FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Arnold Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948
Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948

Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. He used the spelling Schönberg until his move to the United States in 1934.[1] Schoenberg was known for extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic traditions of both Brahms and Wagner, and also for his pioneering innovations in atonality—during the rise of the Nazi party in Austria, his music was labeled, alongside swing and jazz, as degenerate art. He famously developed twelve-tone technique, a widely influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all 12 notes in the chromatic scale. He also coined the term developing variation, and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motives without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The Second Viennese School was a group of composers made up of Arnold Schoenberg and those who studied under him in early 20th century Vienna. ... Romantic and romanticism have a number of uses: Titles: Romantic (song) by Karyn White. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ... Look up swing, swinging in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Joseph Goebbels, Adolf Hitler and Adolf Ziegler visit the entartete Kunst exhibition. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... In music, a tone row or note row is a permutation, an arrangement or ordering, of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale. ... In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ...


Schoenberg was also a painter, an important music theorist, and an influential teacher of composition; his students included Alban Berg, Anton Webern, and later John Cage. Many of Schoenberg's practices, including the formalization of compositional method, and his habit of openly inviting audiences to think analytically, are echoed in avant-garde musical thought throughout the 20th century. His often polemical views of music history and aesthetics were crucial to many of the 20th century's significant musicologists and critics, including Theodor Adorno, Charles Rosen, and Carl Dahlhaus. Music theory is a set of systems for analyzing, classifying, and composing music and the elements of music. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ... Carl Dahlhaus (June 10, 1928- May 1989), a musicologist from Berlin, has been one of the major contributors to the development of musicology as a scholarly discipline during the post-war era. ...


Schoenberg's archival legacy is collected at the Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Arnold Schoenberg was born to an Ashkenazi Jewish family in the Leopoldstadt district (in earlier times a Jewish ghetto) in Vienna, at "Obere Donaustraße 5" Although his mother Pauline, a native of Prague, was a piano teacher (his father Samuel, a native of Bratislava, was a shopkeeper), Arnold was largely self-taught, taking only counterpoint lessons with the composer Alexander von Zemlinsky, who was to become his first brother-in-law (Beaumont 2000, 87). In his twenties, he lived by orchestrating operettas while composing works such as the string sextet Verklärte Nacht ("Transfigured Night") in 1899. He later made an orchestral version of this, which has come to be one of his most popular pieces. Both Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler recognized Schoenberg's significance as a composer; Strauss when he encountered Schoenberg's Gurre-Lieder, and Mahler after hearing several of Schoenberg's early works. Strauss turned to a more conservative idiom in his own work after 1909 and at that point dismissed Schoenberg, but Mahler adopted Schoenberg as a protégé and continued to support him even after Schoenberg's style reached a point which Mahler could no longer understand, and Mahler worried about who would look after him after his death. Schoenberg, who had initially despised and mocked Mahler's music, was converted by the "thunderbolt" of Mahler's 3rd symphony, which he considered a work of genius, and afterwards "even spoke of Mahler as a saint" (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 103; Schoenberg 1975, 136). Despite his Jewish background, in 1898 he converted to Lutheranism. He would remain Lutheran until 1933. Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Haidgasse in Leopoldstadt The Volksprater amusement park in the Wiener Prater The Hauptallee in the Prater Leopoldstadt (Leopold-Town) is Viennas second district. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, City of peace Country  Slovakia Region Districts 5  - Bratislava I  - Bratislava II  - Bratislava III  - Bratislava IV  - Bratislava V Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft... A shopkeeper is an individual who owns a shop. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Alexander von Zemlinsky Alexander Zemlinsky or Alexander von Zemlinsky, (October 14, 1871 – March 15, 1942) was an Austrian composer of classical music, conductor, and teacher. ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... Verklärte Nacht, Op. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... The Gurre-Lieder form a massive oratorio for 5 soloists, reciter, chorus and orchestra, composed by Arnold Schoenberg, on poem texts by Danish novelist Jens Peter Jacobsen (translated from Danish to German by Robert Franz Arnold). ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


Schoenberg began teaching harmony, counterpoint and composition in 1904. His first students were Paul Pisk, Anton Webern, and Alban Berg; Webern and Berg would become the most famous of his many pupils. Paul Amadeus Pisk (May 16, 1893, Vienna - January 12, 1990, Los Angeles) was an Austria-born composer and musicologist. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ...


The summer of 1908, during which his wife Mathilde left him for several months for a young Austrian painter, Richard Gerstl (who committed suicide after her return to her husband and children), marked a distinct change in Schoenberg's work. It was during the absence of his wife that he composed "You lean against a silver-willow" (German: Du lehnest wider eine Silberweide), the thirteenth song in the cycle Das Buch der Hängenden Gärten, op. 15, based on the collection of the same name by the German mystical poet Stefan George; this was the first composition without any reference at all to a key (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 96). Also in this year he completed one of his most revolutionary compositions, the String Quartet No. 2, whose first two movements, though chromatic in color, use traditional key signatures, yet whose final two movements, also settings of Stefan George, weaken the links with traditional tonality daringly (though both movements end on tonic chords, and the work is not yet fully non-tonal) and, breaking with previous string-quartet practice, incorporate a soprano vocal line. Self-portrait, 1901. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Stefan George (1910) Stefan George (Bingen, Hesse, July 12, 1868 – Locarno, December 4, 1933) was a German poet and translator. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... Stefan George (1910) Stefan George (Bingen, Hesse, July 12, 1868 – Locarno, December 4, 1933) was a German poet and translator. ...


During the summer of 1910, Schoenberg wrote his Harmonielehre (Theory of Harmony, Schoenberg 1922), which to this day remains one of the most influential music-theory books.


Another of his most important works from this atonal or pantonal period is the highly influential Pierrot Lunaire, op. 21, of 1912, a novel cycle of expressionist songs set to a German translation of poems by the Belgian-French poet Albert Giraud. Utilizing the technique of Sprechstimme, or speak-singing recitation, the work pairs a female singer with a small ensemble of 5 musicians. The ensemble, which is now commonly referred to as the Pierrot ensemble, consists of flute (doubling on piccolo), clarinet (doubling on bass clarinet), violin (doubling on viola), violoncello, speaker-singer, and piano. Dreimal sieben Gedichte aus Albert Girauds Pierrot lunaire, (three times seven poems from Albert Girauds Pierrot lunaire), commonly known as Pierrot Lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot or Pierrot in the moonlight), Op. ... Albert Giraud (1860-1929) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language. ... Sprechgesang (German for speech song) or Sprechstimme (speech voice) is a technique of vocal production halfway between singing and speaking. ... A Pierrot ensemble is a musical ensemble comprised of flute, clarinet, violin, cello and piano, frequently augmented by the addition of a singer or percussionist. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ...


