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Encyclopedia > Armoured warfare
It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. (Discuss)
It has been suggested that Mechanized force be merged into this article or section. (Discuss)

Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Motorized forces or military units are those that have trucks, or other wheeled, un-armoured transport as an integral part of their organization. ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
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Weapons
Armoured · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry
Chemical · Electronic · Infantry ·
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Tactics

Amphibious · Asymmetric · Attrition
Cavalry · Conventional · Fortification
Guerrilla · Hand to hand · Invasion
Joint · Maneuver · Siege · Total
Trench · Unconventional The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, states and other such large social organizations. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the European Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare is a complex affair, involving the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... // Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... A typically white color clothes of a soldier trained for mountain warfare. ... Urban warfare is modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components: Electronic Attack (EA) This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ... Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. ... Finnish sissi troops on skis. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal strength interact and take advantage of their respective strengths and weaknesses. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with war horse. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 4-1, Vital Targets. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory or altering the established government. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... Maneuver warfare (American English) or manoeuvre warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational Military strategem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Chain of command · Formations
Ranks · Units Military science concerns itself with the study and of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... This article deals with the military concept. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

Law

Court-martial · Laws of war · Occupation
Tribunal · War crime Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

Government and politics

Conscription · Coup d'état
Military dictatorship · Martial law
Militarism · Military rule A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military...

Military studies

Military academy · Military science
Polemology · Philosophy of war
Peace and conflict studies A military academy is a military educational institution. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ...

Lists
Authors · Battles · Civil wars
Commanders · Invasions · Operations
Sieges · Raids · Tactics · Theorists
Wars · War crimes · War criminals
Weapons · Writers

Armoured warfare in modern warfare is understood to be the use of armoured fighting vehicles as a central component of the methods of war. Many of the authors that served in various real-life wars (and survived) wrote stories that are at least somewhat based on their own experiences. ... This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... . ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This page contains a list of military raids, not including air raids, sorted by the date at which they started: 1259 Mongol raid into Lithuania 1565, August 26th Chaseabout Raid 1575, July 7th Raid of the Redeswire 1582, August 27th Raid of Ruthven 1667, June 6th Raid on the Medway... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Principles Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of a reserve Economy of Force Force protection Dispersal or spacing Camouflage Deception Electronic Counter Measures Electronic Counter Counter Measures Radio silence Use of fortifications Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... . ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... Modern warfare is a complex affair, involving the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ...

Contents

History

First World War

Modern armoured warfare began with the development of the tank during the First World War. British Mark I tanks first went to action in Somme, September 1916, but did not manage to break the deadlock of trench warfare. In Battle of Cambrai British tanks were more successful, and broke a German trenchline system, the Hindenburg Line. After the disastrous final German offensive, tanks were used at the Battle of Amiens ending the stalemate imposed by trench warfare on the Western Front and effectively ending the war. Following the First World War, the technical and doctrinal aspects of armoured warfare became more sophisticated and diverged into multiple schools. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... A Mark I tank on 26 September 1916 (moving left to right). ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Newfoundland German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Georg von der Marwitz Strength 2 Corps 1 Corps Casualties 45,000 killed 9,000 prisoners 100 tanks destroyed 45,000 killed 11,000 prisoners The Battle of Cambrai (November 20 - December 3, 1917) was a... A trench is a long narrow ditch. ... The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ... Combatants United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia Germany Commanders Henry Rawlinson Georg von der Marwitz Strength 4 Aus. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western...


