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Encyclopedia > Army of the Republic of Vietnam

The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). Just after the end of the Vietnam War, after the fall of Saigon, it was dissolved, and while some fled to the US, hundreds of thousands of its members were sent to reeducation camps by the communist government. Fair Use confirmed from http://www. ... National motto: ??? Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809km² N/A population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Nguyen Van Toan Strength ~130,000 ~50,000 Casualties Trivial Unknown The Fall of Saigon (in Vietnamese: Sá»± kiện 30 tháng 4, or April 30 Incident) was the... Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official name given to the prison camps operated by the government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...

Contents

VNA (1949-1955)

The TDND 5 airborne unit fought several battles including Dien Bien Phu.
The TDND 5 airborne unit fought several battles including Dien Bien Phu.

On March 8, 1949, after the Elysee accords the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by Annam Emperor Bao Dai and the Vietnamese National Army was soon created. The VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the communist Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including but not limited to the battle of Na San (1952), the operation Atlas (1953) or the battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954).[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân Ä‘á»™i Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân Ä‘á»™i Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Elysee Accords were an agreement made in 1949 which would give Vietnam greater independence from France. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) 1949-1954 borders Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Head of State¹ Emperor Bảo Đại Prime minister Ngo Dinh Diem Historical era Cold War  - Independence declared (from France) June 14, 1949  - Recognised 1954  - Disestablished October 26... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân Ä‘á»™i Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Viet Minh Commanders Raoul Salan Robert Gilles Louis Berteil Marcel Bigeard Vo Nguyen Giap Strength - - Casualties - 3,000 casualties The Battle of Na San (French: bataille de Na San) was fought between French Union forces and the communist forces of the Viet Minh... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195...


Benefiting with French assistance the VNA quickly became a modern army modelled after the Expeditionary Corps. It included infantry, artillery, transmission, armored cavalry, airborne, airforce, navy and even a national military academy. By 1953 troopers as well as officers were all Vietnamese, the latter having been trained in Ecoles des Cadres such as Dalat, including Chief of Staff General Nguyen Van Hinh which was a French Union airforce veteran. Dalat (pop. ... Nguyen Van Hinh was appointed the Vietnamese National Army Chief of State by Emperor Bao Dai. ...


After the 1954 Geneva agreements, the French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrewn from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French...


ARVN (1955-1975)

On October 26, 1956, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngo Dinh Diem who then established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. The air force was known as the VNAF. Early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front (NLF), a shadow government formed to oppose the Diem administration. The United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors and a great deal of financial support to aid ARVN in combating the Communist insurgents. A major campaign, developed by Ngo Dinh Nhu and later resurrected under another name was the "Strategic Hamlet Program" which was regarded as unsuccessful by western media because it was "inhumane" to move villagers from the countryside to fortified villages. Later historians however, argue it did a good job in stopping the Vietcong insurgents[citations needed]. ARVN and President Diem began to be criticized by the foreign press when the troops were used to crush armed anti-government religious groups like the Cao Dai and Hoa Hao as well as to raid Buddhist temples, which according to Diem, were harboring Communist guerrillas. Diem also crushed the armed forces of the Binh Xuyen crime syndicate, which were supported by the French[citations needed].   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... This is an article for the former air force of the now defunct South Vietnam. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... National Liberation Front (NLF) flag The National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tá»™c Giải Phóng Miền Nam), also known as the Viet Cong (VC), the National Liberation Front (NLF), and as the Front National de Liberté (FNL... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Ngô Ðình Nhu Ngô Ðình Nhu  , born in Vietnam, was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first President, Ngô Ðình Diệm. ... The Strategic Hamlet Program was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the nationalist insurgency by means of population transfer. ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Hòa Hảo (Chu Nom: 和好) is a Buddhist religious tradition founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Binh Xuyen was a powerful Vietnamese criminal organization. ... The Crime Syndicate of America, also known as CSA and Crime Syndicate of Amerika, is a fictional team of supervillains from one of DC Comics parallel universes, and are the evil counterparts of the Justice League of America. ...


In 1963 Ngo Dinh Diem was killed in a coup d'état carried out by ARVN officers, supported by the CIA. In the confusion that followed, General Duong Van Minh took control, but was only the first in a succession of ARVN generals to assume the presidency of South Vietnam. During these years, the United States began taking full control of the war against the communist NLF and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant. They were also plagued by continuing problems of severe corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the U.S. was highly critical of them, the ARVN continued to be entirely U.S. armed and funded.   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... On November 1, 1963, President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam was deposed in a CIA-backed coup detat led by Duong Van Minh. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ...

