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Encyclopedia > Arrow Cross Party
Flag of the Arrow Cross Party
Flag of the Arrow Cross Party

The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement") was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. During its short rule, 80,000 Jews, including many women, children and elderly were deported from Hungary to their deaths.[1] After the war, Szálasi and other Arrow Cross leaders were tried as war criminals by Hungarian courts. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The term National socialism has been used in self-description by a number of unrelated political movements. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

Contents

Formation

Ministers of the Arrow Cross Party government. Ferenc Szálasi is in the middle of the lower row.
Ministers of the Arrow Cross Party government. Ferenc Szálasi is in the middle of the lower row.

The party was founded by Szálasi in 1935 as the Party of National Will but was outlawed two years later for its violent radicalism. The party had its origins in the political philosophy of pro-German extremists such as Gyula Gombos, who famously coined the term 'national socialism' in the 1920s. [2] It was reconstituted in 1939 as the Arrow Cross Party, modelled fairly explicitly on the Nazi Party of Germany. Its iconography was clearly inspired by that of the Nazis; the Arrow Cross emblem was an ancient symbol of the Magyar tribes who settled Hungary, thereby representing the racial purity of the Hungarians in much the same way that the Nazi swastika was supposed to allude to the racial purity of the Aryans. Image File history File links Arrow_Cross_Party. ... Image File history File links Arrow_Cross_Party. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Gyula Gömbös Gyula Gömbös (December 26, 1886-October 6, 1936) was a right wing extemist who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1932 to 1936. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross (Nyilaskereszt) originated in Hungary in the 1930s as the symbol of the leading Hungarian fascist political party, the Arrow Cross Party, led by Ferenc Szálasi, an ex-army major. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the symbol. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Ideology

The party's ideology was somewhat similar to Nazism, though a more accurate comparison might be drawn between Austrofascism and Hungarian fascism - extreme nationalism, extreme Catholicism, the promotion of agriculture, anti-capitalism, anti-Communism, and militant anti-Semitism. The Arrow Cross Party conceived Jews in racial as well as religious terms, though the necessary scientific capital for a widespread and elaborate program of eugenics simply did not exist in Hungary at the time. Thus, although the Arrow Cross Party was certainly far more modern than the Judeophobic Horthyite regime (Horthy's anti-semitism was based entirely upon Christian belief) it was still very different to the German Nazi Party. Instead, much of the party's ideals were based upon mythos. The paradox being that although the party was pro-Catholic and its anti-semitism had its origins in Christian belief, Szalasi and his colleagues endorsed a respect for the pagan traditions of the Magyar and Avar peoples. The Arrow Cross Party was also more radical economically than other fascist movements, advocating worker rights and land reforms. Magyar may refer to: The Magyar language The Magyar people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The word Avars can mean: The nomadic people that conquered the Hungarian Steppe in the early Middle Ages, the Eurasian Avars. ...


Rise to power

A World War II propaganda poster for the party – the text reads "Despite it all..!"
A World War II propaganda poster for the party – the text reads "Despite it all..!"

During the 1930's, it gradually began to dominate Budapest's working class district, defeating the Social Democrats. It must be noted, however, that the Social Democrats did not really contest elections effectively; they had had to make a pact with the conservative Horthyite regime, thus preventing the abolition of their party. It subscribed to the Nazi ideology of "master races" which, in Szálasi's view, included the Hungarians and Germans, and it also supported the concept of an order based on the power of the strongest – what Szálasi called a "brutally realistic étatism". However, its espousal of a "Greater Hungary" and Hungarian values (which Szálasi labelled "Hungarizmus" or "Hungarianism") clashed with Nazi ambitions in central Europe, delaying by several years Hitler's endorsement of the party. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x926, 60 KB)A World War II propaganda poster for the Arrow Cross Party. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x926, 60 KB)A World War II propaganda poster for the Arrow Cross Party. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The master race (German: die Herrenrasse,  ) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Indigenous Australians at the bottom of the... Map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: the lighter green shows Hungary proper and the darker green shows autonomous Croatia-Slavonia within Hungary. ...


The German Foreign Office instead endorsed the pro-German Hungarian National Socialist Party, which had support among German minorities. Before World War II, the Arrow Cross were not proponents of the racial antisemitism of the Nazis, but utilized traditional stereotypes and prejudices to gain votes among voters both in Budapest and the countryside.[citation needed] However, the constant bickering among these diverse fascist groups prevented the Arrow Cross Party from gaining even more support and power. The Hungarian National Socialist Party was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...

Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Dohány Street Synagogue.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Dohány Street Synagogue.