The inter-war period

After the Great War, various commanders who had been associated with the development of the tank were involved in developing the new ideas. Liddell Hart wrote extensively on tank warfare and the theories of Colonel Fuller. The British War Office sanctioned the creation of the Experimental Mechanised Force which was formed on May 1, 1927, under Colonel R. J. Collins. The units were entirely mobile and consisted of reconnaissance tankettes and armoured cars, a battalion of 48 Vickers medium tanks, a motorized machine gun battalion, a mechanized artillery regiment, which had one battery of fully tracked self-propelled guns capable of acting as conventional or anti-aircraft artillery (Birch guns), and a motorized company of field engineers. The unit carried out operations on Salisbury Plain and was observed by the other major nations, the United States, Germany, and the Soviet Union. Although its performance was recognised it was disbanded in 1928. The US would then create their own Experimental mechanised force. The British Army began the conversion of its Cavalry from horse to tanks. Although there were differences on where British military strength should be developed with the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy being favoured by some in power, all but a few regiments were fully converted by 1939. Basil Henry Liddell Hart (October 31, 1895 - January 29, 1970) was a military historian and is considered among the great military strategists of the 20th century. ... J.F.C. Fuller (September 1, 1878 – February 10, 1966), full name John Frederick Charles Fuller, was a British Major General, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Polish TK-3 A tankette was a type of small armoured fighting vehicle resembling a tank, intended for infantry support or reconnaissance. ... Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ... The Birch Gun was the worlds first really practical self-propelled artillery gun, built at the Woolwich Arsenal in 1925. ... This article is about the plateau in southern England; Salisbury Plain is also an area on South Georgia Island. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Second World War

A knocked-out German Tiger tank (Panzer VI) of World War II. The top of the hull has been blown right off by internal explosion, and the turret has ended up resting on the wreckage. Photo by US Army Center for Military History Online.
A knocked-out German Tiger tank (Panzer VI) of World War II. The top of the hull has been blown right off by internal explosion, and the turret has ended up resting on the wreckage. Photo by US Army Center for Military History Online.

Modern armour warfare doctrine was developed and established during the run up to World War II. A fundamental key to conventional warfare is the concentration of force at a particular point. Concentration of force increases the chance of victory in a particular engagement. Correctly chosen and exploited, victory in a given engagement or a small number of engagements is often sufficient to win the battle. This military photo was downloaded from http://www. ... This military photo was downloaded from http://www. ... The Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


For example, visualize a straight defensive line composed of two infantry and two armoured divisions, deployed equally along the length of the line. A numerically equivalent attacker can win by concentrating his armour at one point (with his infantry holding the rest of the line), thus guaranteeing the forcing of the line, then passing through, turning the flank of the two halves of the defensive line and rolling them up. Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ...


The defensive line could attempt to counter-attack, but it is not strong at any point and although the combined infantry/armour attack of the defenders is stronger than an infantry only attack, it is not very much stronger (since the divisions are spread out along the entire line) and it is in general much easier to defend than attack.


A major aspect of all warfare is the simple formula, known as the Lanchester Square Law, that the combat power of a combat unit relative to the relative combat power of an enemy of a given size is the square of the number of members of that unit:

  • One tank obviously has the combat power of one tank. (12 = 1)
  • Two tanks have four times the relative combat power of a single tank. (22 = 4)

Basically, twice as many tanks will quadruple the relative firepower — relative that is, to the amount of firepower the enemy has per member of the friendly unit; one could also express this by saying that their relative punishment from enemy action is reduced four times, which is the same thing — as not only their own absolute number is doubled, but the number of enemy tanks relative to each of their own, is thereby halved also.


Thus, concentrating two divisions into one point and attacking generates a far greater force than is achieved by spreading two divisions into a line and pushing forward on a broad front.


Concentration of force requires mobility (to permit rapid concentration) and power (to be effective in combat once concentrated). The tank embodies these two properties and so is the primary weapon.


Prior to World War II, horse mounted Cavalry performed what is now the tank role; breaking past and attacking the enemy in the rear. In all armies there was a great deal of resistance to the introduction of the tank (due to the concomitant replacement of the horse), in particular as Cavalry units were regarded as the elite and had a lot of influence within the army. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ...


German Doctrine

By the time of World War II, the German Military had developed a more flexible doctrine to that of the Allies and their concentrated Panzer divisions in 1940 strategically exploited breaches in the allied defensive lines, made by their infantry and airforce, to great effect.


British and French Doctrine

In the deserts of North Africa, the British developed the alternate approach of combining the armored, infantry and artillery together to form a 'balanced, combined arms team'; the Italian army, ill-armed and-led, folded.


