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Encyclopedia > Aromatherapy
Mind-body interventions - edit
NCCAM classifications
  1. Alternative Medical Systems
  2. Mind-Body Intervention
  3. Biologically Based Therapy
  4. Manipulative Methods
  5. Energy Therapy
See also

Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a person's mood or health. Essential oils differ in chemical composition from other herbal products because the distillation process only recovers the lighter phytomolecules. For this reason essential oils are rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, as well as other VOC substances (esters, aromatic compounds, non-terpene hydrocarbons, some organic sulfides etc.). Mind-Body Intervention uses a variety of techniques designed to enhance the minds capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... ‹ The template below (Mind-body interventions) is being considered for deletion. ... Autogenic training is a term for a relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Schultz first published in 1932. ... The Feldenkrais Method is an educational system intended to give a greater functional awareness of the self. ... Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Somatic psychology, also known as body psychotherapy, is an academic and applied field involving the study of therapeutic and holistic approaches to the body, somatic experience, and the embodied self. ... Sophrologie was created by Alfonso Caycedo in the 1960s. ... Tai chi chuan (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: tai4 chi2 chüan2) is an internal Chinese martial art. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yoga whythbytvfbyjfgnuj6yfgy6gbytbythbthnbtyyhn uyuytnhunnytnjytjyhnygfhjnynjhfygnhen used as a form of alternative medicine is a combination of breathing exercises, physical postures, and meditation, practiced for over 5,000 years. ... Terms and concepts in alternative medicine provides a glossary of quick and to the point definitions of important terms and concepts unique to alternative medicine (CAM). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Alternative medicine. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Complementary medicine refers to a group of therapeutic and diagnostic disciplines that exist largely outside the institutions where conventional health care is taught and provided. ... This is a glossary for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), an umbrella term for a large number of practices that fall outside the scope of conventional medicine. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... An essential oil, is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Monoterpenes consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. ... Sesquiterpenes consist of three isoprene units and have the molecular formula C15H24. ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ...


Aromatherapy is a generic term that refers to any of the various traditions that make use of essential oils sometimes in combination with other alternative medical practices and spiritual beliefs. Popular use of these products include massaging products, medicine, or any topical application that incorporates the use of essential oils to their products.[1] It has a particularly Western currency and persuasion. Medical treatment involving aromatic compounds may exist outside of the West, but may or may not be included in the term 'aromatherapy'. An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...

Contents

History

Aromatherapy had been around for 6000 years or more. The Greeks, Romans, and ancient Egyptians all used aromatherapy oils. The Egyptian physician Imhotep recommended fragrant oils for bathing, massage, and for embalming their dead nearly 6000 years ago. Imhotep is the Egyptian god of medicine and healing. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used aromatherapy baths and scented massage. He used aromatic fumigations to rid Athens of the plague.poop This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ...


Aromatherapy has roots in antiquity with the use of aromatic oils. However, as currently defined, aromatherapy involves the use of distilled plant volatiles, a twentieth century innovation. The word "aromatherapy" was first used in the 1920s by French chemist René-Maurice Gattefossé, who devoted his life to researching the healing properties of essential oils after an accident in his perfume laboratory. In the accident, he set his arm on fire and thrust it into the nearest cold liquid, which happened to be a vat of NOx Ph232 or more commonly known as lavender oil. Immediately he noticed surprising pain relief, and instead of requiring the extended healing process he had experienced during recovery from previous burns—which caused redness, heat, inflammation, blisters, and scarring--this burn healed remarkably quickly, with minimal discomfort and no scarring. Jean Valnet continued the work of Gattefossé. During World War II Valnet used essential oils to treat gangrene in wounded soldiers. For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ... Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Gangrene is a complication of necrosis (i. ...


Modes of application

The modes of application of aromatherapy include:

  • aerial diffusion for environmental fragrancing or aerial disinfection
  • direct inhalation for respiratory disinfection, decongestion, expectoration as well as psychological effects
  • topical applications for general massage, baths, compresses, therapeutic skin care
  • oral, rectal, vaginal interfaces for infection, congestion, parasites, perfumery for body fragrancing, anointments

The name bath salts is applied to a range of soluble solid products designed to be added to a bath, either to improve cleaning, provide a medical improvement, or to improve the experience of bathing. ...

