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Encyclopedia > Ars moriendi
Pride of the spirit is one of the five temptations of the dying man, according to Ars moriendi. Here, devils tempt the dying man with crowns (a medieval allegory to earthly pride) under the disapproving gaze of Mary, Christ and God. Woodblock seven (4a) of eleven, Netherlands, circa 1450.
Pride of the spirit is one of the five temptations of the dying man, according to Ars moriendi. Here, devils tempt the dying man with crowns (a medieval allegory to earthly pride) under the disapproving gaze of Mary, Christ and God. Woodblock seven (4a) of eleven, Netherlands, circa 1450.

Ars moriendi ("The Art of Dying") is the name of two related Latin texts dating from 1415 and 1450. It offers advice on the protocols and procedures of a good death and on how to "die well", according to Christian precepts of the late Middle Ages. It was written within the historical context of the effects of the macabre horrors of the Black Death 60 years earlier and consequent social upheavals of the 15th century. It was very popular, translated into most West European languages, and was the first in a western literary tradition of guides to death and dying. Download high resolution version (474x606, 38 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (474x606, 38 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... PRIDE or PRIDE Fighting Championships in Japan is the worlds most popular mixed martial arts championship. ... Christs baptism in the bottom panel. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Events March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen April 15 - Battle of Formigny. ... In Western culture, skeletons are often the symbol of death. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... A Precept (from the Latin præcipere, to teach) is a commandment, instruction, or order intended as an authoritative rule of action. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


There was originally a "long version" and then a later "short version" containing eleven woodcut pictures as instructive images which could be easily explained and memorized.


Long version

The original "long version", called Tractatus (or Speculum) artis bene moriendi, was composed in 1415 by an anonymous Dominican monk, probably at the request of the Council of Constance (1414–1418, Germany). It was widely read and translated into most West European languages, and was very popular in England where a literary tradition based on it survived until the 17th century Holy Living and Holy Dying which was the "artistic climax" of the consolatory death literature tradition that had begun with Ars moriendi (Nancy Lee Beaty, 1970). Other works in the English tradition include The Waye of Dying Well and The Sick Mannes Salve. Ars moriendi was also among the first printed books and was widely circulated, in particular in Germany. The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Pope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... Holy Living and Holy Dying is the collective title of two books of Christian devotion by Jeremy Taylor. ...


Ars moriendi consists of six chapters:

  1. The first chapter explains that dying has a good side, and serves to console the dying man that death is not something to be afraid of.
  2. The second chapter outlines the five temptations that beset a dying man, and how to avoid them. These are lack of faith, despair, impatience, spiritual pride, and avarice.
  3. The third chapter lists the seven questions to ask a dying man, along with consolation available to him through the redemptive powers of Christ's love.
  4. The fourth chapter expressed the need to imitate Christ's life.
  5. The fifth chapter addresses the friends and family, outlining the general rules of behavior at the deathbed.
  6. The sixth chapter includes appropriate prayers to be said for a dying man.

This article discusses faith in a religious context. ... Despair in common usage is the condition of having abandoned hope. ... This article is about the state of being. ... PRIDE or PRIDE Fighting Championships in Japan is the worlds most popular mixed martial arts championship. ... Greed is a desire to obtain more money or material possessions or bodily satisfaction than one is considered to need. ... Christ, is the English representation of the Greek word Χριστός (transliterated as Khristós), which means anointed. ... Prayer is an effort to communicate with God, or to some deity or deities, or another form of spiritual entity, or otherwise, either to offer praise, to make a request, or simply to express ones thoughts and emotions. ...

Short version

The "short version", whose appearance coincides with the introduction of block books (books printed from carved blocks of wood, both text and images), first dates to around 1450, from the Netherlands. It is mostly an adaption of the second chapter of the "long version", and contains eleven woodcut pictures. The first ten woodcuts are divided into 5 pairs, with each set showing a picture of the devil presenting one of the 5 temptations, and the second picture showing the proper remedy for that temptation. The last woodcut shows the dying man, presumably having successfully navigated the maze of temptations, being accepted into heaven, and the devils going back to hell in confusion. Woodblock Printing (see also: xylography) is a technique for printing used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China sometime between the mid-6th and late 9th centuries. ... Devil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The heavens are the sky, the celestial sphere, or outer space. ... Medieval illustration of the Mouth of Hell Hell is a mythological place or, according to many religions, a state of painful suffering. ...


