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Encyclopedia > Aromanian language
Aromanian
Armãneashce, Armãneashti, Limba armãneascã 
Flag:
Spoken in: Greece, Albania, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia 
Region: Southeastern Europe
Total speakers: 300,000[1]
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Eastern Romance
    Aromanian
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: rup
ISO 639-3: rup

Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. Its speakers are called Aromanians. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Vlachs (also called Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs) are the Romanized population in Central and Eastern Europe, including Romanians, Aromanians, Istro-Romanians and Megleno-Romanians, but since the creation of the Romanian state, this term was mostly used for the Vlachs living south of the Danube river. ... The Eastern Romance languages, sometimes known as the Vlach languages, are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Aroumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ...


It was formed after the Roman conquest of the Balkans and shares many features with modern Romanian, having similar grammar and morphology. The most important dissimilarity between Romanian and Aromanian is the vocabulary, which in the case of the former has been influenced to a greater extent by its neighbouring Slavic languages, while Aromanian has borrowed much vocabulary from the Greek language with which it has been in close contact throughout its history. Also the difference between the two languages have been identified because of the different original languages from which the Aromanian and Romanian have emerged. Namely Aromanian has three different strata in its form: ancient stratum (made from the language spoken in Epirus, Thessaly, Illyria and Macedonia), the Latin stratum (brought from the Roman empire) and Greek or Hellenic stratum which was added during the Roman and Byzantine Empires. In its further development, the language acquired some Turkish words during the reign of the Ottoman Empire.[2] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

The Aromanian language and people are officially recognised as a minority in the Republic of Macedonia, but large Aromanian communities are also found in Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia as well as in Romania, where some Aromanians having migrated from the Balkans after the destruction of the Aromanian centers of Moscopole and Gramostea/Grammos region in Western Macedonia. For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Voskopojë (Albanian with definite article Voskopoja; Aromanian: Moscopole; Aromanian with definite article Moscopolea; Greek: Μοσχόπολις, Moscopolis or Moschopolis; Serbian: Moskopolje;) is a small village currently in south-eastern Albania. ...


Official status

The Aromanian language has a degree of official status in the Republic of Macedonia where Aromanian is taught as an optional subject in some primary schools (in Skopje, Kruševo and Bitola) and Aromanian speakers have the right to use the language in court proceedings. Since 2006 the Aromanian language became the second official language, after standard Macedonian in the city of Kruševo. [3] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... KruÅ¡evo (Aromanian: Crushuva;Macedonian/Bulgarian: Крушево; Greek: Κρούσοβο, Krusovo) is a town in Republic of Macedonia. ... Nickname: Motto: Bitola, babam Bitola Location of the city of Bitola (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Vlademir Taleski Area  - City 422. ... KruÅ¡evo (Aromanian: Crushuva;Macedonian/Bulgarian: Крушево; Greek: Κρούσοβο, Krusovo) is a town in Republic of Macedonia. ...


History

The language is similar to Romanian and its greatest difference lies in the vocabulary. There are far fewer Slavic words in Aromanian than in Romanian, and many more Greek words, a reflection of the close contact of Aromanian with Greek through much of its history.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...


It is generally considered that sometime between 800 and 1,200 years ago, the Vulgar Latin spoken in the Balkan provinces of the Roman Empire split into four languages: Daco-Romanian (today's Romanian language), Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian. Some linguists consider the term Proto-Romanian not valid.[4] Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânǎ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as Vlăheşte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language - more specifically, an Eastern Romannce language - that is today still spoken in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in what is now Croatia, but which was spoken in a substantially broader part of the...