World War I brought a crisis in his development. Military service disrupted his life. He was never able to work uninterrupted or over a period of time, and as a result he left many unfinished works and undeveloped "beginnings". So, at the age of 42 he found himself in the army. On one occasion, a superior officer demanded to know if he was "this notorious Schoenberg, then"; Schoenberg replied: "Beg to report, sir, yes. Nobody wanted to be, someone had to be, so I let it be me" (Schoenberg 1975, 104) (according to Norman Lebrecht (2001), this is an obvious reference to Schoenberg's apparent "destiny" as the "Emancipator of Dissonance"). “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Norman Lebrecht (born 11 July 1948 in London) is a British commentator on music and cultural affairs and also a novelist. ... The emancipation of the dissonance was a concept or goal put forth by Arnold Schoenberg and others, including his pupil Anton Webern, composer of atonal music and the inventor of the twelve tone technique. ...


Later, Schoenberg was to develop the most influential version of the dodecaphonic (also known as twelve-tone) method of composition, which in French and English was given the alternative name serialism by René Leibowitz and Humphrey Searle in 1947. This technique was taken up by many of his students, who constituted the so-called Second Viennese School. They included Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Hanns Eisler, all of whom were profoundly influenced by Schoenberg. He published a number of books, ranging from his famous Harmonielehre (Theory of Harmony) to Fundamentals of Musical Composition (Schoenberg 1967), many of which are still in print and still used by musicians and developing composers. Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... René Leibowitz (February 17, 1913 – August 29, 1972) was a French composer, conductor, music theorist and teacher born in Warsaw, Poland. ... Humphrey Searle (August 26, 1915 - May 12, 1982) was a British composer. ... The Second Viennese School was a group of composers made up of Arnold Schoenberg and those who studied under him in early 20th century Vienna. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Hanns Eisler (July 6, 1898 - September 6, 1962) was a German and Austrian composer. ...

Schoenberg's grave in the Zentralfriedhof, Vienna.
Schoenberg's grave in the Zentralfriedhof, Vienna.

Following the 1924 death of composer Ferruccio Busoni, who had served as Director of a Master Class in Composition at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin, Schoenberg was appointed to this post the next year, but because of health reasons was unable to take up his post until 1926. Among his notable students during this period were the composers Roberto Gerhard, Nikos Skalkottas, and Josef Rufer. Schoenberg continued in his post until the election of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1933, when he was dismissed and forced into exile. He emigrated to Paris, where he reaffirmed his Jewish faith[2] and then to the United States. His first teaching position in the United States was at the Malkin Conservatory in Boston. He was then wooed to Los Angeles, where he taught at the University of Southern California and the University of California, Los Angeles, both of which later named a music building on their respective campuses Schoenberg Hall.[3][4] He settled in Brentwood Park, where he befriended fellow composer (and tennis partner) George Gershwin and began teaching at University of California, Los Angeles, where he resided for the rest of his life. The noted film composer Leonard Rosenman studied with Schoenberg at this time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1041 KB) Grave of Arnold Schoenberg, composer, Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Vienna, Austria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1041 KB) Grave of Arnold Schoenberg, composer, Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Vienna, Austria. ... Exterior of the Dr. Karl Lueger-Gedächtniskirche, Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. ... Ferruccio Busoni Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866 – July 27, 1924) was an Italian composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor. ... Akademie der Künste, Pariser Platz, Berlin The Akademie der Künste, Berlin (Academy of the Arts, Berlin) is an arts institution in Berlin, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Roberto Gerhard (born Robert Juan Rene Gerhard, September 25, 1896 in Valls, Spain; died January 5, 1970 in Cambridge, England), was a Spanish Catalan composer and musical scholar and writer whose works are among the most important produced by any composer from Spain in the twentieth century. ... Nikolaos Skalkottas Nikolaos (Nikos) Skalkottas (Greek: Νικόλαος Σκαλκώτας) (born 1901 in Chalcis, died 1949 in Athens) was a Greek composer of 20th-century music. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... This article is about the neighborhood in Los Angeles. ... Gershwin redirects here. ... The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Leonard Rosenman (born September 7, 1924 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American film, television and concert composer. ...


During this final period he composed several notable works, including the difficult Violin Concerto, op. 36 (1934/36), the Kol Nidre, op. 39, for chorus and orchestra (1938), the Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte, op. 41 (1942), the haunting Piano Concerto, op. 42 (1942), and his memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, A Survivor from Warsaw, op. 46 (1947). He was unable to complete his opera Moses und Aron (1932/33), which was one of the first works of its genre to be written completely using dodecaphonic composition. In 1941, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. During this period, his notable students included John Cage, Lou Harrison, and H. Owen Reed. The Violin Concerto by Arnold Schoenberg dates from Schoenbergs time in the United States of America, where he had moved in 1933 to escape the Nazis. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... Arnold Schoenbergs Piano Concerto, Op. ... A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. ... Moses und Aron (Moses and Aaron) is a two-act opera by Arnold Schoenberg with a third act unfinished. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Lou Silver Harrison (May 14, 1917 - February 2, 2003) was an American composer. ... H. Owen Reed (b. ...


Schoenberg experienced triskaidekaphobia (the fear of the number 13), which possibly began in 1908 with the composition of the thirteenth song of the song cycle Das Buch der Hängenden Gärten op. 15 (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 96). Moses und Aron was originally spelled Moses und Aaron, but when he realised this contained 13 letters, he changed it. His superstitious nature may have triggered his death. According to friend Katia Mann, he feared he would die during a year that was a multiple of 13 (quoted in Lebrecht 1985, 294). He so dreaded his sixty-fifth birthday in 1939 that a friend asked the composer and astrologer Dane Rudhyar to prepare Schoenberg's horoscope. Rudhyar did this and told Schoenberg that the year was dangerous, but not fatal. But in 1950, on his seventy-sixth birthday, an astrologer wrote Schoenberg a note warning him that the year was a critical one: 7 + 6 = 13 (Nuria Schoenberg-Nono, quoted in Lebrecht 1985, 295). This stunned and depressed the composer, for up to that point he had only been wary of multiples of 13 and never considered adding the digits of his age. On Friday, 13 July 1951, Schoenberg stayed in bed—sick, anxious and depressed. In a letter to Schoenberg's sister Ottilie, dated 4 August 1951, his wife, Gertrud, reported "About a quarter to twelve I looked at the clock and said to myself: another quarter of an hour and then the worst is over. Then the doctor called me. Arnold's throat rattled twice, his heart gave a powerful beat and that was the end" (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 521). Gertrud Schoenberg reported the next day in a telegram to her sister-in-law Ottilie that Arnold died at 11:45pm (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 520). The stall numbers at the Santa Anita Park. ... An astrologer practices one or more forms of astrology. ... Dane Rudhyar (born Daniel Chennevière, March 23, 1895, in Paris - died September 13, 1985, in San Francisco) was a modernist composer and humanistic astrologer. ... A horoscope calculated for January 1, 2000 at 12:01:00 A.M. Eastern Standard Time in New York City, New York, USA (Longitude: 074W0023 - Latitude: 40N4251). In astrology, a horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, the astrological aspects, and... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arnold Schoenberg was grandfather of the lawyer E. Randol Schoenberg. His daughter, Nuria Dorothea, married fellow composer Luigi Nono in 1955. An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice. ...


