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Encyclopedia > Arsenic poisoning
Arsenic poisoning
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 T57.0
ICD-9 985.1

Arsenic poisoning kills by allosteric inhibition of essential metabolic enzymes, leading to death from multi-system organ failure. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ... In biochemistry, allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzyme or protein by binding an effector molecule at the proteins allosteric site (that is, a site other than the proteins active site). ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS; previously known as multiple organ failure) is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to maintain homeostasis. ...

Contents

Symptoms

Symptoms include violent stomach pains in the region of the bowels; tenderness on pressure; retching; vomiting; sense of dryness and tightness in the throat; thirst; hoarseness and difficulty of speech; the matter vomited, greenish or yellowish, sometimes streaked with blood; diarrhea; tenesmus; sometimes excoriation of the anus; urinary organs occasionally affected with violent burning pains and suppression; convulsions and cramps; clammy sweats; lividity of the extremities; countenance collapsed; eyes red and sparkling; delirium; death. Some of these symptoms may be absent where the poisoning results from inhalation, as of arseniuretted hydrogen. Stomach ache is a non-medical term used to describe various forms of nausea or abdominal pain. ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious... Tenesmus is the constant feeling of the need to empty the bowel, accompanied by pain, cramping, and involuntary straining efforts. ... An excoriation is an erosion or destruction of the skin by mechanical insult like a scratch or abrasion of the skin. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... A cramp is an unpleasant sensation caused by contraction, usually of a muscle. ... “Delirious” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Symptoms of arsenic poisoning start with mild headaches and can progress to lightheadedness and usually, if untreated, will result in death. A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Light-headedness is a common and often unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or feeling that one may be about to faint, which may be transient, recurrent, or occasionally chronic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Arsenic poisoning can lead to a variety of problems, from skin cancer to keratoses of the feet. Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin, which can have many causes. ... Keratosis can refer to: actinic keratosis (also known as solar keratosis) seborrheic keratosis keratosis pilaris (KP) Category: ...


Treatment and Testing

It is extremely important to seek medical advice immediately if arsenic poisoning is suspected.


Chemical and synthetic methods are now used to treat arsenic poisoning. Dimercaprol or Succimer are chelating agents which sequester the arsenic away from blood proteins and are used in treating acute arsenic poisoning. The most important side effect is hypertension. Dimercaprol is considerably more toxic than succimer.[1] British Anti Lewisite, often referred to by its acronym BAL, is a compound developed by the British biochemists of Oxford University during World War II . ... DMSA chelating an atom of mercury Dimercaptosuccinic acid, or DMSA, is the chemical compound with the formula (HO2CCH(SH)CH(SH)CO2H. This colourless solid contains two carboxylic acid and two thiol groups, the latter being responsible for the unpleasant odour of this compound. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


One way to test for arsenic poisoning is by checking hair follicles. If arsenic is within the bloodstream, it will enter hair and remain there for many years. A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... A strand of human hair under magnification Hair is also the name of a musical, see respective articles for the stage production and the movie. ...


Potency

The LD50 for pure arsenic is 763 mg/kg (by ingestion) and 13 mg/kg (by intraperitoneal injection). For a 70 kg (~155 lb) human, this works out to about 53 grams (less than 2 ounces). However, compounds containing arsenic can be significantly more toxic.[2] An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


Unintentional poisoning

In addition to its use as a poison, arsenic was used medicinally for centuries and, in fact, was used extensively to treat syphilis before penicillin was introduced. Arsenic was replaced as a therapeutic agent by sulfa drugs and then by antibiotics. Arsenic was also an ingredient in many tonics (or "patent medicines"). In addition, during the Victorian era, some women used a mixture of vinegar, chalk, and arsenic applied topically to whiten their skin. The use of arsenic was intended to prevent aging and creasing of the skin but some arsenic was inevitably absorbed into the blood stream. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Patent medicine is the term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were for the most part actually trademarked medicines, not patented. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... The Needles,situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ...


Some pigments, most notably the popular Emerald Green (known also under several other names), were based on arsenic. Over exposure to these pigments was a frequent cause of accidental poisoning to artists and craftsmen. Paris Green is a common name for copper(II)-acetoarsenite, or C.I. Pigment Green 21, an extremely toxic blue green chemical with four main uses: pigment, animal poison (mostly rodenticide), insecticide, and blue colorant for fireworks. ...


Arsenicosis - chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water

Chronic arsenic poisoning results from drinking water with high levels of arsenic over a long period of time. This may occur due to Arsenic contamination of groundwater. In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease which has developed slowly or gradually. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Arsenic contamination of groundwater has occurred in various parts of the world, most notably the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, causing serious arsenic poisoning among large numbers of people. ...