Greek influences are much stronger in Aromanian than in other East Romance languages, especially because Aromanian used Greek words to coin new words (neologisms), while Romanian based most of its neologisms on Italian and French. A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


Also, with the coming of the Turks in the Balkans, Aromanian received some Turkish words as well. Still the lexical composition remains mainly Romance. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Dialects

There are Aromanian dialects which are named after two respective places nowadays located in Albania and Greece: the Moscopole dialect (from the town of Moscopole, also known as the "Aromanian Jerusalem") and the Gramustean dialect (from the Gramostea/Grammos region). Many linguists think that the language spoken by the Farsherots differs significantly from the afore-mentioned and therefore it should be considered as a separate dialect. Also there are the dialects of Malovista, Gopesh, Beala Supra, Krusevo, and the dialects east of the Vardar River in Macedonia. Voskopojë (Albanian with definite article Voskopoja; Aromanian: Moscopole; Aromanian with definite article Moscopolea; Greek: Μοσχόπολις, Moscopolis or Moschopolis; Serbian: Moskopolje;) is a small village currently in south-eastern Albania. ... KruÅ¡evo is a city in Republic of Macedonia. ...


Phonology

Grammar

The grammar and morphology are very similar to those of Romanian and unlike the other Romance languages. The definite article is a clitic particle appended at the end of the word, both the definite and indefinite articles can be inflected, and nouns are classified in three genders, with neuter in addition to masculine and feminine. In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ... An article is a word that is put next to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made to the noun. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...


Verbs

Aromanian grammar does have some features that distinguish it from Romanian, an important one being the complete disappearance of verb infinitives which clearly puts it in the lower part of the Balkans. As such, the tenses and moods that in Romanian use the infinitive (like the future simple tense and the conditional mood) are formed in other ways in Aromanian. For the same reason, verb entries in dictionaries are given in their indicative mood, present tense, first person, singular form. In grammar, the infinitive is the form of a verb that has no inflection to indicate person, number, mood or tense. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ...


Aromanian verbs are classified in four conjugations. The table below gives some examples, indicating also the conjugation of the corresponding verbs in Romanian. [5]

Conjugation Aromanian
(ind. pres. 1st sg.)
Romanian
(ind. pres. 1st sg.)
Romanian
(infinitive)
English
I cãntu
dau
lucredzu
cânt
dau
lucrez
a cânta I
a da I
a lucra I
sing
give
work
II ved
şedu
armãn
văd
şed
rămân
a vedea II
a şedea II
a rămâne III (or a rămânea II)
see
sit
stay
III duc
cunoscu
ardu
duc
cunosc
ard
a duce III
a cunoaşte III
a arde III
carry, lead
know
burn
IV mor
fug
îndulţescu
mor
fug
îndulcesc
a muri IV
a fugi IV
a îndulci IV
die
run
sweeten

Future tense

The future tense is formed in the same way as in archaic Romanian, using an auxiliary invariable particle "va" (derived from the verb "to will") and the subjunctive mood. In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ...

Aromanian Romanian
(archaic)
English
va s-cãntu va să cânt I will sing
va s-cãntsã va să cânţi you (sg.) will sing
va s-cãntã va să cânte he/she will sing
va s-cãntãm va să cântăm we will sing
va s-cãntats va să cântaţi you (pl.) will sing
va s-cãntã va să cânte they will sing

Pluperfect tense

Whereas in Romanian the pluperfect tense (past perfect) is formed synthetically (as for instance in Portuguese), Aromanian uses a periphrastic construction with the auxiliary verb am (have) as the imperfect tense (aveam) and the past participle, as in French, except that French replaces avoir (have) with être (be) for some verbs. Aromanian shares this feature with Megleno-Romanian as well as other languages in the Balkan linguistic union. The pluperfect tense (from Latin: plus quam perfectum more than perfect) is a perfective tense that exists in most Indo-European languages, used to refer to an event that has completed before another past action. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ...


Only the auxiliary verb inflects according to number and person: aveam, aveai, avea, aveamu, aveatã, avea, whereas the past participle doesn't change.[6]

Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Romanian English
avea mãcatã vea mancat mâncase (he/she) had eaten
vea durmit dormise (he/she) had slept

Gerund

The gerund which exists in Aromanian is only applied to some verbs, not all. These verbs are: In linguistics, a gerund is a non-finite verb form that exists in many languages. ...