Music

Works and ideas

His Drei Klavierstücke op. 11, no. 1
His Drei Klavierstücke op. 11, no. 1

Schoenberg's significant compositions in the repertory of modern art music extend over a period of more than 50 years. Traditionally they are divided into three periods though this division "obscures as much as it reveals" as the music in each of these periods is considerably varied. The idea that his twelve-tone period "represents a stylistically unified body of works is simply not supported by the musical evidence" (Haimo 1990, 4), and important musical characteristics—especially those related to motivic development—transcend these boundaries completely. The first of these periods, 1894–1907, is identified in the legacy of the high-Romantic composers of the late ninteenth century, as well as with "expressionist" movements in poetry and art. The second, 1908–1922, is typified by the abandonment of key centers, a move often described (though not by Schoenberg) as "free atonality." The third, from 1923 onward, commences with Schoenberg's invention of dodecaphonic, or "twelve-tone" compositional method. Schoenberg's most well-known students Hans Eisler, Alban Berg, and Anton Webern, followed Schoenberg faithfully through each of these intellectual and aesthetic transitions, though not without considerable experimentation and variety of approach. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 275 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 330 pixel, file size: 10 KB, MIME type: image/png) Excerpt from Arnold Schoenbergs Op. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 275 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 330 pixel, file size: 10 KB, MIME type: image/png) Excerpt from Arnold Schoenbergs Op. ... Drei Klavierstücke, Op. ... Look up motive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ...


Beginning with songs and string quartets written around the turn of the century, Schoenberg's concerns as a composer positioned him uniquely among his peers, in that his procedures exhibited characteristics of both Brahms and Wagner, who for most contemporary listeners, were considered polar opposites, representing mutually exclusive directions in the legacy of German music. Schoenberg's Six Songs, op. 3 (1899–1903), for example, exhibit a conservative clarity of tonality organization typical of Brahms and Mahler, reflecting an interest in balanced phrases and an undisturbed hierarchy of key relationships. However the songs also explore unusually bold incidental chromaticism, and seem to aspire to a Wagnerian "representational" approach to motivic identity. The synthesis of these progressive and conservative approaches reaches an apex in his Verklärte Nacht, op. 4 (1899), a programmatic work for string sextet that develops several distinctive "leitmotif"-like themes, each one eclipsing and subordinating the last. The only motivic elements that persist throughout the work are those that are perpetually dissolved, varied, and re-combined, in a technique, identified primarily in Brahms's music, that Schoenberg called "developing variation." Schoenberg's procedures in the work are organized in two ways simultaneously; at once suggesting a Wagnerian narrative of stable motivic ideas, as well as a Brahmsian approach to motivic development and tonal cohesion. The adjective tonal can refer to: tonality in music a tonal language the opposite of Nagual, in the specific context of Carlos Castaneda, the tonal is what makes the world. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... Verklärte Nacht, Op. ... Program music is music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas, images in the mind of the listener by musically representing a scene, image or mood [1]. By contrast, absolute music stands for itself and is intended to be appreciated without any particular reference to the outside world. ... In classical music, a string sextet is a composition written for six string instruments, or a group of six musicians who perform such a composition. ... A leitmotif (IPA pronunciation: ) (also leitmotiv; lit. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ...


Schoenberg's music from 1908 onward experiments in a variety of ways with the absence of traditional keys or tonal centers. Important works of the era include his song cycle Das Buch der Hängenden Gärten, op. 15 (1908–1909), his Five Orchestral Pieces, op. 16 (1909), the ominous Pierrot Lunaire, op. 21 (1912), as well as his dramatic Erwartung, op. 17 (1909). The urgency of musical constructions lacking in tonal centers, or traditional dissonance-consonance relationships, however, can be traced as far back as his Kammersymphonie, op. 9 (1906), a work remarkable for its tonal development of quartal harmony, and its initiation of dynamic and unusual ensemble relationships, involving dramatic interruption and unpredictable instrumental allegiances; many of these features would typify the timbre-oriented chamber music aesthetic of the coming century. Quartal harmonies and quintal harmonies are harmonies based on fourths and fifths rather than the traditional harmonies based on thirds. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ...


In the early 1920s he worked at evolving a means of order which would enable his musical texture to become simpler and clearer, and this resulted in the "method of composition with twelve tones" in which the twelve pitches of the octave are regarded as equal, and no one note or tonality is given the emphasis it occupied in classical harmony. He regarded it as the equivalent in music of Albert Einstein's discoveries in physics, and Schoenberg announced it characteristically, during a walk with his friend Josef Rufer, when he said "I have made a discovery which will ensure the supremacy of German music for the next hundred years" (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 277). A number of works in this period include the Variations for Orchestra, op. 31 (1928) piano pieces, opp. 33a & b (1931), and the Piano Concerto, op. 42 (1942). Contrary to Schoenberg's reputation for strictness, many of Schoenberg's works in this period drew on freely atonal or tonal materials, including his unfinished opera Moses Und Aron, and his Fantasy for Violin and Piano, op. 47 (1949). “Einstein” redirects here. ...


Controversies and polemics

Understanding of Schoenberg's work has been difficult to achieve due in part to its dissimilarity to tonal music, misinformation about the system's "rules" and "exceptions", the "vastness" of the "unexplored territory", Schoenberg's secretiveness, and the widespread unavailability of his sketches and manuscripts until the late 1970s. During his life he was "subjected to a range of criticism and abuse that is shocking even in hindsight" (Haimo 1990, 2–3).


