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Encyclopedia > Art history
Art history
series
Prehistoric art
Ancient art history
Western art history
Eastern art history
Islamic art history
Western painting
History of painting

Art history is the academic study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i.e. genre, design, format, and look.[1] Moreover, art history generally is the research of artists and their cultural and social contributions.[2] This article is an overview of the history of art worldwide. ... This article is an overview of the history of art worldwide. ... In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome // The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... Eastern art history, devoted to the arts of the Far East includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... A genre [], (French: kind or sort from Greek: γένος (genos)) is a loose set of criteria for a category of literary composition; the term is also used for any other form of art or utterance. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Look up format in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... LOOK, established at Nevers, France in 1951, was originally a ski equipment manufacturer. ... This article is about the concept. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


As a term, Art history (also history of art) encompasses several methods of studying the visual arts; in common usage referring to the study of works of art and architecture. The definition is, however, wide-ranging, with aspects of the discipline overlapping upon art criticism and art theory. Ernst Gombrich observed that "the field of art history [is] much like Caesar's Gaul, divided in three parts inhabited by three different, though not necessarily hostile tribes: (i) the connoisseurs, (ii) the critics, and (iii) the academic art historians".[3] Works of art criticism and of art theory frequently have been the pivots upon which the understanding of art history has turned. The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Art criticism is the study and evaluation of art. ... The Mona Lisa Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ... Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian, who spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


As a discipline, art history is distinguished from art criticism, which is concerned with establishing a relative artistic value upon individual works with respect to others of comparable style, or sanctioning an entire style or movement; and art theory, which is concerned with the fundamental nature of art, and is more related to aesthetics and determining the essence of beauty, i.e. artistic appeal. Technically, art history is not these things, because the art historian uses historical method to answers the questions: How did the artist come to create the work? Who were the patrons? Who were his or her teachers? Who were his or her disciples? What historical forces shaped the artist's oeuvre and How did he or she and the creation, in turn, affect the course of artistic, political, and social events? Art criticism is the study and evaluation of art. ... The Mona Lisa Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning work, is usually used in the sense of a work of art. Some composers musical pieces are identified by opus numbers which generally run either in order of composition or in order of publication. ...

Venus de Milo on display at the Louvre
Venus de Milo on display at the Louvre

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 357 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2250 × 3775 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 357 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2250 × 3775 pixel, file size: 3. ... Not to be confused with the group of prehistoric statuettes known as Venus figurines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Definition

Hey guys Art history is a relatively new academic enterprise, beginning in the nineteenth century.[4] Whereas the analysis of historical trends in, for example, politics, literature, and the sciences, benefits from the clarity and portability of the written word, art historians rely on formal analysis, iconology, semiotics (structuralism, post-structuralism, and deconstruction), psychoanalysis and iconography;[5] as well as primary sources and reproductions of artworks as a springboard of discussion and study.[6] Advances in photographic reproduction and printing techniques after World War II increased the ability of reproductions of artworks accurately. Nevertheless the appreciation and study of the visual arts has been an area of research for many over the millennia. The definition of art history reflects the dichotomy within art; i.e., art as history and in anthropological context; and art as a study in forms. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A concept lattice for objects consisting of the integers from 1 to 10, and attributes composite, even, odd, prime, and square. ... It has been said “A picture is worth a thousand words”, and so it is that iconography is the traditional art of portraying figures in pigment that symbolically mean more than a simple depiction of the person involved. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... Secondary sources are texts based on primary sources, and involve generalization, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation. ...


The study of visual art can be approached through the broad categories of contextualism and formalism.[7][8][9][10] They are described as: In philosophy, contextualism describes a collection of views in the philosophy of language which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance or expression can only be understood within that context. ... The term formalism describes an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy. ...