Materials

Some of the materials employed include:

An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... This article is about the plant genus. ... Binomial name Macfad. ... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... Similar to essential oils, absolutes are concentrated, highly-aromatic, oily mixtures extracted from plants. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Phytoncides are antimicrobial volatile organic compounds derived from plants. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Species Some important species: Allium acuminatum - tapertip onion Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Aroma redirects here. ... Herbal distillates are aqueous solutions or colloidal suspensions (hydrosols) of essential oils usually obtained by steam distillation from aromatic plants or herbs. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... Rosewater or rose syrup (Persian: Golâb Turkish: Gül suyu) is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Chamomile flowers The name Chamomile or Camomile is ambiguous and can refer to several distinct species. ... An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... Chamomile flowers The name Chamomile or Camomile is ambiguous and can refer to several distinct species. ... Carrier oil, also known as base oil or vegetable oil, is used to dilute essential oils and absolutes before they are applied to the skin. ... Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... For other uses, see Almond (disambiguation). ...

Theory

Aromatherapy is the treatment or prevention of disease by use of essential oils. Two basic mechanisms are offered to explain the purported effects. One is the influence of aroma on the brain, especially the limbic system through the olfactory system. The other is the direct pharmacological effects of the essential oils[2]. While precise knowledge of the synergy between the body and aromatic oils is often claimed by aromatherapists, the efficacy of aromatherapy remains to be proven. However, some preliminary clinical studies show positive effects. [3] [4] An essential oil, is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction. ... An essential oil, is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants. ... Synergy (from the Greek synergos, συνεργός meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. ...


In the English-speaking world, practitioners tend to emphasize the use of oils in massage. Aromatherapy tends to be regarded as a complementary modality at best and a pseudoscientific fraud at worst.[5] A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ...


On the continent, especially in France, where it originated, aromatherapy is incorporated into mainstream medicine. There, the use of the antiseptic, antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial properties of oils in the control of infections is emphasized over the approaches familiar to North Americans. In France some essential oils are regulated as prescription drugs, and thus administered by a physician. French doctors use a technique called the aromatogram to guide their decision on which essential oil to use. First the doctor cultures a sample of infected tissue or secretion from the patient. Next the growing culture is divided among petri dishes supplied with agar. Each petri dish is inoculated with a different essential oil to determine which have the most activity against the target strain of microorganism. The antiseptic activity manifests as a pattern of inhibited growth.[6][7] Zoloft, an antidepressant and antianxiety medication A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Man looking at fungus inside of petri dishes A Petri dish is a shallow glass or plastic cylindrical dish that biologists use to culture microbes. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In many countries essential oils are included in the national pharmacopoeia, but up to the present moment aromatherapy as science has never been recognized as a valid branch of medicine in the United States, Russia, Germany, or Japan. Back cover of the Chinese pharmacopoeia First Edition (published in 1930) Pharmacopoeia (literally, the art of the drug compounder), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a...


Essential oils, phytoncides and other natural VOCs work in different ways. At the scent level they activate the limbic system and emotional centers of the brain. When applied to the skin (commonly in form of "massage oils" i.e. 1-10% solutions of EO in carrier oil) they activate thermal receptors, and kill microbes and fungi. Internal application of essential oil preparations (mainly in pharmacological drugs; generally not recommended for home use apart from dilution - 1-5% in fats or mineral oils, or hydrosoles) may stimulate the immune system. This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Choice and purchase

Oils with standarized content of components (marked FCC, for Food Chemical Codex) have to contain a specified amount of certain aroma chemicals that normally occur in the oil. But there is no law that the chemicals cannot be added in synthetic form in order to meet the criteria established by the FCC for that oil. For instance, lemongrass essential oil has to contain 75% aldehyde to meet the FCC profile for that oil, but that aldehyde can come from a chemical refinery instead of from lemongrass. To say that FCC oils are "food grade" then makes them seem natural when in fact they are not necessarily so. Species Over 50: see text Lemon Grass Lemon grass or lemongrass is a perennial herb used in Asian (particularly Thai, Khmer and Vietnamese) and Caribbean cooking. ... An aldehyde. ...