  • 1st conjugation: acatsã (acãtsãnda(lui)), portu, lucreashce, adiljeashce.
  • 2nd conjugation: armãnã, cade, poate, tatse, veade.
  • 3rd conjugation: arupã, dipune, dutse, dzãse, featse, tradze, scrie.
  • 4th conjugation: apire, doarme, hivrie, aure, pate, avde.

Situation in Greece

Even before the incorporation of Aromanian-speaking territories into the Greek state, the language was subordinated to Greek, traditionally the Aromanians' language of education and religion. The historical studies cited below (mostly Capidan) show that especially after the fall of Moscopole (1788) the process of grecization via education and religion gained a strong impetus mostly among people doing business in the cities.


The Romanian state began opening schools for the Aromanians in the 1860s, but this initiative was regarded with suspicion by some Aromanians, who thought Romania was trying to assimilate them. Antagonism between grecized Aromanians (known as grecomans) who rejected what they perceived as Romanian propaganda, and those who accepted their non-Greek (latin) identity promoted in the Romanian schools, tore apart the Aromanian community in the first half of the 20th century. The grecomans and the Greek militia (known as "andarti") terrorized the Pindus region between 1903-1912 leading to a diplomatic crisis with Romania in 1911 (see Adina Berciu, Maria Petre: 2004). // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Grecomans (Bulgarian: гъркомани, Macedonian: гркомани, Romanian: grecomani, Albanian: grekomani) is a pejorative term used in Bulgaria, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania and Albania[1] for people of Arvanitic. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


In 1948, the new Soviet-imposed communist regime of Romania closed all Romanian-run schools outside Romania and since the closure, there has been no formal education in Aromanian and speakers have been encouraged to learn and use the Greek language. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished...


The issue of Aromanian-language education is still a sensitive one, partly because of the painful memories. Greek propaganda is still very strong in the area, Aromanians being considered a sort of "latinized greeks". The pro Greek lobby oppose the introduction of the language into the education system as EU and leading Greek political figures have suggested, viewing it as an artificial distinction between them and other Greeks. For example, the former education minister, George Papandreou, received a negative response from Aromanian mayors and associations to his proposal for a trial Aromanian language education programme. The Panhellenic Federation of Cultural Associations of Vlachs (Πανελλήνια Ομοσπονδία Πολιτιστικών Συλλόγων Βλάχων) expressed strong opposition to EU's recommendation in 1997 that the tuition of Aromanian be supported so as to avoid its extinction.[2]. On a visit to Metsovo, Epirus in 1998, Greek President Costis Stephanopoulos called on Vlachs to speak and teach their language, but its decline continues. For George Papandreous grandfather, also called George Papandreou, see George Papandreou, senior. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Metsovo (Greek: Μέτσοβο, Aromanian: Aminciu) is a town in Epirus on the mountains of Pindus in Northern Greece, between Ioannina to the north and Meteora to the south. ... Epirus (Greek: Ήπειρος, Ípiros), is a periphery in northwestern Greece. ...


A recent example of the sensitivity of the issue was the 2001 conviction (later overturned in the Appeals Court) to 15 months in jail of Sotiris Bletsas [3][4], a Greek Aromanian who was found guilty of "dissemination of false information" after he distributed informative material on minority languages in Europe (which included information on minority languages of Greece), produced by the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages and financed by the European Commission. His conviction met with broad condemnation in Greece [5] and it emerged that his case was zealously pursued by Aromanian leaders who viewed themselves as patriotic Greeks and felt confronted by the suggestion that they belonged to a "minority". Bletsas was eventually acquitted [6]. Sotiris Bletsas is an architect and Aromanian language activist from Greece. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