  • Contextualism
    The approach whereby a work of art is examined in the context of its time; in a manner which respects its creator's motivations and imperatives; with consideration of the desires and prejudices of its patrons and sponsors; with a comparative analysis of themes and approaches of the creator's colleagues and teachers; and consideration of religious iconography and temporal symbolism. In short, this approach examines the work of art in the context of the world within which it was created.
  • Formalism
    The approach whereby the artwork is examined through an analysis of its form; that is, the creator's use of line, shape, color, texture, and composition. This approach examines how the artist uses a two-dimensional picture plane (or the three dimensions of sculptural or architectural space) to create his or her art. A formal analysis can further describe art as representational or non-representational; which answers the question, is the artist imitating an object or image found in nature? If so, it is representational. The closer the art hews to perfect imitation, the more the art is realistic. If the art is less imitation and more symbolism, or in an important way strives to capture nature's essence, rather than imitate it directly, the art is abstract. Impressionism is an example of a representational style that was not directly imitative, but strove to create an "impression" of nature. Of course, realism and abstraction exist on a continuum. If the work is not representational of nature, but an expression of the artist's feelings, longings and aspirations, or his or her search for ideals of beauty and form, the work is non-representational or a work of expressionism.[11]

Historical development

The ancient world

The earliest surviving writing on art that can be classified as art history are the passages in Pliny the Elder's Natural History concerning the development of Greek sculpture and painting. From them it is possible to trace the ideas of Xenokrates of Sicyon, a Greek sculptor who was perhaps the first art historian. As a result, Pliny's work, while mainly an encyclopaedia of the sciences, were disproportionately influential with respect to art from the Renaissance onwards, particularly the passages about the techniques used by the painter Apelles. Similar, though independent, developments occurred in 6th century China, where a canon of worthy artists was established by writers in the scholar-official class (who, being necessarily proficient in calligraphy, were artists themselves), and the Six Principles of Painting were formulated by Xie He. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... Xenokrates of Sicyon (fl. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Another Apelles was the founder of a Gnostic sect in the 2nd century; Apelles (gnostic). ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Six principles of Chinese painting were established by Xie He, a writer, art historian and critic in 6th century China. ... Xie He (Traditional: 謝赫; Simplified: 谢赫; Pinyin: Xiè Hè) was a Chinese writer, art historian and critic in the 6th century. ...


The beginnings of modern art history

Self-portrait of Giorgio Vasari.
Self-portrait of Giorgio Vasari.
Portrait of Johann Joachim Winckelmann by Anton von Maron.
Portrait of Johann Joachim Winckelmann by Anton von Maron.

While personal reminiscences of art and artists have long been written and read (see Lorenzo Ghiberti for the best early example), it was Giorgio Vasari, the Tuscan painter, sculptor and author of Lives of the Painters, who ushered in the era of the story of art as history, with emphasis on art's progression and development, a milestone in this field. His was a personal and a historical account, featuring biographies of individual Italian artists, many of whom were his contemporaries and personal acquaintances. The most renowned of these was Michelangelo, and Vasari's account is enlightening. Vasari's ideas about art held sway until the 18th century, when criticism was leveled at his peculiar style of history as the personal. Scholars such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768), criticised Vasari's "cult" of artistic personality, and argued that the real emphasis in the study of art belonged on the views of the learned beholder and not the unique viewpoint of the charismatic artist. Winckelmann's writings thus were the beginnings of art criticism. Winckelmann was famous for his critique of the artistic excesses of the Baroque and Rococo forms, and subsequently instrumental in reforming taste in favor of the more sober Neoclassicism, in a return to elemental Renaissance thinking. Jacob Burckhardt (1818 - 1897), one of the founders of art history, noted that Winckelmann was 'the first to distinguish between the periods of ancient art and to link the history of style with world history'. Incidentally, from Winckelmann until the early 20th century, the field of art history was dominated by German-speaking academics. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (762 × 1024 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (762 × 1024 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Download high resolution version (1890x2614, 1690 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1890x2614, 1690 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise, Baptistery, Florence, self portrait. ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, or Le Vite delle più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori as it was originally known in Italian, is a series of artist biographies written by 16th century Italian painter and architect Giorgio Vasari, which is considered perhaps the most famous... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Art criticism is the study and evaluation of art. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Jacob Burckhardt in 1892 Jacob Burckhardt (May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland – August 8, 1897, Basel) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, fields which he helped found. ...