Undiluted essential oils suitable for aromatherapy are termed therapeutic grade, but in countries where the industry is not regulated, therapeutic grade is based on industry consensus and is not a regulatory category. Some aromatherapists take advantage of this situation to make misleading claims about the origin and even content of the oils they use. Likewise, claims that an oil's purity is vetted by mass spectrometry or gas chromatography have limited value, since all such testing can do is show that various chemicals occur in the oil. Many of the chemicals that occur naturally in essential oils are manufactured by the perfume industry and adulterate essential oils because they are cheaper. There is no way to distinguish between these synthetic additives and the naturally occurring chemicals. Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or simply gas chromatography (GC) is a type of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid on an inert solid support. ...


The best instrument for determining whether an essential oil is adulterated is an educated nose. Many people can distinguish between natural and synthetic scents, but it takes experience.


Price

Oils vary in price based on the amount of the harvest, the country of origin, the type of extraction used (steam distillation, CO2 extract, enfleurage), and how desirable the oil is. Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) is considered more desirable than Australian Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum), based upon the aroma, and is twice as costly, mainly because the species that yields Indian Sandalwood essential oils is endangered. Organic and wild harvested essential oils also tend to be more expensive. Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants. ... Binomial name Santalum album L. Santalum album, a terrestrial plant species of the Santalaceae family, is commonly known as a source of sandalwood. ... Binomial name Santalum spicatum A.DC. Western Australian sandalwood, Santalum spicatum, often just called sandalwood, is a tree native to semi-arid areas of southern and western Australia (see this map). ...


Pharmacological effects attributed to essential oils

In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) Tea tree oil or melaleuca oil is a clear to very pale golden color essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odour. ... Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) Tea tree oil or melaleuca oil is a clear to very pale golden color essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odour. ... Species Over 50: see text Lemon Grass Lemon grass or lemongrass is a perennial herb used in Asian (particularly Thai, Khmer and Vietnamese) and Caribbean cooking. ... Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) is a (usually) sterile hybrid mint, a cross between watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) Tea tree oil or melaleuca oil is a clear to very pale golden color essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odour. ...

Popular uses

  • Basil is used in perfumery for its clear, sweet and mildly spicy aroma. In aromatherapy, it is used for sharpening concentration, for its uplifting effect on depression, and to relieve headaches and migraines. Basil oil has many chemotypes and some are known to be emmenagogues and should be avoided during pregnancy.
  • Bergamot is one of the most popular oils in perfumery. It is an excellent insect repellent and may be helpful for both the urinary tract and for the digestive tract. It is useful for skin conditions linked to stress, such as cold sores and chicken pox, especially when combined with eucalyptus oil. Bergamot is a flavoring agent in Earl Grey tea. But cold-pressed Bergamot oil contains bergaptene, a strong photosensitizer when applied to the skin, so only distilled or 'bergaptene-free' types can be topically used.
  • Black pepper has a sharp and spicy aroma. Common uses include stimulating the circulation and for muscular aches and pains. Skin application is useful for bruises, since it stimulates the circulation.
  • Geranium oil is used as an astringent, antiseptic and diuretic.
  • Lavender oil is used as an antiseptic, to soothe minor cuts and burns, to calm and relax, and to soothe headaches and migraines.
  • Lemon oil - Researchers at Ohio State University reveals that Lemon oil aroma may enhance your mood, and may relax you.

