FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Art criticism
Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max.
Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max.

Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 767 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,100 × 860 pixels, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gabriel von Max: Affen als Kunstkritiker, 1889 Öl auf Leinwand, 85 x 107 cm - Neue Pinakothek, München Gabriel von Max : Singes critiques d... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 767 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,100 × 860 pixels, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gabriel von Max: Affen als Kunstkritiker, 1889 Öl auf Leinwand, 85 x 107 cm - Neue Pinakothek, München Gabriel von Max : Singes critiques d... Gabriel von Max: Jesus heilt die Kranken Gabriel von Max: „Saure Erfahrung“ (Äffchen mit Zitrone) Still Life (Girl at a Spinet) (1871) Gabriel Cornelius Ritter von Max, til 1900 Gabriel Cornelius Max(August 23, 1840, Prague - November 24, 1915, München) was a Prague-born German painter, professor. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Art critics usually criticize art in the context of aesthetics or the theory of beauty. One of criticism's goals is the pursuit of a rational basis for art appreciation. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ...


Though critiques of art may have lasted as long as art itself, art criticism as a genre refers to a systematic study of art performed by scholars and dedicated students of art and art theory. Throughout history, wealthy patrons have employed art-evaluators; however, only from the 19th century onwards has criticism had developed formal methods and became a more common vocation.[citation needed] Generally, patronage is the act of supporting or favoring some person, group, or institution. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The variety of artistic movements has resulted in a division of art criticism into different disciplines, each using vastly different criteria for their judgements. The most common division in the field of criticism is between historical criticism and evaluation, a form of art history, and contemporary criticism of work by living artists. Despite perceptions that art criticism is a much lower risk activity than making art, opinions of current art are always liable to drastic corrections with the passage of time. Critics of the past are often ridiculed for either favoring artists now derided (like the academic painters of the late 19th Century) or dismissing artists now venerated (like the early work of the Impressionists). Some art movements themselves were named disparagingly by critics, with the name later adopted as a sort of badge of honor by the artists of the style (e.g. Impressionism, Cubism), the original negative meaning forgotten. An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or... This article is about the art movement. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism...


Artists have often had an uneasy relationship with their critics. Artists usually needs positive opinions from critics for their work to be viewed and purchased; unfortunately for the artists, only later generations may understand it. Some critics are unable to adapt to new movements in art and allow their opinions to override their objectivity, resulting in inappropriately dated critique. John Ruskin famously compared one of James Whistler's paintings, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, to "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face". Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 14, 1834 - July 17, 1903) was an American painter and etcher. ...


Art critics today work not only in print media-in specialist art magazines as well as newspapers- but also on the internet, on TV and on radio,and in museums and galleries. Many are alsoemployed in Universities or as art educators for museums.Art critics curate exhibitions and are frequently employed to write exhibition catalogues. Art critics have their own organisation, a UNESCO non-governmental organisation, called the International Association of Art Critics[1] which has around 76 national sections and a political non-aligned section for refugees and exiles [2].

Contents

Art critics of the pre-World War II era

Bloomsbury Group members Roger Fry and Clive Bell were notable English pre-war art critics. Fry introduced post-impressionism to the country, and Bell was one of the founders of the formalist approach to art. Herbert Read championed modern British artists such as Paul Nash, Ben Nicholson, Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth. The Bloomsbury Group or Bloomsbury Set or just Bloomsbury, as its adherents would generally refer to it, was an English group of artists and scholars that existed from around 1905 until around World War II. // History The group began as an informal socialwe have been great to society assembly of... River with Poplars, circa 1912, Tate Gallery. ... Arthur Clive Heward Bell (September 16, 1881 – September 18, 1964) was an English Art critic, associated with the Bloomsbury group. ... Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ... Look up bell, Bell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up formalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sir Herbert Edward Read, MC, DSO (1893–1968) was an English anarchist poet, and critic of literature and art. ... Paul Nash (1899 - 1946) was a British war artist. ... Benjamin Lauder Nicholson OM, (10 April 1894 – 6 February 1982), known as Ben Nicholson, was an English abstract painter Born at Denham, Buckinghamshire, Nicholson was the son of the painter Sir William Nicholson and the brother of Nancy Nicholson. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ... Hepworths Family of Man in bronze, 1970, at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park. ...