The critical tradition

Winckelmann's work marked the entry of art history into the high-philosophical discourse of German culture. Winckelmann was read avidly by Goethe and Schiller, both of whom began to write on the history of art, and his account of the Laocoon occasioned a response by Lessing. The emergence of art as a major subject of philosophical speculation was solidified by the appearance of Kant's Critique of Judgment in 1790, and was furthered by Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics. Hegel's philosophy served as the direct inspiration for Karl Schnaase's work. Schnaase's Niederländische Briefe established the theoretical foundations for art history as an autonomous discipline, and his Geschichte der bildenden Künste, one of the first historical surveys of the history of art from antiquity to the Renaissance, facilitated the teaching of art history in German-speaking universities. Schnaase's survey was published contemporaneously with a similar work by Franz Theodor Kugler. Johann Wolfgang Goethe  , IPA: , later von Goethe, (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German polymath: he was a poet, novelist, dramatist, humanist, scientist, theorist, painter, and for ten years chief minister of state for the duchy of Weimar. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... Laocoön (Greek Λαοκοων, pronounced roughly La-oh-koh-on), son of Acoetes, was allegedly a priest of Poseidon (or of Apollo, by some accounts) at Troy; he is famous for warning the Trojans in vain against accepting the Trojan Horse from the Greeks... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... “Kant” redirects here. ... The Critique of Judgement (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), also known as the third critique, is a philosophical work by Immanuel Kant. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Portrait of Karl Schnaase. ... Kugler memorial plaque at Rudelsburg castle Franz Theodor Kugler (January 19, 1808, Stettin - March 18, 1858, Berlin) was a German art historian and poet. ...


Wölfflin

Most acknowledge Heinrich Wölfflin (1864-1945), who studied under Burckhardt in Basel, as the father of modern art history. Wölfflin certainly made the first formal analysis of the field. He introduced a scientific approach to the history of art, turning on three concepts. Firstly, he attempted to study art using psychology, particularly the work of Willhelm Wundt, one of the founders of scientific psychology. A principal, if strained, scientific conception was that of the artistic ideal of corporeal correspondence; i.e. that art and architecture are good if they resemble the human body. For example, houses were good if their façades looked like faces. Secondly, he introduced the idea of studying art through comparison. Hence by comparing individual paintings to each other, one were able to make distinctions of style. His book Renaissance and Baroque developed this idea, and was the first to show how these stylistic periods differed from one another. In contrast to Giorgio Vasari, Wölfflin was uninterested in the biographies of artists. In fact he proposed the creation of an "art history without names." Finally, he studied art based on ideas of nationhood. He was particularly interested in whether there was an inherently "Italian" and an inherently "German" style. This last interest was most fully articulated in his monograph on the German artist Albrecht Dürer. Heinrich Wölfflin (June 21, 1864 – July 19, 1945) was a famous Swiss art critic, whose objective classifying principles (painterly vs. ... West facade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) (Pronounced fa-sa-de) is generally the exterior of a building — especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... The Mona Lisa Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ...


He used a comparison - contrast type of analysis, and believed that both Renaissance and Baroque architecture "spoke" the same language - that of classical Greek and Rome - though with different dialects.


Wölfflin taught at the universities of Berlin, Basel, Munich, and Zurich. A number of students went on to distinguished careers in art history, including Jakob Rosenberg and Frida Schottmuller.


The Vienna School

Contemporaneous with Wölfflin's career, a major school of art-historical thought developed at the University of Vienna. The first generation of the Vienna School was dominated by Alois Riegl and Franz Wickhoff, both students of Moritz Thausing, and was characterized by a tendency to reassess neglected or disparaged periods in the history of art. Riegl and Wickhoff both wrote extensively on the art of late antiquity, which before them had been considered as a period of decline from the classical ideal. Riegl also contributed to the revaluation of the Baroque. The Vienna School of Art History (Wiener Schule der Kunstgeschichte) is a collective term used to describe the development of fundamental art-historical methods at the University of Vienna. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... Alois Riegl, ca. ... Portrait of Wickhoff. ... Portrait of Thausing. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ...


The next generation of professors at Vienna included Max Dvořák, Julius von Schlosser, Hans Tietze, Karl Maria Swoboda, and Josef Strzygowski. A number of the most important twentieth-century art historians, including Ernst Gombrich, received their degrees at Vienna at this time. Max Dvořák (June 4, 1874, Roudnice nad Labem (Raudnitz) - February 8, 1921, HruÅ¡ovany nad JeviÅ¡ovkou (Grusbach) near Znojmo) is a Czech-born Austrian art historian. ... Josef Strzygowski (1862 - 1941) was an influential and controversial art historian. ... Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian, who spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom. ...