Language sample

Tatã a nostru
cai eshci pi tser,
s-ayisascã numa a Ta,
s-yinã Amirãrilja a Ta,
s-facã vreare-a Ta,
cum pi tserlu,
ashi sh-pisti loc.
Pãne-a nostrã atsea di cathi dzuã dã-nã-u sh-azã
shi ljartã-nã amãrtiile-a noastre
ashi cum lji-ljirtãm sh-a amãrtoshlor a noshci.
Shi nu nã-du la pirazmo,
ala aveaglji-nã di atsel arãulu.
Cã a Ta easte Amirãrilja shi puteare
a Tatãlui shi Hiljlui shi a Ayului Spirit,
torã, totãna shi tu eta-a etilor.
Amen.

(the Lord's Prayer - source) The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ...

Tuti iatsãli umineshtsã s-fac liberi shi egali la nãmuzea shi-ndrepturli. Eali suntu hãrziti cu fichiri shi sinidisi shi lipseashti un cu alantu sh-si poartã tu duhlu-a frãtsãljiljei.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), translated by Dina Cuvata

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ...

Comparison with Romanian

The following text is given for comparison in Aromanian and in Romanian, with an English translation. The spelling of Aromanian is that decided at the Bitola Symposium of August 1997. The word choice in the Romanian version was such that it matches the Aromanian text, although in modern Romanian other words might have been more appropriate. The English translation is only provided as a guide to the meaning, with an attempt to keep the word order as close to the original as possible.

Aromanian Romanian English
Vocala easti un son dit zburãrea-a omlui, faptu cu tritsearea sonorã, libirã sh-fãrã cheadicã, a vimtului prit canalu sonor (adrat di coardili vocali shi ntreaga gurã) icã un semnu grafic cari aspuni un ahtari son. Vocala este un sunet din vorbirea omului, făcut cu trecerea sonoră, liberă şi fără piedică, a vîntului prin canalul sonor (compus din coardele vocale şi întreaga gură) sau un semn grafic care reprezintă un atare sunet. The vowel is a sound in human speech, made by the sonorous, free and unhindered passing of the air through the sound channel (composed of the vocal chords and the whole mouth) or a graphic symbol corresponding to that sound.
Ashi bunãoarã, avem shasili vocali tsi s-fac cu vimtul tsi treatsi prit gurã, iu limba poati si s-aflã tu un loc icã altu shi budzãli pot si sta dishcljisi unã soe icã altã. Aşa bunăoară, avem şase vocale ce se fac cu vîntul ce trece prin gură, unde limba poate să se afle într-un loc sau altul şi buzele pot să stea deschise un soi sau altul. This way, we have six vowels that are produced by the air passing through the mouth, where the tongue can be in one place or another and the lips can be opened in one way or another.
Vocalili pot s-hibã pronuntsati singuri icã deadun cu semivocali i consoani. Vocalele pot să fie pronunţate singure sau deodată cu semivocale sau consoane. The vowels can be pronounced alone or together with semivowels or consonants.
 

Common words and phrases

English Aromanian
Aromanian (person) (m.) Armãn, (f.) Armãnã
Aromanian (language) Limba armãneascã, Armãneashce
Greetings! Buna dzuã!
What's your name? Cum ti chljamã?
How are you? Cum hits? (formal) Cum eshci? (informal)
What are you doing? Tsi fats?
Goodbye! S-nã videm cu ghine!
Bye! Ciao!
Please. Vã-plãcãrsescu. (formal) Ti-plãcãrsescu (informal)
Sorry. Ãnj-easte jale.
Thank you. Haristo.
Yes. Da.
No. Nu.
I don't understand. Nu achicãsescu.
Where's the bathroom? Iu easte toaletlu?
Do you speak English? Zburats anglicheashce?
I am a student. Mine escu studentu.

See also

Eastern Romance languages Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ...