In the U.S, Clement Greenberg first made his name as an art critic with his essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch, first published in the journal Partisan Review in 1939. Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Avant-Garde and Kitsch is the title of a 1939 essay by Clement Greenberg in which he claimed that avant-garde and modernist art was a means to resist the dumbing down of culture caused by consumerism. ... Partisan Review was an American political and literary quarterly published from 1934 to 2003. ...


Art critics of the post-World War II era

In the 1940s there were not only few galleries (The Art of This Century) but also few critics who were willing to follow the work of the New York Vanguard. There were also a few artists with a literary background, among them Robert Motherwell and Barnett Newman who functioned as critics as well. Peggy Guggenheim opened The Art of This Century Gallery at 30 W. 57th Street in New York City in October-November 1942. ...


As surprising as it may be, while New York and the world were unfamiliar with the New York avant-garde, by the late 1940s most of the artists who have become household names today had their well established patron critics: Clement Greenberg advocated Jackson Pollock and the Color field painters like Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Adolph Gottlieb and Hans Hofmann. Harold Rosenberg seemed to prefer the action painters like Willem de Kooning and Franz Kline. Thomas B. Hess, the managing editor of Art News, championed Willem de Kooning. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Color Field painting is an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... Clyfford Still (November 30, 1904 – June 23, 1980) was an American artist, a painter, and one of the leading figures in Abstract Expressionism. ... Mark Rothkos painting 1957 # 20 (1957) Mark Rothko born Marcus Rothkowitz (September 25, 1903–February 25, 1970) was a Russian-born American painter and printmaker who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he rejected not only the label but even being an abstract painter. ... Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Adolph Gottlieb (March 14, 1903 - March 4, 1974) was an American abstract expressionist painter. ... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Harold Rosenberg (February 2, 1906, New York City - July 11, 1978, New York City) was an American writer, educator, philosopher and art critic. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ... Franz Klines Painting Number 2, 1954 Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 - May 13, 1962) was an American painter mainly associated with the Abstract Expressionist group which was centered, geographically, around New York, and temporally, in the 1940s and 1950s; but not limited to that setting. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ...


The new critics elevated their proteges by casting other artists as "followers"[1] or ignoring those who did not serve their promotional goal.


As an example, in 1958, Mark Tobey "became the first American painter since Whistler (1895) to win top prize at the Biennale of Venice. New York's two leading art magazines were not interested. Arts mentioned the historic event only in a news column and Art News (Managing editor: Thomas B. Hess) ignored it completely. The New York Times and Life printed feature articles."[2] Mark George Tobey (December 11, 1890 – April 24, 1976) was an American Abstract Expressionism Painter, born in Centerville, Wisconsin. ...


Barnett Newman, a late member of the Uptown Group wrote catalogue forewords and reviews and by the late 1940s became an exhibiting artist at Betty Parsons Gallery. His first solo show was in 1948. Soon after his first exhibition, Barnett Newman remarked in one of the Artists' Session at Studio 35: "We are in the process of making the world, to a certain extent, in our own image."[3] Utilizing his writing skills, Newman fought every step of the way to reinforce his newly established image as an artist and to promote his work. An example is his letter in April 9, 1955, "Letter to Sidney Janis: ---It is true that Rothko talks the fighter. He fights, however, to submit to the philistine world. My struggle against bourgeois society has involved the total rejection of it."[4] Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Peggy Guggenheim opened The Art of This Century Gallery at 30 W. 57th Street in New York City in October-November 1942. ...


Strangely the person thought to have had most to do with the promotion of this style was a New York Trotskyist, Clement Greenberg. As long time art critic for the Partisan Review and The Nation, he became an early and literate proponent of abstract expressionism. Artist Robert Motherwell, well heeled, joined Greenberg in promoting a style that fit the political climate and the intellectual rebelliousness of the era. Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Partisan Review was an American political and literary quarterly published from 1934 to 2003. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ... Robert Motherwell, 1971 Robert Motherwell (January 24, 1915 – July 16, 1991) was an American abstract expressionist painter and printmaker. ...