However, the term "Second Vienna School" (or "New Vienna School") is usually reserved for the following generation of Viennese scholars, including Hans Sedlmayr, Otto Pächt, and Guido Kaschnitz von Weinberg. These scholars began in the 1930s to return to the work of the first generation, particularly to Riegl and his concept of Kunstwollen, and attempted to develop it into a full-blown art-historical methodology. Sedlmayr, in particular, rejected the minute study of iconography, patronage, and other approaches grounded in historical context, preferring instead to concentrate on the aesthetic qualities of a work of art. As a result, the Second Vienna School gained a reputation for unrestrained and irresponsible formalism, and was furthermore colored by Sedlmayr's overt racism and membership in the Nazi party. This latter tendency was, however, by no means shared by all members of the school; Pächt, for example, was himself Jewish, and was forced to leave Vienna in the 1930s. Hans Sedlmayr (1896–1984) was a conservative Austrian art historian. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term formalism describes an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy. ...


Panofsky and iconography

Aby Warburg.
Aby Warburg.

The opposite tendency, focusing more, although not exclusively, on iconography, was developed by a loose group of scholars who gathered in Hamburg in the 1920s. The most prominent among them were Erwin Panofsky, Aby Warburg, and Fritz Saxl. Panofsky, in his early work, also developed the theories of Riegl, but became eventually more preoccupied with iconography, and in particular with the transmission of themes related to classical antiquity in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. In this respect his interests coincided with those of Warburg, the son of a wealthy family who had assembled an impressive library in Hamburg devoted to the study of the classical tradition in post-classical art and culture. Under Saxl's auspices, this library was developed into a research institute, affiliated with the University of Hamburg, where Panofsky taught. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) was a German art historian and essayist often credited with the founding of the academic iconography. ... Botticellis The Birth of Venus Botticellis Primavera Aby Moritz Warburg (Born: 13 June 1866 Hamburg, Germany Died: 26 October -1929 Hamburg, Germany) was an influential art historian. ... The University of Hamburg was founded on the 1 April 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. ...


Warburg died in 1929, and in the 1930s Saxl and Panofsky, both Jewish, were forced to leave Hamburg. Saxl settled in London, bringing Warburg's library with him and establishing the Warburg Institute. Panofsky settled in Princeton at the Institute for Advanced Study. In this respect they were part of an extraordinary influx of German art historians into the English-speaking academy in the 1930s (the so-called "emigré scholars"), which also included Ernst Kitzinger, Richard Krautheimer, Otto Brendel, and Rudolf Wittkower. These scholars were largely responsible for establishing art history as a legitimate field of study in the English-speaking world, and the influence of Panofsky's methodology, in particular, determined the course of American art history for at least a generation. The Warburg Institute is a research institution associated with the University of London. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study is a private institution in Princeton Township, New Jersey, U.S.A., designed to foster pure cutting-edge research by scientists and scholars in a variety of fields without the complications of teaching or funding, or the agendas of sponsorship. ... Ernst Kitzinger (born December 12, 1912, Munich; died January 22, 2003, Poughkeepsie) was a historian of late antique, early medieval, and Byzantine art. ... Richard Krautheimer (born 1897 in Fürth (Franconia), Germany – died in Rome, Italy, 1994) was a 20th century Byzantinist and baroque scholar and architectural historian. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Rudolf Wittkower was a German art historian. ...


Psychoanalytic art history

Heinrich Wölfflin was not the only scholar to invoke psychological theories in the study of art. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud wrote a book on the artist Leonardo da Vinci, in which Freud used Leonardo's paintings to interrogate the artist's psyche and sexual orientation. Freud inferred from his analysis that Leonardo was probably homosexual. The use of posthumous material to perform psychoanalysis is controversial; furthermore, the sexual mores of Leonardo's time and Freud's are different. Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...


Another important and famous exponent of psychoanalytic theory as applied to artists and their works is Carl Jung. His ideas about the collective unconscious and archetypal imagery in particular were popular especially among the American Abstract expressionists in the 1940s and 1950s.[12] The surrealist concept of drawing imagery from dreams, and the unconscious, stream of consciousness writing and painting defined the practice of many 20th century artists. C.G. Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. “Jung” redirects here. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... American post-World War II art movement. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique which seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ...