After some understandable early difficulties, Schoenberg began to win public acceptance, with works such as the tone poem Pelleas und Melisande at a Berlin performance in 1907, and, especially, at the Vienna première of the Gurre-Lieder on 13 February 1913, which received an ovation that lasted a quarter of an hour and Schoenberg was presented with a laurel crown (Rosen 1996, 4; Stuckenschmidt 1977, 184). Much of his work, however, was not well received. In 1907 his Chamber Symphony No. 1 in E major op. 9 was premièred. When it was played again, however, in a 31 March 1913 concert which also included works by Alban Berg, Anton Webern and Alexander von Zemlinsky, thunderous applause contended with hisses and laughter during Webern's Six Pieces, op. 6. Though Zemlinsky's Four Maeterlinck Songs calmed the audience somewhat, according to a contemporary newspaper report, after Schoenberg's op. 9 "one could hear the shrill sound of door keys among the violent clapping and in the second gallery the first fight of the evening began". Later in the concert, during a performance of the Altenberg Lieder by Berg, fighting broke out after Schoenberg interrupted the performance to threaten removal by the police of any troublemakers (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 185). Mahler's Kindertotenlieder, which were to have concluded the concert, had to be cancelled after a police officer was called in (Rosen 1996, 5). Schoenberg's music after 1908 made a break from tonality. Pelleas und Melisande, Symphonic Poem for orchestra, is dodecaphonic composer Arnold Schoenbergs first orchestral work. ... The Gurre-Lieder form a massive oratorio for 5 soloists, reciter, chorus and orchestra, composed by Arnold Schoenberg, on poem texts by Danish novelist Jens Peter Jacobsen (translated from Danish to German by Robert Franz Arnold). ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... Alexander von Zemlinsky Alexander Zemlinsky or Alexander von Zemlinsky, (October 14, 1871 – March 15, 1942) was an Austrian composer of classical music, conductor, and teacher. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ...


The deteriorating relation between contemporary composers and the public led him to found the Society for Private Musical Performances (Verein für musikalische Privataufführungen in German) in Vienna in 1918. His aim was grandiose but scarcely selfish; he sought to provide a forum in which modern musical compositions could be carefully prepared and rehearsed, and properly performed under conditions protected from the dictates of fashion and pressures of commerce. From its inception through 1921, when it ended because of economic reasons, the Society presented 353 performances to paid members, sometimes at the rate of one per week, and during the first year and a half, Schoenberg did not allow any of his own works to be performed (Rosen 1975, 65). Instead, audiences at the Society's concerts heard difficult contemporary compositions by Scriabin, Debussy, Mahler, Webern, Berg, Reger, and other leading figures of early 20th-century music (Rosen 1996, 66). The Society for Private Musical Performances (in German, the Verein für musikalische Privataufführungen) was an organisation founded in Vienna in the Autumn of 1918 by Arnold Schoenberg with the intention of making carefully rehearsed and comprehensible performances of modern music available to genuinely interested members of the musical... Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Скрябин, Aleksandr Nikolajevič Skriabin; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin or Scriabine (6 January 1872 [O.S. 26 December 1871]—27 April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (March 19, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German composer, organist, pianist and teacher. ...


Schoenberg's serial technique of composition with 12 notes became one of the most central and polemical issues among American and European musicians during the mid- to late-20th century. Beginning in the 1940s and continuing to the present day, composers such as Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Luigi Nono and Milton Babbitt have extended Schoenberg's legacy in increasingly radical directions. The major cities in the USA (e.g. Los Angeles, NYC, Boston) have also been hosts for historically significant performances of Schoenberg's music, with advocates such as Babbitt in NYC and the Franco-American conductor-pianist, Jacques-Louis Monod; including the influence of Schoenberg's own pupils, who have taught at major American schools (e.g. Leonard Stein at USC, UCLA and CalArts; Richard Hoffmann at Oberlin; Patricia Carpenter at Columbia; and Leon Kirchner and Earl Kim at Harvard). Others include performers associated with Schoenberg, who have had a profound influence upon contemporary music performance practice in the USA (e.g. Louis Krasner, Eugene Lehner and Rudolf Kolisch at the New England Conservatory of Music; Eduard Steuermann and Felix Galimar at the Juilliard School). In Europe, the work of Hans Keller, Luigi Rognoni, and René Leibowitz has had a measurable influence in spreading Schoenberg's musical legacy outside of Germany and Austria. Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century (Barret 1988, 45; Harvey 1975b, 705; Hopkins 1972, 33; Klein 1968, 117; Power 1990, 30). ... Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice. ... Milton Byron Babbitt (born May 10, 1916) is an American composer. ... Jacques-Louis Monod (b. ... Leon Kirchner (born January 24, 1919 in Brooklyn, NY) is an American composer of classical music. ... Louis Krasner (21 June 1903 - 4 May 1995) was a violinist. ... Eugene Lehner (1906 – 13 September 1997) was a prominent violist and music educator. ... Rudolf Kolisch (July 20, 1896 - August 1, 1978) was a Viennese violinist and leader of string quartets. ... Eduard Steuermann (June 18, 1892 - November 11, 1964) was an American pianist and composer of Polish birth. ... Hans Keller (1919-1985) was an Austrian-born British musician and writer who made significant contributions to musicology and music criticism, and invented the method of Wordless Functional Analysis (in which a work is analysed in musical sound alone, without any words being heard or read). ... René Leibowitz (February 17, 1913 – August 29, 1972) was a French composer, conductor, music theorist and teacher born in Warsaw, Poland. ...


Schoenberg was not fond of Igor Stravinsky, and in 1926 wrote a poem titled "Der neue Klassizismus" (in which he derogates Neoclassicism and obliquely refers to Stravinsky as "Der kleine Modernsky"), which he used as text for the third of his Drei Satiren, op. 28 (H. C. Schonberg 1970, 503). Igor Stravinsky. ... For the subgenre of darkwave, see Neoclassical (Dark Wave). ...


Extramusical interests

Schoenberg was also a painter of considerable ability, whose pictures were considered good enough to exhibit alongside those of Franz Marc and Wassily Kandinsky (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 142). He was also interested in Hopalong Cassidy films, which Paul Buhle and David Wagner (2002, v–vii) attribute to the films' left-wing screenwriters—a rather odd claim in light of Schoenberg's statement that he was a bourgeois turned monarchist (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 551–52). Franz Marc (February 8, 1880 – March 4, 1916) was one of the principal painters and printmakers of the German Expressionist movement. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... This is a chronological filmography of all films featuring the character Hopalong Cassidy, always played by actor William Boyd, annotated with film producer / film distributor. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Screenwriters, or script writers, are authors who write the screenplays from which movies are made. ...


