 R. Shamasastry translation, of Oriental Research Institute of Mysore, divided into 15 books.
  • Kautilya on the scope and methodology of accounting, organizational design and the role of ethics in ancient India Sihag, Balbir S. Dec 2004 Accounting Historians Journal.

The best work on the Arthasastra is that of R.P.Kangle. The 1st volume of his work is a Sanskrit text compiled from various manuscripts, the 2nd provides an English translation of the Arthasastra, and the final includes a commentary on the work. The Oriental Research Institute at Mysore,India is a research institute which collects, exhibits, edits and publishes rare manuscripts in both sanskrit and kannada. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kautilya's Arthashastra - Spiritual Linkage To Tradition (254 words)
Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on economics and politics written by "king maker" Chanakya (also known as Kautilya) in the 4th century BC during the rule of the Mauryan dynasty.
He was the best-known professor in the whole of ancient India (teaching at the "Takshshila Gurukul") for politics and "Arthashastra" (Economics).
Although the Sanskrit word Arthashastra is best translated literally as Economics, the book devotes much space to investigating the demands of statecraft in an unsettled society.
Arthashastra: Information From Answers.com (1435 words)
Arthashastra (also spelt Arthasastra) is an ancient Indian treatise on economics and politics written sometime between the 4th century BCE and 150 CE by the 'kingmaker' Chanakya (also known as Kautilya or Vishnugupta) during the early years of the Mauryan Empire.
The scope of Arthashastra is, however, far wider than statecraft, and it offers an outline of the entire legal and bureaucratic framework for administering a kingdom, with a wealth of descriptive cultural detail on topics such as mineralogy, mining and metals, agriculture, animal husbandry and medicine.
Arthashastra deals in detail with the qualities and disciplines required for a Rajarishi - a wise and virtuous king.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m