The Arrow Cross obtained most of its support from a disparate coalition of military officers, soldiers, nationalists, crypto-communists and agricultural workers; it was the only interwar party to operate an effective and modern system of recruitment. Utilising these techniques, the Arrow Cross Party promulgated fierce rhetoric and aggressive propaganda. It was only one of a number of similar openly fascist factions in Hungary, but was by far the most prominent. When it contested the May 1939 elections - the only ones in which it stood - the party won more than 25 % of the vote and 30 seats in the Hungarian Parliament. This was only a superficially impressive result; the majority of Hungarians were not permitted to vote. It did, however, become one of the most powerful parties in Hungary. The Arrow Cross was banned on the outbreak of World War II, forcing it to operate underground. ...


By 1944, however, it had gained the open support of Germany and the pro-German Prime Minister Döme Sztójay legalized the party again in March 1944. In October 1944 Hungary's ruler, Regent Miklós Horthy, was forced to resign by the Germans, who installed the Arrow Cross Party in government and appointed Szálasi as prime minister and head of state. Its rule was bloody but short-lived, as Soviet and Romanian forces were already fighting in Hungary even before Szálasi's takeover. The Battle of Budapest began in December 1944 and the Arrow Cross government effectively fell the following month. Arrow Cross members and German forces continued to fight a rear-guard action in the far west of Hungary until the end of the war in April 1945. Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Döme Sztójay (January 5, 1883–August 22, 1946) was a Hungarian soldier and diplomat who served as Prime Minister of Hungary during World War II. Born in Versec, now it is called as VrÅ¡ac, Sztójay joined the Austro-Hungarian Army as a young man and served... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Horthy redirects here. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Combatants  Germany Hungary  Soviet Union Romania Commanders Pfeffer-Wildenbruch Iván Hindy Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor Tolbukhin Strength 180,000 (90,000 for city defense) 500,000+ (170,000 for city assault) Casualties 99,000-150,000 dead and captured, 40,000 civilian dead 70,000-160,000 dead 240,056...


Post-war developments

Szálasi on trial in Budapest
Szálasi on trial in Budapest

After the war, many of the Arrow Cross leaders were captured and tried for war crimes; many, including Szálasi himself, were executed. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


The ideology of the Arrow Cross has resurfaced to some extent in recent years, with the Neo-Fascist Hungarian Welfare Association prominent in reviving Szálasi's "Hungarizmus" through its monthly magazine, Magyartudat ("Hungarian Awareness"). However, it is very much a fringe element of modern Hungarian politics. The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...


In 2006 a former high ranking member of the Arrow Cross party named Lajos Polgar was found to be living in Melbourne, Australia.[1] Polgar was accused of war crimes, but the case was later dropped and Polgar died of natural causes in July that year. [3] This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ...


See also

// In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ... The Hungarian National Socialist Party was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War. ...

References

  1. ^ a b War crime suspect admits to his leading fascist role, The Age, February 16, 2006
  2. ^ Miklos Molnar, 'A Concise History of Hungary
  3. ^ Lack of political will over Polgar, says Holocaust Centre, Australian Jewish News, July 13, 2006

External links

  • The Siege of Budapest
Fascist redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Hungarian National Socialist Party was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War. ... Zoltán Böszörmény (5 January 1893-?) was a leading exponent of Fascism in Hungary before the Second World War. ... Gyula Gömbös Gyula Gömbös (December 26, 1886-October 6, 1936) was a right wing extemist who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1932 to 1936. ... Béla Imrédy Béla Imrédy de Omeravica (December 29, 1891-February 28, 1946) was Prime Minister of Hungary from 1938 to 1939. ... Zoltán Meskó (12 March 1883-10 June 1959) was a leading Hungarian Nazi during the 1930s. ... Count Fidel Palffy (6 May 1895-2 March 1946) was a Hungarian nobleman who emerged as a leading supporter of Nazism in Hungary. ... Döme Sztójay (January 5, 1883–August 22, 1946) was a Hungarian soldier and diplomat who served as Prime Minister of Hungary during World War II. Born in Versec, now it is called as VrÅ¡ac, Sztójay joined the Austro-Hungarian Army as a young man and served... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross (Nyilaskereszt) originated in Hungary in the 1930s as the symbol of the leading Hungarian fascist political party, the Arrow Cross Party, led by Ferenc Szálasi, an ex-army major. ... The Budapest ghetto was a ghetto where Jews were forced to live in Budapest, Hungary during the Second World War. ... Map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: the lighter green shows Hungary proper and the darker green shows autonomous Croatia-Slavonia within Hungary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals are various names for two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940) by which arbiters of National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy sought to enforce peacefully the territorial claims of Revisionist Hungary, ruled by Regent Admiral...

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Kratz Family Auschwitz Memorial (1168 words)
It was reconstituted in 1939 as the Arrow Cross Party, modelled fairly explicitly on the Nazi Party of Germany.
Its iconography was clearly inspired by that of the Nazis; the Arrow Cross emblem was an ancient symbol of the Magyar tribes who settled Hungary, thereby representing the racial purity of the Hungarians in much the same way that the Nazi swastika was supposed to allude to the racial purity of the Aryans.
Arrow Cross members and German forces continued to fight a rear-guard action in the far west of Hungary until the end of the war in April 1945.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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