Jung's approach to psychology emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, world religion and philosophy. Much of his life's work was spent exploring Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts. His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetype, the collective unconscious, and his theory of synchronicity. Jung believed that many experiences perceived as coincidence were not merely due to chance but, instead, suggested the manifestation of parallel events or circumstances reflecting this governing dynamic. [13] The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ... Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events which occur in a meaningful manner, but which are causally inexplicable to the person or persons experiencing them. ... Coincidence is the noteworthy alignment of two or more events or circumstances without obvious causal connection. ... Chance can be used in any of the following contexts: Probability Luck Randomness See also the Ancient Greek concept of Chance Chance, a 1913 novel by Joseph Conrad. ...


Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm. Jackson Pollock famously created a series of drawings to accompany his psychoanalytic sessions with his Jungian psychoanalyst, Dr. Joseph Henderson. Henderson who later published the drawings in a text devoted to Pollock's sessions realized how powerful the drawings were as a therapeutic tool.[14] Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Species Pollachius pollachius Pollachius virens Pollock (or pollack, pronounced the same and listed first in most UK and US dictionaries) is the common name used for either of the two species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus. ...


After Freud and Jung, several other scholars have applied psychoanalytic theory to art. One of the most well know of which is Laurie Schnieder Adams, who wrote a popular textbook Art Across Time.


Prominent critical art historians

Since Heinrich Wolfflin's time, art history has embraced social history by using critical approaches. The goal of these approaches is to show how art interacts with power structures in society. The first critical approach that art historians used was Marxism. Marxist art history attempted to show how art was tied to specific classes, how images contain information about the economy, and how images can make the status quo seem natural (ideology). Clement Greenberg came to prominence during the late 1930s with his essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch, first published in the journal Partisan Review 1939.[15] In the essay Greenberg claimed that the avant-garde arose in order to defend aesthetic standards from the decline of taste involved in consumer society, and seeing kitsch and art as opposites. Greenberg further claimed that avant-garde and Modernist art was a means to resist the leveling of culture produced by capitalist propaganda. Greenberg appropriated the German word 'kitsch' to describe this consumerism, though its connotations have since changed to a more affirmative notion of left-over materials of capitalist culture. Greenberg was often referred to as a Marxist art critic / art historian. While Greenberg is primarily thought of as a formalist art critic many of his most important essays are crucial to the understanding of Modern art history, and the history of Modernism.[16] Å…Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Avant-Garde and Kitsch is the title of a 1939 essay by Clement Greenberg in which he claimed that avant-garde and modernist art was a means to resist the dumbing down of culture caused by consumerism. ... Partisan Review was an American political and literary quarterly published from 1934 to 2003. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Taste can refer to ones appreciation for aesthetic quality. ... “Consumerist” redirects here. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Kitsch is a term of German origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... Connotation is a subjective cultural and/or emotional coloration in addition to the explicit or denotative meaning of any specific word or phrase in a language, i. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... An art critic is normally a person who have a speciality in giving reviews mainly of the types of fine art you will find on display. Typically the art critic will go to an art exhibition where works of art are displayed in the traditional way in localities especially made... Art history usually refers to the history of the visual arts. ... The term formalist can have many applications: The Chambers 1994 edition Dictionary indicates a pejorative quality, a person having an exaggerated regard to rules or established usages. In the philosophy of mathematics a formalist is a person who belongs to the school of formalism, a certain mathematical-philosophical doctrine which... An art critic is normally a person who have a speciality in giving reviews mainly of the types of fine art you will find on display. Typically the art critic will go to an art exhibition where works of art are displayed in the traditional way in localities especially made... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...


Marxist art historians

Even Marxism has figured in the interpretation of art. Meyer Schapiro was the first art historian to take Marxism seriously. While he wrote about numerous time periods and themes in art, he is best remembered for his commentary on sculpture from the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, at which time he saw evidence of capitalism emerging and feudalism declining. Meyer Schapiro was a 20th century art historian. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


Arnold Hauser wrote the first Marxist survey of Western Art, titled "The Social History of Art." In this book he attempted to show how class consciousness was reflected in major art periods. His book was very controversial when it was published during the 1950s because it makes gross generalizations about entire eras. However, it remains in print as a classic art historical text. Arnold George Hauser (born September 25, 1888 in Chicago, Illinois; died May 22, 1966 in Aurora, Illinois) was a shortstop in Major League Baseball. ...