Works

See also: Category:Compositions by Arnold Schoenberg

Complete list of compositions with opus numbers

  • 2 Gesänge [2 Songs] for baritone, op. 1 (1898)
  • 4 Lieder [4 Songs], op. 2 (1899)
  • 6 Lieder [6 Songs], op. 3 (1899/1903)
  • Verklärte Nacht [Transfigured night], op. 4 (1899)
  • Pelleas und Melisande, op. 5 (1902/03)
  • 8 Lieder [8 Songs] for soprano, op. 6 (1903/05)
  • String Quartet no. 1, D minor, op. 7 (1904/05)
  • 6 Lieder [6 Songs] with orchestra, op. 8 (1903/05)
  • Kammersymphonie [Chamber symphony] no. 1, E major, op. 9 (1906)
  • String Quartet no. 2, F-sharp minor (with Soprano), op. 10 (1907/08)
  • Drei Klavierstücke, op. 11 (1909)
  • 2 Balladen [2 Ballads], op. 12 (1906)
  • Friede auf Erden [Peace on earth], op. 13 (1907)
  • 2 Lieder [2 Songs], op. 14 (1907/08)
  • 15 Gedichte aus Das Buch der hängenden Gärten [15 Poems from The book of the hanging gardens] by Stefan George, op. 15 (1908/09)
  • Fünf Orchesterstücke [5 Pieces for Orchestra], op. 16 (1909)
  • Erwartung [Expectation] for Soprano and Orchestra, op. 17 (1909)
  • Die glückliche Hand [The lucky hand] for Chorus and Orchestra, op. 18 (1910/13)
  • Sechs Kleine Klavierstücke [6 Little piano pieces], op. 19 (1911)
  • Herzgewächse [Foliage of the heart] for Soprano, op. 20 (1911)
  • Pierrot lunaire, op. 21 (1912)
  • 4 Lieder [4 Songs] for Voice and Orchestra, op. 22 (1913/16)
  • 5 Stücke [5 Pieces] for Piano, op. 23 (1920/23)
  • Serenade, op. 24 (1920/23)
  • Suite for Piano, op. 25 (1921/23)
  • Wind Quintet, op. 26 (1924)
  • 4 Stücke [4 Pieces], op. 27 (1925)
  • 3 Satiren [3 Satires], op. 28 (1925/26)
  • Suite, op. 29 (1925)
  • String Quartet no. 3, op. 30 (1927)
  • Variations for Orchestra, op. 31 (1926/28)
  • Von heute auf morgen [From today to tomorrow] opera in one act, op. 32 (1928)
  • 2 Stücke [2 Pieces] for Piano, op. 33a (1928) & 33b (1931)
  • Begleitmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene [Accompanying music to a film scene], op. 34 (1930)
  • 6 Stücke [6 Pieces] for Male Chorus, op. 35 (1930)
  • Violin Concerto, op. 36 (1934/36)
  • String Quartet No. 4, op. 37 (1936)
  • Kammersymphonie [Chamber symphony] no. 2, E-flat minor, op. 38 (1906/39)
  • Kol nidre for Chorus and Orchestra, op. 39 (1938)
  • Variations on a recitative for Organ, op. 40 (1941)
  • Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte for Voice, Piano and String Quartet, op. 41 (1942)
  • Piano Concerto, op. 42 (1942)
  • Theme and variations for Band, op. 43a (1943)
  • Theme and variations for Orchestra, op. 43b (1943)
  • Prelude to “Genesis” for Chorus and Orchestra, op. 44 (1945)
  • String Trio, op. 45 (1946)
  • A Survivor from Warsaw, op. 46 (1947)
  • Phantasy for Violin and Piano, op. 47 (1949)
  • 3 Songs, op. 48 (1933)
  • 3 Folksongs, op. 49 (1948)
  • Dreimal tausend Jahre [Three times a thousand years], op. 50a (1949)
  • Psalm 130 “De profundis”, op. 50b (1950)
  • Modern psalm, op. 50c (1950, unfinished)

Verklärte Nacht, Op. ... Pelleas und Melisande, Symphonic Poem for orchestra, is dodecaphonic composer Arnold Schoenbergs first orchestral work. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... Drei Klavierstücke, Op. ... Stefan George (1910) Stefan George (Bingen, Hesse, July 12, 1868 – Locarno, December 4, 1933) was a German poet and translator. ... Five Pieces for Orchestra (Fünf Orchesterstücke, Op. ... Erwartung (translation: Expectation) is an opera, composed in 1909 by the Viennese composer Arnold Schoenberg. ... Die glückliche Hand (Op. ... Sechs Kleine Klavierstücke, Op. ... Dreimal sieben Gedichte aus Albert Girauds Pierrot lunaire, (three times seven poems from Albert Girauds Pierrot lunaire), commonly known as Pierrot Lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot or Pierrot in the moonlight), Op. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... Von heute auf morgen (From Today to Tomorrow) is an one act opera composed by Arnold Schoenberg, to a German libretto by Max Blonda, the pseudonym of Gertrud Schoenberg, the composers wife. ... The Violin Concerto by Arnold Schoenberg dates from Schoenbergs time in the United States of America, where he had moved in 1933 to escape the Nazis. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... Arnold Schoenbergs Piano Concerto, Op. ... A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. ...

Works by genre

Operas

  • Erwartung [Expectation] for Soprano and Orchestra, op. 17 (1909)
  • Die glückliche Hand [The lucky hand] for Chorus and Orchestra, op. 18 (1910/13)
  • Von heute auf morgen [From today to tomorrow] opera in one act, op. 32 (1928)
  • Moses und Aron [Moses and Aron] (1930/32, unfinished)

Erwartung (translation: Expectation) is an opera, composed in 1909 by the Viennese composer Arnold Schoenberg. ... Die glückliche Hand (Op. ... Von heute auf morgen (From Today to Tomorrow) is an one act opera composed by Arnold Schoenberg, to a German libretto by Max Blonda, the pseudonym of Gertrud Schoenberg, the composers wife. ... Moses und Aron (Moses and Aaron) is a two-act opera by Arnold Schoenberg with a third act unfinished. ...

Choral works

  • Friede auf Erden [Peace on earth], op. 13 (1907)
  • 3 Satiren [3 Satires], op. 28 (1925/26)
  • 6 Stücke [6 Pieces] for Male Chorus, op. 35 (1930)
  • Kol nidre for Chorus and Orchestra, op. 39 (1938)
  • Prelude to “Genesis” for Chorus and Orchestra, op. 44 (1945)
  • String Trio, op. 45 (1946)
  • A Survivor from Warsaw, op. 46 (1947)
  • 3 Folksongs, op. 49 (1948)
  • Dreimal tausend Jahre [Three times a thousand years], op. 50a (1949)
  • Psalm 130 “De profundis”, op. 50b (1950)
  • Modern psalm, op. 50c (1950, unfinished)

A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. ...

