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Encyclopedia > Arterial blood gas

An arterial blood gas (also called "ABG'S") is a blood test that is performed specifically on arterial blood, to determine the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen and bicarbonate, as well as the pH of the blood. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ...


Its main use is in pulmonology, to determine gas exchange levels in the blood related to lung function, but it is also used in nephrology, and used to evaluate metabolic disorders such as acidosis and alkalosis. In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface—a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... A metabolic disorder is a medical disorder which affects the production of energy within individual human (or animal) cells. ... For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. ... Alkalosis refers to a condition reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma. ...


As its name implies, the sample is taken from an artery, which is more uncomfortable and difficult than venipuncture. For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Venipuncture using a vacutainer. ...

Contents

Extraction and analysis

Arterial blood for blood gas analysis is usually extracted by a respiratory therapist but sometimes by an RN.[1] Blood may be taken from an easily accessible artery (typically the radial artery, but during unusual or emergency situations the brachial or femoral artery may be used), or out of an arterial line. In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the lateral aspect of the forearm. ... The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the upper arm. ... The femoral artery is a large artery in the muscles of the thigh. ... An arterial line is a thin catheter inserted into an artery. ...


The syringe is pre-packaged and contains a small amount of heparin, to prevent coagulation or needs to be heparinised, by drawing up a small amount of heparin and squirting it out again. Once the sample is obtained, care is taken to eliminate visible gas bubbles, as these bubbles can dissolve into the sample and cause inaccurate results. The sealed syringe is taken to a blood gas analyzer. If the sample cannot be immediately analyzed, it is chilled in an ice bath in a glass syringe to slow metabolic processes which can cause inaccuracy. Samples drawn in plastic syringes should not be iced and should always be analyzed within 30 minutes.[2] Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ...


The machine used for analysis aspirates this blood from the syringe and measures the pH and the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The bicarbonate concentration is also calculated. These results are usually available for interpretation within five minutes. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ...


Standard blood tests can also be performed on arterial blood, such as measuring glucose, lactate, hemoglobins, dys-haemoglobins, bilirubin and electrolytes. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ...


Reference ranges and interpretation

These are typical reference ranges, although various analysers and laboratories may employ different ranges.

Analyte Range Interpretation
pH 7.35 - 7.45 The pH or H+ indicates if a patient is acidemic (pH < 7.35; H+ >45) or alkalemic (pH > 7.45; H+ < 35).
H+ 35 - 45 nmol/l (nM) See above.
PO2 9.3-13.3 kPa or 80-100 mmHg A low O2 indicates that the patient is not respiring properly, and is hypoxemic. At a PO2 of less than 60 mm Hg, supplemental oxygen should be administered. At a PO2 of less than 26 mm Hg, the patient is at risk of death and must be oxygenated immediately.
PCO2 4.7-6.0 kPa or 35-45 mmHg The carbon dioxide and partial pressure (PCO2) indicates a respiratory problem: for a constant metabolic rate, the PCO2 is determined entirely by ventilation.[3] A high PCO2 (respiratory acidosis) indicates underventilation, a low PCO2 (respiratory alkalosis) hyper- or overventilation. PCO2 levels can also become abnormal when the respiratory system is working to compensate for a metabolic issue so as to normalize the blood pH.
HCO3- 22–26 mmol/l The HCO3- ion indicates whether a metabolic problem is present (such as ketoacidosis). A low HCO3- indicates metabolic acidosis, a high HCO3- indicates metabolic alkalosis. HCO3- levels can also become abnormal when the kidneys are working to compensate for a respiratory issue so as to normalize the blood pH.
SBCe 21 to 27 mmol/l the bicarbonate concentration in the blood at a CO2 of 5.33 kPa, full oxygen saturation and 37 degrees Celsius.[4]
Base excess -2 to +2 mmol/l The base excess indicates whether the patient is acidotic or alkalotic. A negative base excess indicates that the patient is acidotic. A high positive base excess indicates that the patient is alkalotic.
HPO42− 0.8 to 1.5 [5] mM
total CO2 (tCO2 (P)c) 25 to 30 mmol/l This is the total amount of CO2, and is the sum of HCO3- and PCO2 by the formula:
tCO2 = [HCO3-] + α*PCO2, where α=0.226 mM/kPa, HCO3- is expressed in molar concentration (M) (mol/l) and PCO2 is expressed in kPa [6]
total O2 (tO2e) This is the sum of oxygen solved in plasma and chemically bound to hemoglobin. [7]

Contamination with room air will result in abnormally low carbon dioxide and (generally) normal oxygen levels. Delays in analysis (without chilling) may result in inaccurately low oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels as a result of ongoing cellular respiration. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... One way of defining pressure is in terms of the height of a column of fluid that may be supported by that pressure; or the height of a column of fluid that exerts that pressure at its base. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Respiratory acidosis is acidosis (abnormal acidity of the blood) due to decreased ventilation of the pulmonary alveoli, leading to elevated arterial carbon dioxide concentration. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Respiratory alkalosis results from increased alveolar respiration (hyperventilation) leading to decreased plasma carbon dioxide concentration. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diabetic ketoacidosis. ... In medicine, metabolic acidosis is a state in which the blood pH is low (under 7. ... Metabolic alkalosis results from altered metabolism. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed it in 1742. ... In human physiology, the base excess (see: base) excess refers to the amount of acid required to return the blood pH of an individual to the normal value. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


Lactate level analysis is often featured on blood gas machines in neonatal wards, as infants often have elevated lactic acid. A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ...