T.J. Clark was the first art historian writing from a Marxist perspective to abandon vulgar Marxism per se. He wrote Marxist art histories of several impressionist and realist artists, including Gustave Courbet and Édouard Manet. These books focused closely on the political and economic climates in which the art was created. Timothy James Clark (often T.J. Clark) was born in 1943 in Bristol, England. ... Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... Articles with similar titles include Claude Monet, another painter of the same era. ...


Divisions by period

The field of Art History is traditionally divided into specializations or concentrations based on eras and regions. Such divisions typically include:

A number of sub-fields are included under each specialization. For example, the Ancient Near East, Greece, Rome, and Egypt are all typically considered special concentrations of Ancient art. In some cases, these specializations may be closely allied (as Greece and Rome, for example), while in others such alliances are far less natural (Indian art versus Korean art, for example). Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Look up contemporary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Non-Western art is a relative newcomer to the Art Historical canon. Recent revisions of the semantic division between art and artifact have recast objects created in non-Western cultures in more aesthetic terms. Relative to those studying Ancient Rome or the Italian Renaissance, scholars specializing in Africa, the Ancient Americas and Asia are a growing minority.


Methodologies

Art historians employ a number of methods in their research into the qualities, nature and history of objects.


A formal analysis is one which focuses on the form of the object in question. Elements of form include line, shape, color, composition, rhythm, etc. At its simplest, such an analysis is simply exegesis, but it relies heavily on the art historian's ability to think critically and visually.


A stylistic analysis is one which focuses on the particular combination of formal elements into a coherent style. Often, a stylistic analysis makes reference to movements or trends in art as a means of drawing out the impact and import of a particular object.


An iconographical analysis is one which focuses on particular design elements of an object. Through a close reading of such elements, it is possible to trace their lineage, and with it draw conclusions regarding the origins and trajectory of these motifs. In turn, it is possible to make any number of observations regarding the social, cultural, economic, and/or aesthetic values of those responsible for producing the object.


Finally, many art historians use theory to frame their inquiries into objects. Theory is most often used when dealing with more recent objects, those from the late 19th century onward. A somewhat vague term, theoretical approaches to art can range quite broadly, from psychological analysis to aesthetics to Marxist critique and more.


See also

General
Art by region
Main articles

This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... An art critic is normally a person who have a speciality in giving reviews mainly of the types of fine art you will find on display. Typically the art critic will go to an art exhibition where works of art are displayed in the traditional way in localities especially made... Art criticism is the study and evaluation of art. ... An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... This article is an overview of the history of art worldwide. ... The Ancient World Antique Furniture Pottery of Ancient Greece The Byzantine Empire The Antique and Medieval Asian World Chinese Pottery Japanese Pottery Korean Pottery The Arts of Islam Islamic pottery Persian rug Renaissance Europe Cassone Baroque Europe Eighteenth-Century Europe Carpet Neoclassicism Rococo Nineteenth-Century Europe Arts and Crafts movement... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... The history of sculpture is varied and is illustrative of how sculpture has changed extensively over the ages. ... The History of Architecture traces the changes in architecture through various countries and dates. ... Dancing is historically entwined with many cultures around the world. ... Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying wildly between times and places. ... The history of poetry as an art form predates literacy. ... // Pre-historic art Cave painting Art of Ancient Egypt Knossos Mycenaean Greece Pottery of ancient Greece Roman art Pompeian Styles Fayum mummy portraits Byzantine art Insular art Carolingian art Ottonian art Romanesque art Gothic art Early Netherlandish painting Illuminated manuscript Panel painting Early Renaissance painting Renaissance Classicism Italian Renaissance painting... Visual culture is a field of study within cultural studies focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodern art (sometimes called po-mo) is a term used to describe art which is thought to be after or in contradiction to some aspect of modernism. ... Eastern art history, devoted to the arts of the Far East includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. ... A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... Arts of the Far East include: Buddhist art Chinese art Japanese art Tibetan art Thai art Art of Laos Categories: Art stubs ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... // Medieval art Main article: Medieval art Saint Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels. ... Americas first well-known school of painting—the Hudson River School—appeared in 1820. ... Oceanic art refers to the creative works made by the native peoples of the Pacific Islands and Australia, as well as their greater extent as far as Hawaii and Easter Island. ... Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ...

