FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Art education

Art education is the area of learning that is based upon the visual, tangible arts—drawing, painting, sculpture, and design in jewelry, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... A variety of fabric. ...


The term "arts education" implies many things, but is definable as: Instruction and programming in any arts area — including the performing arts (dance, music, theater) and visual arts, creative writing, media arts, history, criticism, and aesthetics. Within the schools "visual arts education" encompasses all the visual and performing arts delivered in a standards-based, sequential approach by a qualified instructor as part of the core curriculum. The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) generally refers to movement used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting. ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Creative writing is a term used to distinguish certain imaginative or different types of writing from technical writing. ... New media art (also known as media art) is a generic term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century. ... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ...


According to de Francisco, art education is a body of knowledge, experience, tradition and practice peculiar to itself, and also related to and a part of general education. it aims to satisfy an insistent urge, creative activity, and influence on society. through tye art program, the pupils are given experiences through which they can express themselves, solve problems, understand and appreciate their surroundings.


Education in art takes place across the life-span. As a result children, youth, and adults learn about art in community based institutions and organizations such as museums, local arts agencies, recreation centers, places of worship, social service agencies, and prisons among many other possible venues. Education in art also occurs in the home as well as through formal and informal apprenticeship programs.

Contents

History of Art Education in the US

Forms of art education have varied through history, reflecting the social values of their culture. Apprenticeships of individuals were once the norm; more recently the democratization of education, particularly as promoted by educational philosopher John Dewey, has supported providing every student opportunities to create. Enrollment in art classes at the high school elective level peaked in the late 1960s—early 1970s with that period's emphasis on individuals expressing uniqueness. Currently 'art(s) magnet schools', available in many larger communities, use art(s) as a core or underlying theme to attract those students motivated by personal interest or with the intention of becoming a professional or commercial artist. It is widely reported that the arts are losing instruction time in school based upon budget cuts in combination with increasing test-based assessments of children which the federal government's No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act requires. It is worth noting that while the NCLB retains the arts as part of the "core curriculum" for all schools, it does not require reporting any instruction time or assessment data for arts education content or performance standards, which is reason often cited for the decline or possible decline of arts education in American public schools. Signing ceremony at Hamilton High School in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


Recently, the U.S. Department of Education began awarding Arts in Education Model Development and Dissemination grants to support organizations with art expertise in their development of artistic curricula that helps students to better understand and retain academic information. One such model of education was created in 2006 by the Storytellers Inc. and ArtsTech (formerly Pan-Educational Institute). The curricula and method of learning is titled AXIS. http://globalaxis.org/


The Picture Study Movement

The study of art appreciation in America began with the Picture Study Movement in the late 1800’s and began to fade at the end of the 1920’s. Picture study was an important part of the art education curriculum. Attention to the aesthetics in classrooms led to public interest in beautifying the school, home, and community, which was known as “Art in Daily Living”. The idea was to bring culture to the child to change the parents.


Picture study was made possible by the improved technologies of reproduction of images, growing public interest in art, the Progressive Movement in education, and growing numbers of immigrant children who were more visually literate than they were in English. The type of art included in the curriculum was from the Renaissance onward, but nothing considered “modern art” was taught. Oftentimes, teachers selected pictures that had a moral message. This is because a major factor in the development in aesthetics as a subject was its relationship to the moral education of the new citizens due to the influx of immigrants during the period. Aesthetics and art masterpieces were part of the popular idea of self culture, and the moralistic response to an artwork was within the capabilities of the teacher, who often did not have the artistic training to discuss the formal qualities of the artwork.


A typical Picture Study lesson was as follows: Teachers purchased materials from the Perry Picture Series, for example. This is similar to the prepackaged curriculums we have today. These materials included a teacher’s picture that was larger for the class to look at together, and then smaller reproduction approximately 2 ¾” by 2” for each child to look at. These were generally in black and white or sepia tone. Children would often collect these cards and trade them much like modern day baseball cards. The teacher would give the students a certain amount of information about the picture and the artist who created it, such as the picture’s representational content, artist’s vital statistics, and a few biographical details about the artist. These were all included in the materials so an unskilled teacher could still present the information to his or her class. Then the teacher would ask a few discussion questions. Sometimes suggestions for language arts projects or studio activities were included in the materials.


The picture study movement died out at the end of the 1920’s as a result of new ideas regarding learning art appreciation through studio work became more popular in the United States.


Sources:


Smith, Peter (1986,Sept.) The Ecology of Picture Study, Art Education[48-54].


Approaches to Art Education

There are thousands of arts education curricular models or models for arts or arts-based professional development for teachers that schools and community organizations use. Here are two prominent models:

  • A six-fold model divided into "Creative-Productive, Cultural-Historical and Critical-Responsive” components in Canada
  • In the U.S.A., Discipline Based Art Education covers the same content in terms of four fields; Aesthetics, Criticism, History and Studio Practices

In most systems, “criticism” is understood to be criteria-based-analysis established on acknowledged elements of composition and principles of design which often vary in their verbal articulations, between the different art discipline ambits (applied, fine, performing, & etc.) and their many schools.


Some studies show that strong art education programs have demonstrated increased student performance in other academic areas, due to art activities' exercising their brains' right hemispheres and delateralizing their thinking[citation needed]. Also see Betty Edwards' Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. Support for art education, however, varies greatly between communities and between schools in various communities. Betty Edwards is an art instructor whose classic work Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain (originally published in 1979) has greatly influenced the teaching of drawing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Art education is not limited to formal educational institutions. Some professional artists specialize in private or semi-private instruction in their own studios. One form of this teaching style is the Atelier Method. Another is an artist apprenticeship in which the student learns from a professional artist while assisting the artist with their work. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ...


National organizations

National organizations promoting arts education include Americans for the Arts including Art. Ask For More., its national arts education public awareness campaign; Association for the Advancement of Arts Education; Arts Education Partnership; and the National Art Education Association.


See also

Marie Bashkirtseff, In the Studio, 1881, Dnipropetrovsk State Art Museum, Dnipropetrovsk. ... The title Teaching Artist refers to an actor, musician, dancer, writer, or visual artist who has the expertise to share their artistry in arts and non-arts curricula. ... Visual culture is a field of study within cultural studies focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images. ...

External Links

  • Teaching Leonardo: An Integrated Approach at Convergence
  • UNESCO portal about Arts Education

 
 

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