South Vietnamese M-48 during military parade

Although the US media has often portrayed the Vietnam war as an exclusively American vs Vietnamese conflict, the ARVN carried the brunt of the fight before and after large-scale US involvement, and participated in many major operations with American troops. An estimated 250,000 South Vietnamese troops died, while around 58,000 U.S. troops were killed during the war. Image File history File links QLVNCH_M-48b. ... Image File history File links QLVNCH_M-48b. ...

Final campaigns

Starting in 1969 President Richard Nixon started the process of "Vietnamization", pulling out American forces and rendering the ARVN capable of fighting an effective war against the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) of the North (Also called NVA for North Vietnamese Army) and the allied National Liberation Front. Slowly, ARVN began to expand from its counter-insurgency role to become the primary ground defense against the NLF and PAVN. From 1969-1971 there were about 22 000 ARVN combat deaths per year. Starting in 1968, South Vietnam began calling up every available man for service in the ARVN, reaching a strength of a million soldiers by 1972. In 1970 they performed well in the Cambodian Incursion and were executing three times as many operations as they had during the American war period. However, the ARVN equipment continued to be of lower standards than their American and South Korean allies, even as the U.S. tried to upgrade ARVN technology. But the officer corps was still the biggest problem. Leaders were too often poorly trained, corrupt, lacking morale and inept. Nixon redirects here. ... The Peoples Army of Vietnam (PAVN) is the term used by the Vietnamese for their armed forces. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Lu Lan (ARVN, II Corps), Do Cao Tri (ARVN, III Corps), Nguyen Viet Thanh (ARVN, IV Corps), Creighton W. Abrams (U.S.) Pham Hung (political), Hoang Van Thai (military) Strength 58... For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ...


However, forced to carry the burden left by the Americans, the South Vietnamese army actually started to perform rather well and in 1970 was clearly winning the war against the Communists, though with continued American air support. The exhaustion of the North was becoming evident and the Paris talks gave some hope of a negotiated peace if not a victory.


In 1972, General Vo Nguyen Giap launched the "Easter Offensive", the first all out invasion of South Vietnam by the Communist North. The assault combined infantry wave assaults, artillery and the first massive use of tanks by the North Vietnamese. The ARVN took heavy losses, but managed to hold on and stand their ground. The Communists took Quang Tri province and some areas along the Lao and Khmer borders. General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ... Quang Tri Province is a region and province in central Vietnam near (north) the ancient capital of Huế. Categories: Southeast Asia geography stubs ... For the 1981 song by British singer Kim Wilde, see Cambodia (song) . Motto:  Nation, Religion, King Anthem: Nokoreach Capital (and largest city) Phnom Penh Official languages Khmer Demonym Cambodian Government Constitutional monarchy  -  King Norodom Sihamoni  -  Prime Minister Hun Sen Independence  -  from France November 9, 1953  Area  -  Total 181,035 km...


President Richard Nixon dispatched more bombers to provide air support for the ARVN when it seemed that South Vietnam was about to be overrun. In desperation, President Nguyen Van Thieu fired the incompetent General Lam and replaced him with General Ngo Quang Truong. He gave the order that all deserters would be executed and pulled enough forces together so that the North Vietnamese army failed to take Hue. Finally, with considerable U.S. air and naval support, as well hard fighting by the ARVN soldiers, the Easter Offensive was halted. ARVN forces counter-attacked and ultimately succeeded in driving the NVA out of South Vietnam, though they did retain control of northern Quang Tri province near the DMZ. Nixon redirects here. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... General Ngô Quang Trưởng General Ngô Quang Trưởng was born in 1933, Vietnam. ... Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ...


By 1973 and 1974 the United States had almost completely retreated from Vietnam and the ARVN was left to fight alone, though with massive technological support, having roughly four times as many heavy weapons as their enemies. These figures are deceptive, however, as U.S. aid was continuously cut while at the same time the North Vietnamese were given more and more Soviet and Chinese support. CCCP redirects here. ...