For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Depression. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Chemotype - effect of chemical variaity of plants or microorganisms species. ... Emmenagogues are herbs which stimulate blood flow in the pelvic area and uterus. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... Trinomial name Citrus aurantium subsp. ... The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... The Herpes simplex virus infection (common names: herpes, cold sores) is a common, contagious, incurable, and in some cases sexually transmitted disease caused by a double-stranded DNA virus. ... Chicken pox, also spelled chickenpox, is a common childhood disease caused by the varicella_zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV_3), one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans. ... Tin of Lipton Finest Earl Grey Earl Grey tea is a tea blend with a distinctive flavour and aroma derived from the addition of oil extracted from the rind of the bergamot orange, a fragrant citrus fruit. ... A photosensitizer is a chemical compound, used in the Photodynamic Therapy of cancers, that can be excited by light of a specific wavelength. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Citronella oil is one of the important essential oils obtained from different species of Cymbopogon. ... Species Over 50: see text Lemon Grass Lemon grass or lemongrass is a perennial herb used in Asian (particularly Thai, Khmer and Vietnamese) and Caribbean cooking. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... This article is about the dental profession. ... An antispasmodic is a drug that suppresses smooth muscle contraction, especially in tubular organs. ... A carminative, also known as carminativum ( plural: carminativa), is a medicinal drug with antispasmodic activity that is used against cramps of the digestive tract in combination with flatulence. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... This article is about the plant genus. ... Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) is a (usually) sterile hybrid mint, a cross between watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Flu redirects here. ... Not to be confused with germanium. ... This article is about the shrub of genus Jasminum. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender. ... This article is about the fruit. ... ... An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... This article is about the rodent. ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) Tea tree oil or melaleuca oil is a clear to very pale golden color essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odour. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Something antifungal kills or inhibits the growth of fungus. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Yarrow essential oil is a volatile oil including a chemical called proazulenes. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Flu redirects here. ... Binomial name Cananga odorata (Lam. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ...

Efficacy

The consensus among most medical professionals is that while pleasant scents can boost relaxation and may have related benefits for patients, there is currently insufficient scientific proof of the effectiveness of aromatherapy in general.[34] Scientific research on the cause and effect of aromatherapy is limited, although in vitro testing has revealed some antibacterial and antiviral effects and a few double blind studies have been published.[35][36]


Like many alternative therapies, few controlled, double-blind studies have been carried out—a common explanation is that there is little incentive to do so if the results of the studies are not patentable. Researchers at Sloan-Kettering have found that aromatherapy significantly reduces claustrophobia attacks for patients undergoing MRI scans; however, studies of similar rigor are far from numerous. Some benefits that have been linked to aromatherapy, such as relaxation and clarity of mind, may arise from the placebo effect rather than from the inherent properties of the scents themselves. Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research... Within the context of a national or multilateral body of law, an invention is patentable if it meets the relevant legal conditions to be granted a patent. ... The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York is a treatment and research institution founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital. ... Claustrophobia is an anxiety disorder that involves the fear of enclosed or confined spaces. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ...


Skeptical literature suggests that aromatherapy is based on the anecdotal evidence of its benefits rather than proof that aromatherapy can cure diseases. Scientists and medical professionals acknowledge that aromatherapy has limited scientific support, but critics argue that the claims of most aromatherapy practitioners go beyond the data, and/or that the studies are neither adequately controlled nor peer reviewed. Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ...


Customers should be aware that aromatherapy may be unregulated, depending on the country. The term "aromatherapy" has been applied to such a wide range of products that many are labeled "aromatherapy" products simply because they contain essential oils, although they may provide no therapeutic benefit.


Some proponents of aromatherapy believe that the claimed effect of each type of oil is not caused by the chemicals in the oil interacting with the senses, but because the oil contains a distillation of the "life force" of the plant from which it is derived that will "balance the energies" of the body and promote healing or well-being by purging negative vibrations from the body's energy field. Arguing that there is no scientific evidence that healing can be achieved, and that the claimed "energies" even exist, many skeptics reject this form of aromatherapy as pseudoscience or even quackery. Vitalism is the doctrine that vital forces are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... Pietro Longhi: The Charlatan, 1757 Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe unscientific medical practices. ...