References

  1. ^ Aaron SD, Vandemheen KL, Naftel SA, Lewis MJ, Rodger MA (2003). "Topical tetracaine prior to arterial puncture: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Respir Med. 97 (11): 1195–1199. doi:10.1016/S0954-6111(03)00226-9. PMID 14635973. 
  2. ^ Mahoney JJ, Harvey JA, Wong RL, Van Kessel AL (1991). "Changes in oxygen measurements when whole blood is stored in iced plastic or glass syringes". Clin Chem. 37 (7): 1244–1248. PMID 1823532. 
  3. ^ Baillie K, Simpson A. Altitude oxygen calculator. Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). Retrieved on 2006-08-10. - Online interactive oxygen delivery calculator
  4. ^ Acid Base Balance (page 3)
  5. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron. Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 849
  6. ^ CO2: The Test
  7. ^ Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport. Charles L. Webber, Jr., Ph.D.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... It has been suggested that Gas exchange be merged into this article or section. ... Lung Volumes Lung volumeizing refer to physical differences in lung volume, while lung capacities represent different combinations of lung volumes, usually in relation to inhalation and exhalation. ... Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum inhalation. ... Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is a medical term referring to the amount of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration. ... Respiratory minute volume (or minute ventilation, or flow of gas) is the volume of air which can be inhaled (inhaled minute volume) or exhaled (exhaled minute volume) from a persons lungs in one minute. ... The closing capacity (CC) is the volume in the lungs at which its smallest airways, the alveoli collapse. ... In physiology, dead space is air that is inhaled by the body in breathing, but does not partake in gas exchange. ... Flow-Volume loop showing successful FVC maneuver. ... Body Plethysmographs-To do a body plethysomograph, the person is enclosed in an airtight chamber often referred to as a body box. ... A peak flow meter is a small, hand-held device used to manage asthma by monitoring airflow through the bronchi and thus the degree of restriction in the airways. ... A term coined by Dr. Gerald Gause of the University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Thoracic Independent Volume is the volume of the thoracic cavity without the lungs. ... There are some respiratory diseases such as exercise-induced asthma that are not apparent unless the patient is exposed to some sort of trigger, such as a chemical irritant, an allergen, cold or dry air, or rigorous exercise. ... In respiratory physiology, ventilation is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung. ... Positive Pressure ventilators help patients with respiratory problems to breathe easier. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... Exhalation (or expiration) is the movement of air out of the bronchial tubes, through the airways, to the external environment during breathing. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Minute volume. ... ... Diagram of the alveoli with both cross-section and external view Pulmonary surfactant is a surface-active lipoprotein complex formed by type II alveolar cells. ... Compliance is the ability of the lungs to stretch in a change in volume relative to an applied change in pressure. ... “Hysteresivity” derives from “hysteresis”, meaning “lag”. It is the tendency to react slowly to an outside force, or to not return completely to its original state. ... Airway resistance is a concept used in respiratory physiology to describe mechanical factors which limit the access of inspired air to the pulmonary alveoli, and thus determine airflow. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... In physiology, perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of arterial blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. ... Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction is the phenomenon when pulmonary arterioles vasoconstrict in the presence of hypoxia (low oxygen levels) without hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels). ... Pulmonary shunts exist when there is normal perfusion to an alveolus, but ventilation fails to supply the perfused region. ... In respiratory physiology, the ventilation/perfusion ratio (or V/Q ratio) is a measurement used to the efficiency and adequacy of the matching of two variables:[1] V - ventilation - the air which reaches the lungs Q - perfusion - the blood which reaches the lungs A normal value is approximately 0. ... A ventilation/perfusion scan, also called a V/Q scan, is a medical test to measure the circulation of air and blood within a patients lungs. ... The zones of the lung proposed by West in 1964,[1] divide the lung into three vertical regions, based upon the relationship between the pressure in the alveoli (PA), in the arteries (Pa), and the veins (Pv): #1: alveolar > arterial > venous #2: arterial > alveolar > venous #3: arterial > venous > alveolar The... Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface—a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body. ... Following is a list of average partial pressures (in torr) for a human at rest: // The alveolar oxygen pressure is lower than the atmospheric O2 partial pressure for two reasons. ... The alveolar pO2 is not routinely measured but is calculated from blood gas measurements by the Alveolar gas equation: where: R is the Respiratory quotient (normally about 0. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve plots the proportion of haemoglobin in its saturated form on the vertical axis against the prevailing oxygen tension on the horizontal axis. ... 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG, also known as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or 2,3-DPG) is a three carbon isomer of the glycolytic intermediate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. ... Oxyhaemoglobin Dissociation Curve. ... The Haldane effect is a property of hemoglobin first described by the British physician John Scott Haldane. ... Carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) is a family of metalloenzymes (enzymes that contain one or more metal atoms as a functional component of the enzyme) that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. ... In red blood cells, synthesis of carbonic acid by carbonic anhydrase produces bicarbonate and a free proton. ... The Respiratory Quotient is used in BMR calculations (basal metabolic rate) and is a form of indirect calorimetry. ... In biology, diffusion capacity is a measurement of the lungs ability to transfer gases. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Control of ventilation (control of respiration) refers to the physiological mechanisms involved in the control of physiologic ventilation. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... The pneumotaxic center of the upper pons antagonises the apneustic centre. ... The apneustic center of the lower pons appears to promote inspiration by stimulation of the I neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a constant stimulus. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The dorsal repiratory group is found in many types of fish and marine mammals. ... The ventral respiratory group is a group of neurons in the medulla which initiates inhalation. ... A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ... Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface, are sensitive to the pH of their environment. ... Peripheral chemoreceptors act most importantly to detect variation of the oxygen in the arterial blood, in addition to detecting arterial carbon dioxide and pH. These nodes, called the aortic body and carotid body, are located on the arch of the aorta and on the common carotid artery, respectively. ... Pulmonary stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors found in the lungs. ... The Hering-Breuer reflex is a reflex triggered to prevent overinflation of the lungs. ... There are several effects of high altitude on humans: The percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen determines the content of oxygen in our blood. ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... This illustration demonstrates the normal kidney physiology. ... Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body. ... This article is about operation of solid-fluid separation. ... In the physiology of the kidney, renal blood flow (RBF) is the volume of blood delivered to the kidney per unit time. ... In biological terms, Ultrafiltration occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the renal corpuscle or Bowmans capsule in the kidneys. ... Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism used to transfer some component of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a permeable barrier between them. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... In medicine, the clearance, also renal clearance or renal plasma clearance (when referring to the function of the kidney), of a substance is the inverse of the time constant that describes its removal rate from the body divided by its volume of distribution (or total body water). ... Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... Creatinine clearance is a method that estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. ... The renal clearance ratio is found with the following equation: X is the analyte substance Cx is the renal plasma clearance of X Cin is the renal plasma clearance of inulin. ... For the Scottish river see: Urr Water The urea reduction ratio (URR), is a dimensionless number used to quantify hemodialysis treatment adequacy. ... In medicine, Kt/V is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy. ... Standardized Kt/V, also std Kt/V, is a way of measuring (renal) dialysis adequacy. ... Hemodialysis product (HDP) - is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy. ... Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Darrow Yannet diagram is a schematic used in physiology to identify how the volumes of extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid alter in response to conditions such as adrenal insufficiency and SIADH. It was developed in 1935. ... A significant fraction of the human body is water. ... Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. ... In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ... The cytosol (cf. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Transcellular fluid is the portion of total body water contained within epithelial lined spaces. ... In human physiology, the base excess (see: base) excess refers to the amount of acid required to return the blood pH of an individual to the normal value. ... In acid base physiology, the Davenport Diagram is a graphical tool, developed by Horace Davenport, that allows a clinician or investigator to describe blood bicarbonate concentrations and blood pH following a respiratory and/or metabolic acid-base disturbance. ... The anion gap is used to aid in the differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis. ... The Bicarbonate buffering system is the most important buffer for mantaining a relatively constant pH in the plasma. ... Respiratory compensation is a mechanism by which plasma pH can be altered by varying the respiratory rate. ... Renal compensation is a mechanism by which the kidneys can regulate the plasma pH. It is slower than respiratory compensation, but has a greater ability to restore normal values. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arterial blood gas (259 words)
Arterial blood gas measurement is a test that can be done to determine the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate in the blood, as well as the pH of the blood.
Arterial blood is taken from any easily accessible artery (typically either radial, brachial or femoral) or out of an arterial line.
The machine aspirates this blood from the syringe and measures the pH and the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide and the bicarbonate concentration, as well as the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin.
Arterial blood gas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (427 words)
Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood.
Arterial blood is taken from any easily accessible artery (typically either radial, brachial or femoral) or out of an arterial line.
The machine aspirates this blood from the syringe and measures the pH and the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide and the bicarbonate concentration, as well as the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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