The "short version" was as popular as the "long version", but there was no English translation. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Significance

The need to prepare for one's death was well known in Medieval literature through death-bed scenes, but before the 15th century there was no literary tradition on how to prepare to die, on what a good death meant, on how to die well. The protocols, rituals and consolations of the death bed were usually reserved for the services of an attending priest. Ars moriendi was an innovative response by the Church to changing conditions brought about by the Black Death — the ranks of the clergy had been particularly hard hit, and it would take generations to replace them in both quantity and quality — the text and pictures provided the services of a "virtual priest" to the lay public, an idea that just 60 years earlier would have been an unthinkable intrusion on the powers of the church. Ars moriendi provided guidance to dying for those who experienced the macabre horrors of the 14th and 15th centuries, in particular the Black Death; and for those who were looking for ways to distinguish themselves by doing the "proper" acts in a culture increasingly status conscious in a depopulated but consequently more prosperous Europe. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the world. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ...


Derivative works

1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... George Harrison, MBE (February 25, 1943 – November 29, 2001) was a popular British guitarist, singer, songwriter, record producer, and film producer, best known as a member of The Beatles. ... 1998 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Rock band (or rock group) is a generic name to describe a group of musicians specializing in a particular form of electronically amplified music. ... Mr. ... Bust of Homer, one of the earliest European poets, in the British Museum Poetry (ancient Greek: ποιεω (poieo) = I create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Georg Johannesen (born 22nd of February 1931 in Bergen) is a Norwegian author and professor of rhetoric. ...

See also

The Bardo Thodol, sometimes called the Tibetan Book of the Dead, is a funerary text that describes the experiences of the soul after death during the interval known as bardo between death and rebirth. ... Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: Xīzàng; older splling Thibet) is a region and former independent country in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... The Book of the Dead is the common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary texts known as The Book of Coming [or Going] Forth By Day. ... This article is about La Dance Macabre, the late-medieval allegory. ... Memento mori is a Latin phrase that means Remember that you must die (or literally remember mortality). It names a genre of artistic creations that vary widely from one another, but which all share the same purpose, which is to remind people of their own mortality. ... Vanitas by Pieter Claesz Vanitas is a term referring to the arts, learning and time. ...

References

  • Anonymous. "The Art of Dying Well," in Medieval Popular Religion, 1000-1500, a Reader. Ed. John Shinners, London: Broadview Press, 1997: 525-535. ISBN 1551111330 - English translation.
  • Nancy Beaty (1970). The Craft of Dying: A Study of the Literary Traditions of the Ars Moriendi in England. ISBN 0300013361
  • N.F. Blake (1982). "Ars Moriendi". Dictionary of the Middle Ages. v.1, pp547-8. ISBN 0684167603

External links

  • Eleven woodblock pictures presented in framed pairs. German language.
  • Ars moriendi in Castilian, with an introduction by E. Michael Gerli of Georgetown University.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Ars moriendi (997 words)
Ars moriendi ("The Art of Dying") is the name of two related Latin texts dating from about 1415 and 1450 which offer advice on the protocols and procedures of a good death and on how to "die well", according to Christian precepts of the late Middle Ages.
Ars moriendi provided guidance to dying for those who experienced the macabre horrors of the 14th and 15th centuries, in particular the Black Death; and for those who were looking for ways to distinguish themselves by doing the "proper" acts in a culture increasingly status conscious in a depopulated but consequently more prosperous Europe.
Ars moriendi eller de syv dødsmåter (Ars moriendi or the seven ways of dying) is a collection of poems by the Norwegian writer Georg Johannesen.
Ars Moriandi (760 words)
Ars moriendi ("The Art of Dying") is the name of two related Latin texts dating from 1415 and 1450 which offers advice on the protocols and procedures of a good death and on how to "die well", according to Christian precepts of the late Middle Ages.
Ars moriendi was also among the first printed books and was widely circulated, in particular in Germany.
The ars moriendi tradition involved treatment of death as an enemy on one hand, and as gate to immortality on the other, macabre realism (contemptus mundi) and death as both leveler and non-leveler (death not only makes us equal but treats different classes differently).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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