In the fall of 1974, Nixon resigned under the pressure of the Watergate scandal and was succeeded by Gerald Ford. Congress cut funding to South Vietnam for the upcoming fiscal year from 1 billion to 700 million dollars. Historians have directly attributed the fall of Saigon in 1975 to the cessation of American aid. Without the necessary funds, South Vietnam found it logistically and financially hard to defeat the North Vietnamese army. Moreover, the withdrawal of aid encouraged North Vietnam to begin an effective military offensive against South Vietnam. This was strengthened by the fact that Nixon had promised Thieu a "severe retaliation" if the Communists broke the 1973 Paris Peace Accords. The new American administration did not think itself bound to this promise. Watergate redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ...


The U.S. had provided the ARVN with 640 000 M-16 rifles, 34 000 M79 grenade launchers, 40 000 radios, 20 000 quarter-ton trucks and 56 M48 tanks. The air force had 200 A1, A-37 ground attack aircraft and F-5 fighters, 30 AC-47 gunships and 600 transport, training and reconnaissance aircraft. The army also had 500 helicopters (the U.S. fighting force had more than 3000 in 1969). Despite such impressive figures, the Vietnamese were not as well equipped as the G.I.s they replaced, and still were severely outnumbered by the NVA, which had the world's fifth largest army in 1975. M16 (more formally United States Rifle, Caliber 5. ... The M79 grenade launcher is a single-shot, shoulder-fired, break open grenade launcher which fires a 40 x46 mm grenade and first appeared during the Vietnam War. ... The M48 Patton was one of the U.S armys principal main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the early 1950s to the 1990s. ... The Douglas A-1 (formerly AD) Skyraider was a U.S. single-seat attack bomber of the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s. ... T-37s in formation One of the most prominent of the trainer-attack type aircraft is the Cessna T-37/A-37, known in various forms as the Tweety Bird, Tweet, Dragonfly, or Super Tweet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The F-5 Freedom Fighter (or Tiger II) is a low cost entry level supersonic fighter aircraft, designed and built by Northrop in the United States, beginning in 1962. ... The Douglas AC-47 Spooky was the first in a series of gunships developed by the United States Air Force during the Vietnam War. ... A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ...


Notable ARVN generals

Vietnam War memorial commemorating American and South Vietnamese soldiers in Westminster, California

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1596 KB) en: Vietnam War Memorial in Westminster, California, where there is a heavy presence of Vietnamese Americans vi: Tượng đài Chiến tranh Việt Nam ở Westminster, California, nÆ¡i có nhiều người Mỹ gốc... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1596 KB) en: Vietnam War Memorial in Westminster, California, where there is a heavy presence of Vietnamese Americans vi: Tượng đài Chiến tranh Việt Nam ở Westminster, California, nÆ¡i có nhiều người Mỹ gốc... Location of Westminster within Orange County, California. ... Lieutenant General Do Cao Tri questions a North Vietnamese prisoner in Cambodia during the incursion of 1970 Do Cao Tri (20 November]] 1929 - 23 February 1970 was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). ... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... General Ngô Quang Trưởng General Ngô Quang Trưởng was born in 1933, Vietnam. ... General Nguyen Viet Thanh General Nguyen Viet Thanh was born in 1931, Dalat, Vietnam. ... Nguyá»…n Cao Kỳ   (born 1930) is a Vietnamese politician, who served as Prime Minister of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1967, and then as Vice President until his retirement from politics in 1971. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... Nguyen Khanh Nguyen Khanh (1927-) was a former Chief of State and Prime minister of South Vietnam. ... General Nguyá»…n Văn Hiếu (阮文孝) was born in Tientsin, China and as a youngster, lived in Shanghai. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Nguyen Xuan Vinh (b. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Vietnamese National Army gallery (May 1951-June 1954) French Defense Ministry archives ECPAD

References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Army of the Republic of Vietnam - Biocrawler (1373 words)
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam).
On March 8, 1949, after the signing of the Elysee accord Vietnam was recognized as a independent country and its Army was built to fight side by side with the Armed Forces of France against the Communist forces lead by Ho Chi Minh.
Early on, the focus of the army was the Communist guerrillas of the Viet Cong, a shadow government formed to oppose the Diem administration.
Army of the Republic of Vietnam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1459 words)
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam).
On March 8, 1949, after the signing of the Elysee accord Vietnam was recognized as an independent country and its Army was built to fight side by side with the Armed Forces of France against the communist and nationalist Viet Minh forces lead by Ho Chi Minh.
Early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front (NLF), a shadow government formed to oppose the Diem administration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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