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Encyclopedia > Armstrong Siddeley
Armstrong Siddeley
Fate Merged with Hawker Aircraft (1935)

Merged with Bristol Aero Engines (1960) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hawker Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer responsible for some of the most famous products in British aviation history. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ...

Successor Bristol Siddeley
Founded 1919
Defunct 1960
Location Coventry
Industry Motor cars

Aircraft engines
Bristol Siddeley was a UK aero-engine manufacturer formed in 1959 from the merger of Bristol Aero Engines and Armstrong-Siddeley. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ...

Light engineering
Key people John Davenport Siddeley
Parent Armstrong Whitworth (1919 - 1927)
Subsidiary Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft (1927-1935)

Armstrong Siddeley was a British engineering group that operated during the first half of the 20th century. It was formed in 1919 and is best known for the production of luxury motor cars and aircraft engines. John Davenport Siddeley, Baron Kenilworth (August 5, 1866-November 3, 1956), was a captain of the automobile industry in the United Kingdom. ... Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

History

Siddeley Autocars

Siddeley Autocars, of Coventry, was founded by John Davenport Siddeley (1866-1953) in 1902. Its products were heavily based on Peugeots, using many of their parts but fitted with English-built bodies. This company merged with Wolseley in 1905 and made stately Wolseley-Siddeley motorcars. They were used by Queen Alexandra and the Duke of York, the later King Edward VII. For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... John Davenport Siddeley, Baron Kenilworth (August 5, 1866-November 3, 1956), was a captain of the automobile industry in the United Kingdom. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... The Wolseley Motor Company was an automobile manufacturer in the United Kingdom from 1905. ... Princess Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Carolina Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen Consort to Edward VII of the United Kingdom and thus Empress of India during her husbands reign. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ...


Siddeley-Deasy

Main article: Siddeley-Deasy

In 1909, J. D. Siddeley resigned from Wolseley and took over the Deasy Motor Co and the company became known as Siddeley-Deasy. In 1912 the cars used the slogan "As silent as the Sphinx" and started to sport a Sphinx [1] as a bonnet ornament, a symbol become synonymous with descendent companies. During World War I the company produced trucks, ambulances, and staff cars. In 1915 airframes and aero-engines started to be produced as well. Siddeley-Deasy (Deasy Motor Company before 1912) was a British automobile company based in Coventry in the early 20th century. ... Siddeley-Deasy (Deasy Motor Company before 1912) was a British automobile company based in Coventry in the early 20th century. ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Armstrong-Siddeley

In 1919 Siddeley-Deasy was bought out by Armstrong Whitworth Development Company of Newcastle upon Tyne and became the Armstrong Siddeley Motors subsidiary. In 1927, Armstrong Whitworth merged its heavy engineering interests with Vickers to form Vickers-Armstrongs. At this point, J. D. Siddeley bought Armstrong Siddeley and Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft into his control. In 1928, Siddeley partnered with Walter Gordon Wilson, inventor of the pre-selector gearbox, to create Improved Gears Ltd, which later became Self-Changing Gears. Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... Vickers, Limited was a famous British engineering conglomerate that merged into Vickers Armstrong in 1927. ... Vickers-Armstrongs, Limited was a British engineering conglomerate formed by the merger of the assets of Vickers Limited and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Company in 1927. ... Major Walter Gordon Wilson (1874-1957) was an engineer and member of the British Royal Naval Air Service. ... A preselector gearbox is a gearbox used on a variety of vehicles, more commonly until around the 1950s. ... Self-Changing Gears was a British company, set up and owned equally by Walter Gordon Wilson and John Davenport Siddeley to develop and exploit the Wilson or pre-selector gearbox. ...


Armstrong Siddeley manufactured luxury cars, and later, aircraft engines. In 1935, J. D. Siddeley's interests were purchased by Hawker Aircraft to form Hawker Siddeley, a famous name in British aircraft production. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft became a subsidiary of Hawker. The aviation pioneer Thomas Octave Murdoch - Tommy, later Sir Thomas, Sopwith - became chairman of Armstrong Siddeley Motors, a Hawker Siddeley subsidiary. Hawker Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer responsible for some of the most famous products in British aviation history. ... Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ... Sir Thomas Octave Murdock Sopwith (January 18, 1888 - January 27, 1989) was a British aviation pioneer as well as a celebrated yachtsman. ...