Safety concerns

In addition, there are potential safety concerns. Because essential oils are highly concentrated they can irritate the skin when used neat. As such, they are normally diluted with a carrier oil for topical application. Phototoxic reactions may occur with citrus peel oils such as lemon or lime [37]. Also, many essential oils have chemical components that are sensitisers (meaning that they will after a number of uses cause reactions on the skin, and more so in the rest of the body). Some oils can be toxic to some domestic animals, with cats being particularly prone.[38][39] Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ...


Two common oils, lavender and tea tree, have been implicated in causing gynaecomastia, an abnormal breast tissue growth, in prepubescent boys. [40] A child hormone specialist at the University of Cambridge claimed "... these oils can mimic oestrogens" and "people should be a little bit careful about using these products". [41] Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Tea tree or Ti Tree is a popular name that has been applied to a number of different, unrelated plants: Camellia sinensis, from which tea is obtained. ... Gynecomastia (gynaecomastia BE) is the development of abnormal breast tissue on men, small or large, and normally on both sides. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ...


As with any bioactive substance, an essential oil that may be safe for the general public could still pose hazards for pregnant and lactating women.


While some advocate the ingestion of essential oils for therapeutic purposes, licensed aromatherapy professionals do not recommend self prescription due the highly toxic nature of some essential oil. Some very common oils like Eucalyptus are extremely toxic when taken internally. Doses as low as one teaspoon has been reported to cause clinically significant symptoms and severe poisoning can occur after ingestion of 4 to 5 ml.[42] A few reported cases of toxic reactions like liver damage and seizures have occurred after ingestion of sage, hyssop, thuja, and cedar.[43] Accidental ingestion may happen when oils are not kept out of reach of children. This article is about the plant genus. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...


Oils both ingested and applied to the skin can potentially have negative interaction with conventional medicine. For example, the topical use of methyl salicylate heavy oils like Sweet Birch and Wintergreen may cause hemorrhaging in users taking the anticoagulant Warfarin. Methyl salicylate (chemical formula C6H4(HO)COOCH3; also known as salicylic acid methyl ester, oil of wintergreen, betula oil, methyl-2-hydroxybenzoate) is a natural product of many species of plants. ... Binomial name Betula lenta L. Sweet Birch (Betula lenta), also known as Cherry Birch or Black Birch, is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southernmost Ontario and southern Michigan, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. ... Wintergreen is a term that can refer to various groups of plants: Wintergreen once commonly referred to plants that continue photosynthesis (remain green) throughout the winter. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ...


Adulterated oils may also pose problems depending on the type of substance used.