Effects include changes in skin color, formation of hard patches on the skin, skin cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the kidney and bladder, and can lead to gangrene. The World Health Organization recommends a limit of 0.01 mg/L of arsenic in drinking water; consumption of higher levels over long periods of time can lead to arsenicosis. Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin, which can have many causes. ... Lung cancer is a transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... Gangrene is necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis or lack of blood flow. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


Non-carcinogenic chronic effects include liver injury - jaundice and cirrhosis, peripheral vascular disease involving blueness of the extremities, Raynaud's syndrome, and blackfoot disease (a type of gangrene); anemia, resulting from impaired heme biosynthesis, hyperkeratosis of the skin. In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ...


There are also multiple lines of evidence for the carcinogenic effects of arsenic.


Arsenic has been known to cause many problems in third world countries where ground water supplies have been contaminated by arsenic derived from geologically recent fluvial deposits containing arseno-pyrites. This is a particular problem in Bangladesh where tube wells installed since the 1970s have intercepted ground waters flowing in the fluvial deposits. Concentrations in these wells can exceed 1 part per thousand whereas the WHO maximum level is 10 parts per billion. See Arsenic contamination of groundwater. Arsenic contamination of groundwater has occurred in various parts of the world, most notably the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, causing serious arsenic poisoning among large numbers of people. ...


Roger Smith, Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology Emeritus, Dartmouth Medical School, has confirmed that natural arsenic contamination of drinking water has also been a problem in wells in New Hampshire. Chronic low level arsenic poisoning, or arsenicosis, such as is seen in Bangladesh can potentially result in the victim developing cancer. The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ... Dartmouth Medical School is the medical school of Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Intentional poisoning

In the 700s, an Arab alchemist named Jabir became the first to prepare arsenic trioxide, a white, tasteless, odorless powder. Jabir's preparation seemed the ideal poison as it left no traceable (at the time) elements in the body. Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ); is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Arabic: جابر بن حيان) (c. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ...


Arsenic became a favorite murder weapon of the Middle Ages, particularly among ruling classes in Italy. Because the symptoms are similar to those of cholera, which was common at the time, arsenic poisoning often went undetected. By the 19th C. it had acquired the nickname "Inheritance powder". The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


Famous victims (known and alleged)

Arsenic poisoning, accidental or deliberate, has been implicated in the illness and death of a number of prominent people throughout history.


Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Recent forensic evidence uncovered by Italian scientists suggests that Francesco and his wife were poisoned possibly by his brother and successor Fernando[1]. Francesco I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 to 1587. ... Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (30 July 1549 – 17 February 1609) was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I. Ferdinando was the fourth son of Cosimo I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Eleonora of Toledo (1519...


George III of Great Britain

George III's (1738 – 1820) personal health was a concern throughout his long reign. He suffered from periodic episodes of physical and mental illness, five of them disabling enough to require the King to withdraw from his duties. In 1969, researchers asserted that the episodes of madness and other physical symptoms were characteristic of the disease porphyria, which was also identified in members of his immediate and extended family. In addition, a 2004 study of samples of the King's hair[3] revealed extremely high levels of arsenic, which is a possible trigger of disease symptoms. A 2005 article in the medical journal The Lancet[4] suggested the source of the arsenic could be the antimony used as a consistent element of the King's medical treatment. The two minerals are often found in the same ground, and mineral extraction at the time was not precise enough to eliminate arsenic from compounds containing antimony. George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic mass 121. ...


Napoleon Bonaparte

There is a theory that Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 Р1821) suffered and died from arsenic poisoning during his imprisonment on the island of Saint Helena. Forensic samples of his hair did show high levels, 13 times the normal amount, of the element. This, however, does not prove deliberate poisoning by Napoleon's enemies: Copper arsenite has been used as a pigment in some wallpapers, and microbiological liberation of the arsenic into the immediate environment would be possible. The case is equivocal in the absence of clearly authenticated samples of the wallpaper. As Napoleon's body lay for nearly 20 years in a grave on the island, before being moved to its present resting place in Paris, arsenic from the soil could also have polluted the sample. Even without contaminated wallpaper or soil, commercial use of arsenic at the time provided many other routes by which Napoleon could have consumed enough arsenic to leave this forensic trace. Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 Р5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Scheeles Green, also called Schloss Green, is chemically a cupric hydrogen arsenite (also called copper arsenite or acidic copper arsenite), CuHAsO3. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Mary Cassatts painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocad̩ro. ...