Unpublished:
  • Ei, du Lütte [Oh, you little one] (late 1890s)
  • Gurre-Lieder [Songs of Gurre] (1901/11)
  • 3 Volksliedsätze [3 Folksong movements] (1929)
  • Die Jakobsleiter [Jacob’s ladder] (1917/22, unfinished)

The Gurre-Lieder form a massive oratorio for 5 soloists, reciter, chorus and orchestra, composed by Arnold Schoenberg, on poem texts by Danish novelist Jens Peter Jacobsen (translated from Danish to German by Robert Franz Arnold). ...

Orchestral works

  • Cello Concerto “after Monn’s Concerto in D major for harpsichord” (1932/33)
  • Concerto “freely adapted from Handel’s Concerto grosso in B-flat major, op.6, no.7” (1933)
  • Suite, G major, for string orchestra (1934)

Chamber works

  • untitled work in D minor for Violin and Piano (unknown year)
  • Presto, in C major for String Quartet (1894(?))
  • String Quartet, in D major (1897)
  • Scherzo, in F major, and Trio in a minor for String Quartet, rejected from D major String Quartet (1897)
  • Verklärte Nacht [Transfigured night] (string sextet), op. 4 (1899)
  • String Quartet no. 1, D minor, op. 7 (1904/05)
  • String Quartet no. 2, F-sharp minor (with Soprano), op. 10 (1907/08)
  • Die eiserne Brigade [The iron brigade] for Piano Quintet (1916)
  • Serenade for seven players, op. 24 (1920/23)
  • Weihnachtsmusik [Christmas music] for two Violins, Cello, Harmonium, and Piano (1921)
  • Wind Quintet, op. 26 (1924)
  • Suite for Three clarinets (E-flat, B-flat, and Bass), Violin, Viola, Violoncello and Piano, op. 29 (1925) (with ossia flute and bassoon parts substituting for E-flat and Bass clarinet)
  • String Quartet no. 3, op. 30 (1927)
  • String Quartet No. 4, op. 37 (1936)
  • Fanfare on motifs of Die Gurre-Lieder (11 Brass instruments and Percussion) (1945)
  • String Trio, op. 45 (1946)
  • Phantasy for Violin and Piano, op. 47 (1949)

Verklärte Nacht, Op. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ... The Austrian composer Arnold Schönberg published four string quartets, distributed over his lifetime. ...

Fragments
  • Ein Stelldichein [A rendezvous] for Mixed Quintet (1905)
  • Sonata for Violin and Piano (1927) (a 43-bar fragment)

Songs

  • 2 Gesänge [2 Songs] for baritone, op. 1 (1898)
  • 4 Lieder [4 Songs], op. 2 (1899)
  • 6 Lieder [6 Songs], op. 3 (1899/1903)
  • 8 Lieder [8 Songs] for soprano, op. 6 (1903/05)
  • 6 Lieder [6 Songs] with orchestra, op. 8 (1903/05)
  • 2 Balladen [2 Ballads], op. 12 (1906)
  • 2 Lieder [2 Songs], op. 14 (1907/08)
  • 15 Gedichte aus Das Buch der hängenden Gärten [15 Poems from The book of the hanging gardens] by Stefan George, op. 15 (1908/09)
  • Herzgewächse [Foliage of the heart] for High Soprano (with harp, celesta & harmonium) op. 20 (1911)
  • Pierrot lunaire, op. 21 (1912) (reciter with 5 instruments)
  • 4 Lieder [4 Songs] for Voice and Orchestra, op. 22 (1913/16)
  • Petrarch-Sonnet from Serenade, op. 24 (1920/23) (bass with 7 instruments)
  • Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte for Voice, Piano and String Quartet, op. 41 (1942)
  • 3 Songs, op. 48 (1933)

Stefan George (1910) Stefan George (Bingen, Hesse, July 12, 1868 – Locarno, December 4, 1933) was a German poet and translator. ... Dreimal sieben Gedichte aus Albert Girauds Pierrot lunaire, (three times seven poems from Albert Girauds Pierrot lunaire), commonly known as Pierrot Lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot or Pierrot in the moonlight), Op. ...

unpublished:
  • Am Strande [At the seashore] (1909)
  • Die Beiden (Sie trug den Becher in der Hand) [The two (She carried the goblet in her hand)] (1899)
  • 8 Brettllieder [8 Cabaret songs] (1901)
  • Deinem Blick mich zu bequemen [To submit to your sweet glance] (1903)
  • 4 Deutsche Volkslieder [4 German folksongs] (1929)
  • Ecloge (Duftreich ist die Erde) [Eclogue (Fragrant is the earth)] (1896/97)
  • Gedenken (Es steht sein Bild noch immer da) [Remembrance (His picture is still there)] (1893/1903?)
  • Gruss in die Ferne (Dunkelnd über den See) [Hail from afar (Darkened over the sea)] (Aug 1900)
  • In hellen Träumen hab’ ich dich oft geschaut [In vivid dreams so oft you appeared to me] (1893)
  • 12 erste Lieder [12 First songs] (1893/96)
  • Mädchenfrühling (Aprilwind, alle Knospen) [Maiden’s spring (April wind, all abud)] (1897)
  • Mädchenlied (Sang ein Bettlerpärlein am Schenkentor) [Maiden’s song (A pair of beggars sang at the giving gate)] (1897/1900)
  • Mailied (Zwischen Weizen und Korn) [May song (Between wheat and grain)]
  • Mannesbangen (Du musst nicht meinen) [Men’s worries (You should not...)] (1899)
  • Nicht doch! (Mädel, lass das Stricken [But no! (Girl, stop knitting)] (1897)
  • Ein Schilflied (Drüben geht die Sonne scheiden) [A bulrush song (Yonder is the sun departing)] (1893)
  • Waldesnacht, du wunderkühle [Forest night, so wondrous cool] (1894/96)
  • Warum bist du aufgewacht [Why have you awakened] (1893/94)