References

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  2. ^ Seenivasan Prabuseenivasan , Manickkam Jayakumar and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu (2006). "In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 6 (39). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-39. 
  3. ^ Kim HJ (Jun 2007). "Effect of Aromatherapy Massage on Abdominal Fat and Body Image in Post-menopausal Women." (in Korean). Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 37 (4): 603-12. PMID 17615482. 
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  5. ^ Aromatherapy
  6. ^ http://www.florihana.com/en/aromatogram.htm The Aromatogram
  7. ^ http://www.pranarom.co.uk/en/essential_oil/aromatogramme Aromatogram
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  9. ^ "Potential of rosemary oil to be used in drug-resistant infections." (Sept-Oct 2007). Altern Ther Health Med. 13 (5): 54-9. PMID 17900043. 
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  11. ^ "Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil possesses potent anti-staphylococcal activity extended to strains resistant to antibiotics." (2006 Jul-Sep). Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol.;19(3):. 19 (3): 539-44. PMID 17026838. 
  12. ^ "Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 strains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood." (2007 May). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 51 (5): 1859-62. PMID 17353250. 
  13. ^ "Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro." (2003). Phytomedicine 10 (6-7): 504-10. PMID 13678235. 
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  16. ^ "Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2." (2004 Nov). Phytomedicine. 11 (7-8): 657-61. PMID 15636181. 
  17. ^ { "Antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of clinical Candida species." (2007 Sep). Mycoses. 50 (5): 403-6. PMID 17714361. 
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  22. ^ "Effects of Salvia officinalis L. extract on experimental acute inflammation." (2007 Jan-Mar). Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 111 (1): 290-4. PMID 17595884. 
  23. ^ "The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review." (2007 Jun). Phytother Res. 21 (6): 501-6. PMID 17380552. 
  24. ^ "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus." (2003 Dec). J Ethnopharmacol. 89 (2-3): 277-83. PMID 14611892. 
  25. ^ "Study on the antiinflammatory activity of essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum." (2005 Sep 7). J Agric Food Chem. 53 (18): 7274-8. PMID 16131142. 
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  31. ^ Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice.. PubMed.gov (2006-06-15). Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
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  34. ^ http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/aromatherapy/HealthProfessional/page3 Aromatherapy and Essential Oils
  35. ^ Ballard CG, O'Brien JT, Reichelt K, Perry EK (2002). "Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa.". J Clin Psychiatry 63 (7): 553-8. PMID 12143909. 
  36. ^ Holmes C, Hopkins V, Hensford C, MacLaughlin V, Wilkinson D, Rosenvinge H. (Apr 2002). "Lavender oil as a treatment for agitated behaviour in severe dementia: a placebo controlled study.". Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 17 (4): 305-8.. PMID 11994882. 
  37. ^ http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1312240 Hyperpigmented macules and streaks
  38. ^ The Lavender Cat - Cats and Essential Oil Safety
  39. ^ K. Bischoff, F. Guale (1998). "Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Oil Poisoning in three purebred cats". Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 10 (108). Retrieved on 2006-10-17. 
  40. ^ "Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils" (2007). New England Journal of Medicine 356 (5): 479-85. PMID 17267908. 
  41. ^ "Oils make male breasts develop", BBC News, February 1, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  42. ^ Eucalyptus oil (PIM 031)
  43. ^ Millet Y, Jouglard J, Steinmetz MD, Tognetti P, Joanny P, Arditti J. (Dec 1981). "Toxicity of some essential plant oils. Clinical and experimental study.". Clin Toxicol. 18 (12): 1485-98. PMID 7333081. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Journals

External links

Criticism

Further reading

  • Maria Lis-Balchin, Aromatherapy science - a guide for healthcare professionals, éd. Pharmaceutical Press (2006)
  • Kurt Schnaubelt, Ph.D., Advanced Aromatherapy : The Science of Essential Oil Therapy, (ISBN 0-89281-743-7)
  • Kurt Schnaubelt, Ph.D., Medical Aromatherapy : Healing With Essential Oils (ISBN 1-883319-69-2)
  • The Practice of Aromatherapy: A Classic Compendium of Plant Medicines and Their Healing Properties (ISBN 0-89281-398-9)
  • National Research Council (2003). Food Chemicals Codex. National Academy Press. ISBN 0309088666. 
  • Christopher Wanjek, Bad Medicine : Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Distance Healing to Vitamin O, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (ISBN 0-471-43499-X)
  • Dr. Jean Valnet, The Practice of Aromatherapy (ISBN 0852071434)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Aromatherapy - Crystalinks (1182 words)
Aromatherapy, commonly associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), is the use of volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants to affect someone's mood or health.
When aromatherapy is used for the treatment or prevention of disease, a precise knowledge of the bioactivity and synergy of the essential oils used, knowledge of the dosage and duration of application, as well as, naturally, a medical diagnosis, are required.
Aromatherapy is sometimes used in clinics and hospitals for treatment of pain relief, for labor pain, for relieving pain caused by the side effects of the chemotherapy, and for the rehabilitation of cardiac patients.
Aromatherapy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1660 words)
Aromatherapy, commonly associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), is the use of volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants to purportedly affect a person's mood or health.
When aromatherapy is used for the treatment or prevention of disease, a precise knowledge of the bioactivity and synergy of the essential oils used, knowledge of the dosage and duration of application, as well as, naturally, a medical diagnosis, are required.
In aromatherapy, it is used for sharpening concentration, for its uplifting effect on depression, and to relieve headaches and migraines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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