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Encyclopedia > Arsenical bronze

Arsenical bronze (or arsenical copper) is an alloy in which arsenic is added to copper as opposed to, or in addition to other constituent metals. The use of arsenic in bronze, either as the secondary constituent or with another component such as tin, results in a stronger final product. An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ...

Since copper ore is often naturally contaminated with arsenic, the term "arsenical bronze" is typically only applied to alloys which contain enough arsenic (exceeding 2-3%) to suggest its intentional inclusion.[1] Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ...

Because it is harder than unmixed copper, arsenical bronze was used for weapons and tools during the early Bronze Age; for example, it has been found in weapons from the Eastern Levant which date back to the fourth and third millenia BCE. It was likely used because tin (a common component of bronze) was rare in many regions and had to be imported. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) // Events Sumerian city of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC); Sumerian hegemony in Mesopotamia, with the invention of writing, base-60 mathematics, astronomy and astrology, civil law, complex hydrology, the sailboat, the wheel, and the potters wheel, 4000... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ...

It has been suggested that the reason that smith-gods of various cultures (such as the Greek and Roman gods Hephaestus and Vulcan, but also including African and Scandinavian gods) were depicted as being lame is that muscular atrophy and loss of reflexes are indicative of chronic arsenic poisoning.[2] A smith or metalsmith is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Hephaestus, Greek god of forging, riding a Donkey; Greek drinking cup (skyphos) made in the 5th century B.C. Hephaestus (IPA pronunciation: ; Greek Hêphaistos) is the Greek god whose approximate Roman equivalent is Vulcan; he is the god of blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... The Forge of Vulcan, by Diego Velázquez. ...


  1. ^ Jordan, David K. "Ancient Metallurgy." 20 Mar. 2006. UCSD. Retrieved 27 Jun. 2006. [1]
  2. ^ Saggs, H. W. F. Civilization Before Greece and Rome, pp. 200-2001. New Haven Yale University Press, 1989



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