Vulgar Latin language
Substratum

Daco-Romanian (Romanian, Moldovan, Vlach)
Grammar | Nouns | Verbs
Numbers | Phonology | Lexis
Regulating bodies

Aromanian

Megleno-Romanian

Istro-Romanian

Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The Eastern Romance languages contain around 300 words considered by many linguists to be of substratum origin [1]. Including place-names and river-names, and most of the forms labelled as being of unknown etymology, the number of the substratum elements in Eastern Romance may surpass 500 basic roots. ... Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânÇŽ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Romanian (technically called Daco-Romanian) shares practically the same grammar and most of the vocabulary and phonological processes with the other three surviving Eastern Romance languages: Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit for a short while. ... The Romanian numbers are the system of number names used in Romanian to express counts, quantities, ranks in ordered sets, fractions, multiplication, and other information related to numbers. ... The Romanian language has seven vowels and twenty-two consonants, including two semivowels, and . ... The lexis of the Romanian language (or Daco-Romanian), a Romance language, has changed over the centuries as the language evolved from Vulgar Latin, to Proto-Romanian, to medieval, modern and contemporary Romanian. ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ... Academy of Sciences of Moldova (romanian Academia de ÅžtiinÅ£e a Moldovei) is the main scientific centre of the Republic of Moldova, which coordinates research in all areas of science and technology. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language - more specifically, an Eastern Romannce language - that is today still spoken in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in what is now Croatia, but which was spoken in a substantially broader part of the... The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ...

References

  • Capidan, Theodor. Aromânii, dialectul Aromân, Academia Română, Studii şi cercetări, XX 1932.
  • Friedman, Victor A., "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, Martii Leiwo, Jussi Halla-aho. Slavica Helsingiensa 21. University of Helsinki, 2001. online
  • Kahl, Thede, "Aromanians in Greece: Minority or Vlach-speaking Greeks?". Online: [7]
  • Rosetti, Alexandru. Istoria limbii române, 2 vols., Bucharest, 1965-1969.
  • Berciu-Drăghicescu, Adina; Petre Maria, "Şcoli şi Biserici româneşti din Peninsula Balcanică. Documente (1864-1948)", Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti, 2004.

The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ [1] Ethnologue report of maximum and minimum numbers
  2. ^ Зборник на трудови од мегународниот научен симпозиум „Власите на Балканот“, Скопје 2002/2004 (Collection of papers from the International Scientific Symposium "The Aromanians on the Balkans", Skopje 2002/2004).
  3. ^ http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/doc97/edoc7728.htm
  4. ^ Зборник на трудови од мегународниот научен симпозиум „Власите на Балканот“, Скопје 2002/2004
  5. ^ Iancu Ianachievski-Vlahu Gramatica armãneascã simplã shi practicã, Crushuva 1993, 1997; Μιχάλη Μπογιάτζη Βλαχική ήτοι μάκεδοβλαχική γραμματική Βιέννη, and Κατσάνης Ν., Κ. Ντίνας, 1990, Γραμματική της κοινής Κουτσοβλαχικής.
  6. ^ Iancu Ianachievski- Vlahu Gramatica simplã shi practicã, Crushuva 1993, 1997.

External links

Wikipedia
Aromanian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Romanian language - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (4718 words)
Romanian is a Romance language, belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family, having much in common with languages such as French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.
Romanian is one of the five languages in which religious services are performed in the autonomous monastic state of Mount Athos, spoken in the sketae of Prodromos and Lacu (a sketa being a community of monks; sketae is plural).
The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient Dacians.
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Romanian language (1778 words)
All the dialects of Romanian are believed to have been unified in a common language until sometime between the 7th and the 10th century when the area was influenced by the Byzantine Empire and Romanian came under the influence of the Slavic language.
Romanian is the official language of Romania and Moldova (where for political reasons it tends to be called the "Moldovan language").
Romanian is the only Romance language that has the definite article attached to the end of the noun (as in North Germanic languages) instead of being a separate word in front.
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