Clement Greenberg proclaimed Abstract Expressionism and Jackson Pollock in particular as the epitome of aesthetic value. It supported Pollock's work on formalistic grounds as simply the best painting of its day and the culmination of an art tradition going back via Cubism and Cézanne to Monet, in which painting became ever 'purer' and more concentrated in what was 'essential' to it, the making of marks on a flat surface.[5] Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... Vase of Flowers (1876) Oil on canvas Paul Cézanne (January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906) was a French painter who represents the bridge from impressionism to cubism. ... Oscar-Claude Monet (November 14, 1840 - December 5, 1926), French impressionist painter. ...


Jackson Pollock's work has always polarised critics. Harold Rosenberg spoke of the transformation of painting into an existential drama in Pollock's work, in which "what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event". "The big moment came when it was decided to paint 'just to paint'. The gesture on the canvas was a gesture of liberation from value--political, aesthetic, moral."[6] Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Harold Rosenberg (February 2, 1906, New York City - July 11, 1978, New York City) was an American writer, educator, philosopher and art critic. ...


One of the most vocal critics of Abstract expressionism at the time was New York Times art critic John Canaday. Meyer Shapiro, and Leo Steinberg were also important art historians of the post-war era who voiced support for Abstract expressionism. During the early to mid sixties younger art critics Michael Fried, Rosalind Krauss and Robert Hughes (critic) added considerable insights into the critical dialectic that continues to grow around Abstract expressionism. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... An art critic is normally a person who have a speciality in giving reviews mainly of the types of fine art you will find on display. Typically the art critic will go to an art exhibition where works of art are displayed in the traditional way in localities especially made... Meyer Schapiro was a 20th century art historian. ... Leo Steinberg (born 1920) is an American art historian. ... Michael Fried was a soldier in the U.S. Army. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Robert Studley Forrest Hughes AO, (born July 28, 1938), who is usually known as Robert Hughes, is an art critic, writer and television documentary maker. ...


Other people, such as British comedian/satirist Craig Brown, have been astonished that decorative 'wallpaper', essentially brainless, could gain such a position in art history alongside Giotto, Titian and Velazquez. Craig Brown (born May 23, 1957) is a British satirist and writer probably best known for his work in Private Eye. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Las Meninas, painted in 1656. ...


References

  1. ^ Thomas B. Hess, "Willem de Kooning," George Braziller, Inc. New York, 1959 p.:13
  2. ^ William C. Seitz, Mark Tobey by William C. Seitz, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1962.
  3. ^ Barnett Newman Selected Writings and Interviews, (ed.) by John P. O'Neill, pgs.: 240-241, University of California Press, 1990
  4. ^ Barnett Newman Selected Writings Interviews, (ed.) by John P. O'Neill, p.: 201, University of California Press, 1990.
  5. ^ Clement Greenberg, Art and Culture Critical essays, ("The Crisis of the Easel Picture"), Beacon Press, 1961 pp.:154-157
  6. ^ Harold Rosenberg, The Tradition of the New, Chapter 2, "The American Action Painter," pp.:23-39

Additional sources

For contemporary examples of art criticism today go to Wikipedia's page on the documenta 12 magazine project [3]


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Art Criticism: Formal Criticism of Art, Art Graduate Courses at the School of Visual Arts (399 words)
Art Criticism: Formal Criticism of Art, Art Graduate Courses at the School of Visual Arts
The graduate program in Art Criticism and Writing at SVA is a rigorous and practice-based exploration of the diverse and ever-changing world of formal criticism of art.
The School of Visual Arts has a long tradition of employing practitioner/teachers, and this will continue in the Art Criticism and Writing program, where courses will be taught by those who have made significant contributions to the field.
Art criticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1191 words)
Art criticism is the study and evaluation of art.
Part of the purpose of art criticism is to have a rational basis for the appreciation of art and avoid subjective opinions of taste but this is not always achieved.
Art critics have probably existed for as long as there has been art and some people may argue that art is pointless without criticism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m