Keyboard works

  • Drei Klavierstücke [3 Pieces] (1894)
  • 6 Stücke [6 Pieces] for 4 hands (1896)
  • Scherzo (Gesamtausgabe fragment 1) (ca. 1894)
  • Leicht, mit einiger Unruhe [Lightly with some restlessness], C-sharp minor (Gesamtausgabe fragment 2) (ca. 1900)
  • Langsam [Slowly], A-flat major (Gesamtausgabe fragment 3) (1900/01)
  • Wenig bewegt, sehr zart [Calmly, very gentle], B-flat major (Gesamtausgabe fragment 4) (1905/06)
  • 2 Stücke [2 Pieces] (Gesamtausgabe fragments 5a & 5b) (1909)
  • Stück [Piece] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 6) (1909)
  • Stück [Piece] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 7) (1909)
  • Stück [Piece] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 8) (ca. 1910)
  • Mäßig, aber sehr ausdrucksvoll [Measured, but very expressive] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 9) (March 1918)
  • Langsam [Slowly] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 10) (Summer 1920)
  • Stück [Piece] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 11) (Summer 1920)
  • Langsame Halbe [Slow half-notes], B (Gesamtausgabe fragment 12) (1925)
  • Quarter note = mm. 80 (Gesamtausgabe fragment 13) (February 1931)
  • Sehr rasch; Adagio [Very fast; Slowly] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 14) (July 1931)
  • Andante (Gesamtausgabe fragment 15) (10 October 1931)
  • Piece (Gesamtausgabe fragment 16) (after October 1933)
  • Moderato (Gesamtausgabe fragment 17) (April 1934?)
  • Organ Sonata (fragments) (1941)

Canons

  • O daß der Sinnen doch so viele sind! [Oh, the senses are too numerous!] (Bärenreiter I) (April? 1905) (4 voices)
  • Wenn der schwer Gedrückte klagt [When the sore oppressed complains] (Bärenreiter II) (April? 1905) (4 voices)
  • Wer mit der Welt laufen will [He who wants to run with the world] (for David Bach) (Bärenreiter XXI) (March 1926; July 1934) (3 voices)
  • Canon (Bärenreiter IV) (April 1926) (4 voices)
  • Von meinen Steinen [From my stones] (for Erwin Stein) (Bärenreiter V) (December 1926) (4 voices)
  • Arnold Schönberg beglückwünschst herzlichst Concert Gebouw [Arnold Schoenberg congratulates the Concert Gebouw affectionately] (Bärenreiter VI) (March 1928) (5 voices)
  • Mirror canon with two free middle voices, A major (Bärenreiter VIII) (April 1931) (4 voices)
  • Jedem geht es so [No man can escape] (for Carl Engel) (Bärenreiter XIII) (April 1933; text 1943) (3 voices)
  • Mir auch ist es so ergangen [I, too, was not better off] (for Carl Engel) (Bärenreiter XIV) (April 1933; text 1943) (3 voices)
  • Perpetual canon, A minor (Bärenreiter XV) (1933) (4 voices)
  • Mirror canon, A minor (Bärenreiter XVI) (1933) (4 voices)
  • Es ist zu dumm [It is too dumb] (for Rudolph Ganz) (Bärenreiter XXII) (September 1934) (4 voices)
  • Man mag über Schönberg denken, wie man will [One might think about Schoenberg any way one wants to] (for Charlotte Dieterle) (Bärenreiter XXIII) (1935) (4 voices)
  • Double canon (Bärenreiter XXV) (1938) (4 voices)
  • Mr. Saunders I owe you thanks (for Richard Drake Saunders) (Bärenreiter XXVI) (December 1939) (4 voices)
  • I am almost sure, when your nurse will change your diapers (for Artur Rodzinsky on the birth of his son Richard) (Bärenreiter XXVIII) (March 1945) (4 voices)
  • Canon for Thomas Mann on his 70th birthday (Bärenreiter XXIX) (June 1945) (2 violins, viola, violoncello)
  • Gravitationszentrum eigenen Sonnensystems [You are the center of gravity of your own solar system] (Bärenreiter XXX) (August 1949) (4 voices)

Transcriptions and arrangements

  • Bach: Chorale prelude Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele [Deck thyself, oh dear soul], BWV 654 (arr. 1922: orchestra)
  • Bach: Chorale prelude Komm, Gott, Schöpfer, heiliger Geist [Come, God, Creator, Holy ghost], BWV 631 (arr. 1922: orchestra)
  • Bach: Prelude and fugue in E-flat major “St Anne”, BWV 552 (arr. 1928: orchestra)
  • Brahms: Piano quartet in G minor, Op. 25 (arr. 1937: orchestra)
  • Denza: Funiculì, Funiculà (arr. 1921: voice, clarinet, mandolin, guitar, violin, viola, violoncello)
  • Mahler: Das Lied von der Erde [The Song of the Earth] (arr. Arnold Schoenberg & Anton Webern, 1921; completed by Rainer Riehn, 1983: soprano, flute & piccolo, oboe & English horn, clarinet, bassoon & contrabassoon, horn, harmonium, piano, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, double bass)
  • Mahler: Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen [Songs of a Wayfarer] (arr. Arnold Schoenberg, 1920: voice, flute, clarinet, harmonium, piano, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, double bass, percussion)
  • Monn: Concerto for cello in G minor, transcribed and adapted from Monn’s Concerto for harpsichord (1932/33)
  • Reger: Eine romantische Suite [A Romantic Suite], Op. 125 (arr. Arnold Schoenberg & Rudolf Kolisch, 1919/1920: flute, clarinet, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, harmonium for 4 hands, piano for 4 hands)
  • Schubert: Rosamunde, Fürstin von Zypern Incidental music, D. 797 (arr. Arnold Schoenberg, 1903?: piano for 4 hands)
  • Schubert: Ständchen [Serenade], D. 889 (arr. Arnold Schoenberg (1921) (voice, clarinet, bassoon, mandolin, guitar, 2 violins, viola, violoncello))
  • Sioly: Weil i a alter Drahrer bin [For I’m a real old gadabout] (arr. 1921: clarinet, mandolin, guitar, violin, viola, violoncello)
  • Johann Strauss II: Kaiser-Walzer [Emperor Waltz], Op. 437 (arr. 1925: flute, clarinet, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, piano)
  • Johann Strauss II: Rosen aus dem Süden [Roses from the South], Op. 388 (arr. 1921: harmonium, piano, 2 violins, viola, violoncello)

In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ... Luigi Denza (February 24, 1846 - January 26, 1922), was an Italian composer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mahler refers to: Alma Maria Mahler-Werfel, or Alma Maria Schindler-Mahler Anna Mahler Arthur Mahler, Austrian archeologist Bruce Mahler, actor David Mahler, composer Eduard Mahler, Austrian astronomer; born in Hungary Gustav Mahler, Bohemian-Austrian composer and conductor Halfdan T. Mahler, Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) from... Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) is particularly interesting among Gustav Mahlers symphonic works. ... Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Songs of a Travelling Journeyman, often mistranslated as Songs of a Wayfarer) is Gustav Mahlers first song cycle. ... Matthias Georg Monn (sometimes Mann) (April 9, 1717, Vienna - October 3, 1750, Vienna) was an Austrian composer, organist and music teacher. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Max Reger. ... For the crater on the moon, see Schubert (crater) Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828), was an Austrian composer. ... Rosamunde can refer to: The German name for the Beer Barrel Polka Incidental music composed by Franz Schubert to a play with the same name, see Rosamunde (Schubert) (and String Quartet No. ... Schwanengesang (Swan song) is the title of a posthumous collection of songs by Franz Schubert. ... Johann Strauss II The Waltz King coming to life in the Stadtpark, Vienna Johann Strauss II (in German: Johann Strauß (Sohn), Johann Strauss (son); in English also Johann Strauss the Younger, Johann Strauss Jr. ... Kaiser-Walzer op. ... Rosen aus dem Süden (Roses from the South) op. ...