Further reading

Listed by date
  • Mansfield, Elizabeth (2002). Art History and Its Institutions: Foundations of a Discipline. Routledge. ISBN 0415228689
  • Mason, L., & Stokstad, M. (2002). Art history: study guide. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
  • Frazier, N. (1999). The Penguin concise dictionary of art history. New York: Penguin Reference.
  • Adams, L. (1996). The methodologies of art: an introduction. New York, NY: IconEditions.
  • Nelson, R. S., & Shiff, R. (1996). Critical terms for art history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Fitzpatrick, V. L. N. V. D. (1992). Art history: a contextual inquiry course. Point of view series. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.
  • Kemal, Salim, and Ivan Gaskell (1991). The Language of Art History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052144598
  • Carrier, D. (1991). Principles of art history writing. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Johnson, W. M. (1988). Art history: its use and abuse. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Holly, M. A. (1984). Panofsky and the foundations of art history. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
  • Arntzen, E., & Rainwater, R. (1980). Guide to the literature of art history. Chicago: American Library Association.
  • Hauser, A. (1959). The philosophy of art history. New York: Knopf.
  • Roos, F. J. (1954). An illustrated handbook of art history. New York: Macmillan.
  • Wilhelm, R. & Baynes, C., 1967. The I Ching or Book of Changes, With forward by Carl Jung. 3rd. ed., Bollingen Series XIX. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press (1st ed. 1950).
  • Wölfflin, H. (1940s). Principles of art history; the problem of the development of style in later art. [New York]: Dover Publications.

Richard Wilhelm was born in Tübingen, Germany on May 10, 1873 and died in Stuttgart, Germany on March 2, 1930. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Bollingen is a village near Rapperswil, Switzerland. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ "Art History". WordNet Search - 3.0, princeton.edu
  2. ^ http://www.mobilemuseumofart.com/education/Connections.pdf
  3. ^ Ernst Gombrich (1996). The Essential Gombrich, p. 7. London: Phaidon Press
  4. ^ Art History and Its Institutions: Foundations of a Discipline By Elizabeth Mansfield
  5. ^ The Methodologies of Art: An Introduction By Laurie Adams
  6. ^ Principles of Art History Writing By David Carrier
  7. ^ Critical Terms for Art History By Richard Shiff, Robert S. Nelson. Page 413.
  8. ^ Beauty in Context: Towards an Anthropological Approach in Aesthetics By Wilfried Van Damme. Page 143.
  9. ^ Panofsky and the Foundations of Art History By Michael Ann Holly. Page 107.
  10. ^ Rethinking Art History: meditations on a coy science By Donald Preziosi. Page 157.
  11. ^ Marilyn Stokstad. Art History (2d Ed.) 2004
  12. ^ Jung defined the collective unconscious as akin to instincts in Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious.
  13. ^ In Synchronicity in the final two pages of the Conclusion, Jung stated that not all coincidences are meaningful and further explained the creative causes of this phenomenon.
  14. ^ Jackson Pollock An American Saga, Steven Naismith and Gregory White Smith, Clarkson N. Potter publ. copyright 1989, Archetypes and Alchemy pp. 327-338. ISBN 0-51756084-4
  15. ^ Clement Greenberg, Art and Culture, Beacon Press, 1961
  16. ^ Clement Greenberg: Modernism and Postmodernism, seventh paragraph of the essay. URL accessed on June 15, 2006

Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more on the topic of

General Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  • Art and Artist Files in the Smithsonian Libraries Collections (2005) Smithsonian Digital Libraries
  • Artists on Tape: List of Audio Tapes at The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture garden (2003) Anna Brooke Smithsonian Digital Libraries
  • Article on Art in Ancient India
  • Artists on Film List of Films and Videotapes: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (2003) Anna Brooke Smithsonian Digital Libraries
  • In-depth directory of web links, divided by period
  • Art History Underground - club at Columbia University
  • Virtual Catalogue for Art History (VKK) - Catalog of periodicals, conference papers, festschriften, exhibition catalogues, etc.

Timelines

  • NYC Metropolitan Museum of Art Timeline of Art History
  • Art History timeline at historyexplorer.net

Images

Podcasts

  • smARThistory

Art historians

  • Biographical Dictionary of Art Historians (free access, full text)
  • Sr.Wendy Beckett

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