Armstrong Siddeley produced their last cars in 1960 and the aircraft engine business was merged with that of Bristol Aero Engines to form Bristol Siddeley as part of an ongoing rationalisation of the British aerospace sector. Bristol Siddeley and Rolls-Royce merged in 1966, the latter name subsuming the former. Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... Bristol Siddeley was a UK aero-engine manufacturer formed in 1959 from the merger of Bristol Aero Engines and Armstrong-Siddeley. ... Rolls-Royce Limited was a British car and aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Henry Royce and C.S. Rolls on 15 March 1906 and was the result of a partnership formed in 1904. ...


Products

Motor cars

1936 Armstrong Siddeley 12HP
1936 Armstrong Siddeley 12HP
right1939 Armstrong Siddeley 16HP
right1939 Armstrong Siddeley 16HP
Armstrong-Siddeley Hurricane Drophead Coupé 1946
Armstrong-Siddeley Hurricane Drophead Coupé 1946

The first car produced from the union was a fairly massive machine, a 5-litre 30hp; a smaller 18 appeared in 1922 and a 2-litre 14hp was introduced in 1923. 1928 saw the company's first 15hp six; 1929 saw the introduction of a 12hp vehicle. This was a pioneering year for the marque, during which it first offered the Wilson preselector gearbox as an optional extra; it became standard issue on all cars from 1933. In 1930 the company marketed four models, of 12, 15, 20, and 30hp, the latter costing £1450. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,007 × 716 pixels, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Armstrong Siddeley 12hp Probably 1936. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,007 × 716 pixels, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Armstrong Siddeley 12hp Probably 1936. ... 1939 Armstrong-Siddeley 16HP car seen at Kemble Air Show, Kemble, Gloucestershire, England. ... 1939 Armstrong-Siddeley 16HP car seen at Kemble Air Show, Kemble, Gloucestershire, England. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... Major Walter Gordon Wilson (1874-1957) was an engineer and member of the British Royal Naval Air Service. ... A preselector gearbox is a type of gearbox used on a variety of vehicles, more commonly until around the 1950s. ...


The company's rather staid image was endorsed during the 1930s by the introduction of a range of six-cylinder cars with ohv engines, though a four-cylinder 12hp was kept in production until 1936. In 1933 the 5-litre six-cylinder Siddeley Special was announced, featuring a Hiduminium (aluminum alloy) engine; this model cost £950. Car production continued at a reduced rate throughout 1940, and a few were assembled in 1941. In automotive engineering, an overhead valve internal combustion engine is one in which the entry and exit valves and ports are contained in the cylinder head. ... The straight-4 or inline-4 is an internal combustion engine with four cylinders aligned in one row. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ...


The week that World War II ended in Europe, Armstrong Siddeley introduced its first post-war models; these were the Lancaster four-door saloon and the Hurricane drophead coupe. The names of these models echoed the names of aircraft produced by the Hawker Siddeley Group (the name adopted by the company in 1935) during the war. These cars all used a 2-litre six-cylinder engines, increased to 2.3-litre engines in 1949. From 1953 the company produced the Sapphire, with a 3.4 litre six-cylinder engine. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ... Saab 900 Convertible Convertible can also refer to a convertible (security) A convertible is an automobile with a folding, retracting, or removable roof. ... 1995 Buick Riviera coupe A coupé (from the French for cut) or coupe is a two or four-seater car with a fixed roof and two doors. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ...


In 1956 the model range was expanded with the addition of the 234 (a 2.3-litre four cylinder) and the 236 (with the older 2.3 litre six-cylinder engine). The Sapphire 346 sported a bonnet mascot in the shape of a Sphinx with namesake Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire jet engines attached. The 234 and 236 Sapphires were a radical departure from the traditional Armstrong Siddeley appearance. This, coming in a time of conservative auto design, was not well received by the marque's loyal customers. Hence, the "baby Sapphire" brought about the beginning of the end for Armstrong Siddeley.


The last model produced by Armstrong Siddeley was 1958's Star Sapphire, with a 4-litre engine, and automatic transmission. The Armstrong Siddeley was a casualty of the 1960 merger with Bristol; the last car left the Coventry factory in 1960. The automatic gear selector in a Ford Five Hundred vehicle An automatic transmission (commonly abbreviated as AT) is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually (similar but larger devices are also used for railroad...


Model list

Cars produced by Armstrong Siddeley had designations that implied their engine displacement.