Charles Francis Hall

American explorer Charles Francis Hall (1821-1871) died unexpectedly during his third arctic expedition aboard the ship Polaris. After returning to the ship from a sledging expedition Hall drank a cup of coffee and fell violently ill. He collapsed in what was described as a fit. He suffered from vomiting and delirium for the next week, then seemed to improve for a few days. He accused several of the ship's company, including ship's physician Dr. Emil Bessels with whom he had longstanding disagreements, of having poisoned him. Shortly thereafter, Hall again began suffering the same symptoms, died, and was taken ashore for burial. Following the expedition's return a US Navy investigation ruled that Hall had died from apoplexy. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Formerly known as the USS Periwinkle and the USS America, this wood-hulled, 387 ton, schooner screw tug first saw duty on Chesapeake Bay and the Rappahannock River with the U.S. Navy. ... Emil Bessels (1846 1888) was a German physician and arctic explorer. ... Apoplexy is an old-fashioned medical term, generally used interchangeably with cerebrovascular accident (CVA or stroke) but having other meanings as well. ...


In 1968, however, Hall's biographer Chauncey C. Loomis, a professor at Dartmouth College, traveled to Greenland to exhume Hall's body. Due to the permafrost, Hall's body, flag shroud, clothing and coffin were remarkably well preserved. Tissue samples of bone, fingernails and hair showed that Hall died of poisoning from large doses of arsenic in the last two weeks of his life, consistent with the symptoms party members reported. It is possible that Hall dosed himself with quack medicines which included the poison, but it is more likely that he was murdered by Dr. Bessels or one of the other members of the expedition. 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is a thermal condition where ground material stays at or below 0°C for two or more years. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Pietro Longhi: The Charlatan, 1757 Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe questionable medical practices. ...


Clare Boothe Luce

A later case of arsenic poisoning is that of Clare Boothe Luce, (1903 – 1987) the American ambassador to Italy in the years just following World War II. Although she did not die from her poisoning, she suffered an increasing variety of physical and psychological symptoms until arsenic poisoning was diagnosed, and its source traced to the old, arsenic-laden flaking paint on the ceiling of her bedroom. Another source (see below) explains her poisoning as resulting from eating food contaminated by flaking of the ceiling of the embassy dining room. Clare Boothe Luce photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1933. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Impressionist painters

Emerald Green, a pigment frequently used by Impressionist painters, is based on arsenic. Cezanne developed severe diabetes, which is a symptom of chronic arsenic poisoning. Monet's blindness and Van Gogh's neurological disorders could have been partially due to their use of Emerald Green. Poisoning by other commonly used substances, including liquor and absinthe, lead pigments, mercury-based Vermilion, and solvents such as turpentine could also be a factor in these cases. Paris Green is a common name for copper(II)-acetoarsenite, or C.I. Pigment Green 21, an extremely toxic blue green chemical with four main uses: pigment, animal poison (mostly rodenticide), insecticide, and blue colorant for fireworks. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Oscar-Claude Monet (November 14, 1840 - December 5, 1926), French impressionist painter. ... Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch pronunciation: ) (March 30, 1853 – July 29, 1890 ) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist artist. ... A reservoir glass filled with a naturally coloured verte next to an absinthe spoon. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see Pb. ... Vermilion, also spelled vermillion, when found naturally-occurring, is an opaque reddish orange pigment, used since antiquity, originally derived from the powdered mineral cinnabar. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... For the band, see Turpentine (band). ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.drugs.com/MMX/Dimercaprol.html
  2. ^ http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/feature_tea.html?id=c373e90097f810dd8f6a17245d830100
  3. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3889903.stm
  4. ^ http://aolsvc.news.aol.com/news/article.adp?id=20050722092109990013

IARC could mean: International Agency for Research on Cancer is part of the World Health Organization. ...

External links

IARC could mean: International Agency for Research on Cancer is part of the World Health Organization. ...

Reference

  • Kind, Stuart and Overman, Michael. "Science Against Crime". Doubleday and Company, Inc., New York, 1972. ISBN 0-385-09249-0.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arsenic poisoning and Napoleon (944 words)
The symptoms of arsenic poisoning could be confused with those of many other illnesses, and it was also very difficult to detect arsenic after the death so it provided a practical way of murdering someone.
Arsenic was found in their bodies and foul play was sometimes suspected although in many cases it did not seem possible that the person had been poisoned deliberately.
Although the arsenic was not enough to have killed Napoleon, once he was already ill with a stomach ulcer, the arsenic would have exacerbated his condition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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