Quotes

  • "My music is not modern, it is merely badly played."
  • "My works are 12-tone compositions, not 12-tone compositions" (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 349).
  • "I was never revolutionary. The only revolutionary in our time was Strauss!" (Schoenberg 1975, 137)

This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ...

References

  • Adorno, Theodor. 1967. Prisms, translated from the German by Samuel and Shierry Weber London: Spearman; Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Beaumont, Antony. 2000. Zemlinsky. London: Faber. ISBN 057116983X Ithaca:Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801438035.
  • Buhle, Pal, and David Wagner. 2002. Radical Hollywood: The Untold Story Behind America's Favorite Movies. New York: The New Press. ISBN 1565848195
  • Haimo, Ethan. 1990. Schoenberg's Serial Odyssey: The Evolution of his Twelve-Tone Method, 1914-1928. Oxford [England] : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-3152-60-6.
  • Lebrecht, Norman. 1985. The Book of Musical Anecdotes. New York: Simon and Schuster; London: Sphere Books. ISBN 0029187109
  • Lebrecht, Norman. 2001. "Why We're Still Afraid of Schoenberg". The Lebrecht Weekly (July 8): [pp.?]
  • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1959. Structural Functions of Harmony. Translated by Leonard Stein. London: Williams and Norgate Revised edition, New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company 1969. ISBN 0-393-00478-3.
  • Rosen, Charles. 1975. Arnold Schoenberg. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0670133167 (pbk) ISBN 0670019860 (cloth). Reprinted 1996, with a new preface. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226726436
  • Schonberg, Harold C. 1970. The Lives of the Great Composers. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0393021467 (Revised ed., New York: W. W. Norton, 1980. ISBN 0393013022 Third ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997. ISBN 0393038572)
  • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1922. Harmonielehre. Third edition. Vienna: Universal Edition. (Originally published 1911). Translation by Roy E. Carter, based on the third ed., as Theory of Harmony. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978. ISBN 0-520-04945-4.
  • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1967. Fundamentals of Musical Composition. Edited by Gerald Strang, with an introduction by Leonard Stein. New York: St. Martin's Press. Reprinted 1985, London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571092764
  • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1975. Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg. Edited by Leonard Stein, with translations by Leo Black. New York: St. Martins Press; London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-520-05294-3. Expanded from the 1950 Philosophical Library (New York) publication edited by Dika Newlin. The volume carries the note "Several of the essays...were originally written in German (translated by Dika Newlin)" in both editions.
  • Stuckenschmidt, Hans Heinz. 1977. Schoenberg: His Life, World and Work. Translated from the German by Humphrey Searle. New York: Schirmer Books.
  • Worldspace Radio. 2007. Maestro "Concert Hall Presentation". 13 July 2007; Featured piece.[citation needed]

Dika Newlin Dika Newlin (November 22, 1923—July 22, 2006) was a pianist, professor, composer and punk rock singer. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

  • Auner, Joseph. 1993. A Schoenberg Reader. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09540-6.
  • Brand, Julianne, Christopher Hailey, and Donald Harris (editors). 1987. The Berg-Schoenberg Correspondence: Selected Letters. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-01919-5.
  • Byron, Avior. 2006. 'The Test Pressings of Schoenberg Conducting Pierrot lunaire: Sprechstimme Reconsidered', Music Theory Online, Volume 12, Number 1, February 2006. http://www.societymusictheory.org/mto/issues/mto.06.12.1/mto.06.12.1.byron_frames.html
  • Hyde, Martha. 1982. Schoenberg's Twelve-Tone Harmony. Ann Arbor. Described as a "prominent study" by Haimo (1990).
  • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1964. Preliminary Exercises in Counterpoint. Edited with a foreword by Leonard Stein. New York, St. Martin's Press. Reprinted, Los Angeles: Belmont Music Publishers 2003.
  • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1979. Die Grundlagen der musikalischen Komposition. Ins Deutsche übertragen von Rudolf Kolisch; hrsg. von Rudolf Stephan. Vienna: Universal Edition (German translation of Fundamentals of Musical Composition).
  • Shawn, Allen. 2002. Arnold Schoenberg's Journey. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-10590-1.
  • Weiss, Adolph. 1932. "The Lyceum of Schonberg", Modern Music 9, no. 3 (March-April): 99-107.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Schoenberg, Arnold
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Schönberg, Arnold
SHORT DESCRIPTION Austrian-American composer
DATE OF BIRTH September 13, 1874
PLACE OF BIRTH Leopoldstadt, Vienna, Austria
DATE OF DEATH July 13, 1951
PLACE OF DEATH United States

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Haidgasse in Leopoldstadt The Volksprater amusement park in the Wiener Prater The Hauptallee in the Prater Leopoldstadt (Leopold-Town) is Viennas second district. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arnold Schoenberg Biography - famous Arnold Schoenberg Classical collection and Arnold Schoenberg Music Reviews. (506 words)
Schoenberg's earlier compositions are post-romantic in character, followed by a period in which he developed his theories of atonality, music without a key or tonal centre.
Schoenberg's most important opera is Moses und Aron, of which he completed only two of the three acts.
In addition to four string quartets and a late string trio, Schoenberg's post-romantic Verklärte Nacht of 1899 is particularly noteworthy.
The Music Chamber - Arnold Schoenberg (995 words)
Schoenberg would be known as the inventor of atonalism and the ravisher of the listener's ears.
Arnold Schoenberg was born in Vienna on September 13th,1874 as son of the merchant Samuel Schoenberg and his wife Pauline.
The legendary "scandal concert" of 1908, where his String Quartet #2, op.10 and the chamber symphony (op.9) were performed for the first time, was received with a lack of understanding by the press and with vociferous protests by the public.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m