Model Name Type Engine From To No. Produced
Thirty Various 4960 cc 1919 1931 2770
Eighteen Various 2400 cc 1921 1925 2500 inc 18/50
18/50 or 18 Mk.II Various 2872 cc 1925 1926 2500 inc Eighteen
Four-Fourteen Various 1852 cc 1923 1929 13,365
Twenty Short and Long chassis 2872 cc 1926 1936 8847
Fifteen Tourer, saloon 1900 cc 1921 1925 7203 inc 15/6
Twelve Tourer, saloon, sports 1236 (1434 cc from 1931) 1929 1937 12500
15/6 Tourer, saloon, sports 1900 cc (2169 cc from 1933) 1928 1934 7206 inc Fifteen
Siddeley Special Tourer, saloon, limousine 4960 cc 1933 1937 253
Short 17 Coupe, saloon, sports saloon 2394 cc 1935 1938 4260 inc Long 17
Long 17 Saloon, tourer, Atlanta sports saloon, Limousine, landaulette 2394 cc 1935 1939 4260 inc Short 17
12 Plus & 14 Saloon, tourer 1666 cc 1936 1939 3750
20/25 Saloon, tourer, Atlanta sports saloon

Limousine, landaulette

3670 cc 1936 1940 884
16 Saloon, Sports saloon 1991 cc 1938 1941 950
Lancaster 16 4 door saloon 1991 cc 1945 1952 12470 inc Hurricane, Whitley, Typhoon and Tempest.
Lancaster 18 4 door saloon 2309 cc 1945 1952 12470 inc Hurricane, Whitley, Typhoon and Tempest.
Hurricane 16 Drophead coupe 1991 cc 1945 1953 12470 inc Lancaster, Whitley, Typhoon and Tempest.
Hurricane 18 Drophead coupe 2309 cc 1945 1953 12470 inc Lancaster, Whitley, Typhoon and Tempest.
Typhoon Fixed head coupe 1991 cc 1946 1949 12470 inc Lancaster, Whitley and Tempest.
Tempest coupe 1991 cc 1946 1949 12470 inc Lancaster, Whitley and Typhoon.
Whitley 18 Various 2309 cc 1946 1949 12470 inc Lancaster, Hurricane, Typhoon and Tempest.
Sapphire 346 4 door saloon & Limousine 3435 cc 1952 1958 7697
Sapphire 234 4 door saloon 2290 cc 1955 1958 803
Sapphire 236 4 door saloon 2309 cc 1955 1957 603
Star Sapphire Saloon & Limousine 3990 cc 1958 1960 980
Star Sapphire Mk II Saloon & Limousine 3990 cc 1960 1960 1

A feature of many of their later cars was the option of an electrically controlled pre-selector gearbox. Like many British cars of the age there is an active owners club supporting their continued use. Saab 900 Convertible Convertible can also refer to a convertible (security) A convertible is an automobile with a folding or retracting roof. ... 1995 Buick Riviera coupe A coupé (from the French for cut) or coupe is a two or four-seater car with a fixed roof and two doors. ... The Armstrong Siddeley Whitley was a large post-war sports saloon automobile and was a version of the 16/18hp series made between 1946 and 1954 by the British company of Armstrong Siddeley. ... For the jet aero-engine, see Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire The Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire was a large post-war saloon automobile made by the British company of Armstrong Siddeley. ... For the jet aero-engine, see Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire The Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire was a large post-war saloon automobile made by the British company of Armstrong Siddeley. ... For the jet aero-engine, see Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire The Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire was a large post-war saloon automobile made by the British company of Armstrong Siddeley. ... For the jet aero-engine, see Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire The Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire was a large post-war saloon automobile made by the British company of Armstrong Siddeley. ... For the jet aero-engine, see Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire The Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire was a large post-war saloon automobile made by the British company of Armstrong Siddeley. ... A preselector gearbox is a gearbox used on a variety of vehicles, more commonly until around the 1950s. ...


Aircraft engines

Armstrong Siddeley Lynx 7 cylinder radial from the Avro 618 Ten aircraft, Southern Cloud.
Armstrong Siddeley Lynx 7 cylinder radial from the Avro 618 Ten aircraft, Southern Cloud.

Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Armstrong Siddeley produced a range of low- and mid-power aircraft radial engines, all named after big cats. They also produced a tiny 2-cylinder engine called the Ounce, for ultralight aircraft. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (590 × 800 pixels, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Armstrong Siddeley Lynx 7-cylinder radial engine from the Avro 618 Ten aircraft, Southern Cloud, that crashed on 21 March 1931 in the Australian Alps Toolong... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (590 × 800 pixels, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Armstrong Siddeley Lynx 7-cylinder radial engine from the Avro 618 Ten aircraft, Southern Cloud, that crashed on 21 March 1931 in the Australian Alps Toolong... The Armstrong-Siddeley Lynx was an aero engine developed by Armstrong Siddeley. ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... The Avro 618 Ten or X was a passenger transport aircraft of the 1930s. ... The radial engine is an internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel. ... For people nicknamed The Big Cat, see The Big Cat. ...


The company started work on their first gas turbine engine in 1939. These engines were named after snakes. The Mamba and Double Mamba were turboprop engines, the latter being a complex piece of engineering with two side-by-side Mambas driving through a common gearbox, and could be found on the Fairey Gannet. The Python turboprop powered the Westland Wyvern strike aircraft. Further development of the Mamba removed the reduction gearbox to give the Adder turbojet. This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... The Mamba was Armstrong-Siddeleys gas turbine turboprop engine design of around 1,500 hp (1,100 kW). ... The Double Mamba was an Armstrong-Siddeley gas turbine turboprop engine design of around 3,000–4,000 hp (2,500–3,000 kW). ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... The Fairey Gannet is a carrier-borne Anti-submarine warfare and Airborne Early Warning aircraft of the immediate post World War II-era developed for the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. ... The Armstrong-Siddeley Python was an early British turboprop engine designed and built by the Armstrong Siddeley company. ... The Westland W.34 Wyvern was a single-seat carrier-based attack aircraft of the 1950s intended to cover a wide variety of roles. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ... The Armstrong-Siddeley Adder was an early British turbojet engine developed by the Armstrong Siddeley company and first run in November 1948. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ...


The company went on to develop an engine - originally for unmanned Jindivik target drones - called the Viper. This product was further developed by Bristol Siddeley and, later, Rolls-Royce and was sold in great numbers over many years. A range of rocket motors were also produced, including the Snarler. The rocket development complemented that of Bristol, and Bristol Siddeley would become the leading British manufacturer of rocket engines for missiles. The GAF Jindivik is a target drone produced by the Australian Government Aircraft Factory. ... The £124 million Taranis UAV built by BAE Systems An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ... Rolls Royce Viper Turbojet from an Aermacchi MB-326 The Viper was a turbojet engine developed and produced by Armstrong Siddeley and then by its successor companies Bristol-Siddeley and Rolls-Royce Limited. ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ...


Armstrong Siddeley's final and most powerful engine was the Sapphire. This had been developed by Metrovick and had passed to Armstrong Siddeley when Metrovick withdrew from aircraft engine manufacturing (hence the non-vivarian name). The Sapphire was a jet engine produced by Armstrong Siddeley in the 1950s. ... Metropolitan-Vickers, Metrovick, or Metrovicks, was a British heavy industrial firm of the early-to-mid 20th century formerly known as British Westinghouse. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.siddeley.com/sphinx.html

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Armstrong-Siddeley vehicles
  • Armstrong Siddeley Owners Club for the cars

  Results from FactBites:
 
Automobiles and aeroplanes: Armstrong-Siddeley | Features | 4car | channel4.com (322 words)
Meanwhile, John Davenport Siddeley had been working at Wolseley, but fell out with Herbert Austin (founder of the Austin marque) and departed for Coventry-based Deasey in 1909, taking control of the firm in 1912.
Siddeley saw the opportunities in the aircraft engine industry, and sub-contracted production of light-alloy castings to Armstrong-Whitworth, then collaborating on sales and marketing.
Armstrong-Siddeley bought Hawker Aircraft in 1935, and the new Hawker Siddeley Group - which also incorporated early UK plane-makers Sopwith and Gloster - became an increasingly powerful player in the aeronautical industry.
Armstrong Siddeley history (1274 words)
Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd. was officially formed on 1st November 1919 although agreement to create the Company dated from 19th February of that year.
John Davenport Siddeley remained at the helm of The Company until 1935 when A W Aircraft was sold and became part of Hawker Siddeley Aircraft, the Hawker part of the company being based in Surrey and having its origins with both Messrs.
Armstrong Siddeley also produced two commercial versions of the 18HP model; a utility coupe and a station coupe, the latter having a short tray and an occasional bench seat behind the front seat in its extended cab.
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