The arrival of the German Afrika Korps highlighted the weaknesses of the British approach: the small number of Infantry and Artillery to each armored division was sufficient when attacking the immobile uncoordinated Italians, but against the highly mobile, well-coordinated Germans under Erwin Rommel, the undermanned British formations were insufficient.


Indeed, it was only towards the later years of the war, with the invasion of the European mainland, that the Allied Armies began to properly practise armoured warfare. In 1942 and 1943, the Allies consistently lost armoured battles in the North African desert due to improper tactics; in particular, running armoured formations into opposing anti-tank positions. 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


In the UK and in France, armour was accepted into the Army, but using a division of labour: some as infantry support weapons, others as cavalry replacements. As such, British and French infantry tanks were heavily armoured but as a consequence too slow, whereas British cavalry ("cruiser") tanks were swift and as a result poorly armoured. German tanks were designed for independent mobile operations and as all-around tanks: lighter, considerably more mobile but more weakly armed and armoured than the infantry tanks; tanks were not yet seen to be a primary anti-tank weapon. When the German tanks actually had to fight the British infantry tanks they were severely discomfited--but recovered to drive the British army out of continental Europe. At the start of the German invasion, the French possessed more tanks and, in one-to-one terms, better tanks, than the Germans; but what mattered was how the tanks were used, and the French distributed half of theirs amongst independent tank battalions for infantry support, rendering them impotent. The Germans in 1940 concentrated all their tanks into Panzer divisions and used them for a strategic envelopment, smashing their way through the French defensive line and onto The Channel. 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


To counter such attacks, a mobile anti-tank forward must be held in reserve and moved to meet the attack. The French had no strategic reserve at all; let alone a highly mobile reserve as their three Cavalry armoured divisions had already been committed in the Low Countries, which was crucial in the French failure to counteract the German penetration.


US Doctrine

The United States Army was influenced by the perceived actions of German tanks in the 1939 Polish Campaign. The popular conception in the US was that tanks had been used boldly as part of a new system of war called Blitzkrieg. Under General Jacob L. Devers, Chief of the Armored Force, doctrine evolved into a combined arms operational force consisting of primarily infantry, artillery, and tanks with tanks being the major maneuver component. Under this doctrine, U.S. tank crews of both armored divisions and GHQ tank battalions were taught to fight tanks in tank on tank engagements. Armored Force personnel during and after the war criticized the infantry for using the GHQ tank battalions assigned to infantry divisions strictly as infantry support. For more information on this subject see: "Camp Colt to Desert Storm: The History of the U.S. Armored Forces," Gen. Donn A. Starry and George F. Hofmann, editors. Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total... One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ... General Jacob Jake Loucks Devers (September 8, 1887 - October 15, 1979), who is best remembered for his command of the 6th Army Group in Europe during World War II, graduated from the US Military Academy in 1909. ...


The US Combined Arms team included air support, artillery, engineers, and a tank component supplemented by the Tank Destroyer concept. The latter is most closely identified with the Chief of Army Ground Forces, General Leslie McNair who believed towed 57 mm AT guns, hand-held Bazookas and thinly armoured Tank Destroyers to be superior to friendly tanks for fighting enemy tanks. Under this doctrine, tanks were supposed to avoid tank-vs-tank combat as much as possible, leaving enemy tanks to the tank destroyers. In actual combat, McNair's doctrine led to US tanks having weaker guns and less armor protection than their German counterparts, and in the narrow confines of much of the terrain in Normandy, they could not avoid one-on-one encounters with German tanks. Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... A self-propelled anti-tank gun, or tank destroyer, is a type of armoured fighting vehicle. ... Lesley J. McNair Lesley James McNair (died July 25, 1944) was a general of the United States Army, who was killed by friendly fire during World War II. As Commandant of the Command and General Staff College, McNair initiated changes that prepared the Colleges graduates to meet the upcoming... The bazooka weapon was one of the first anti-tank weapons based on the HEAT shell to enter service, used by the United States Armed Forces in World War II. It was nicknamed bazooka from a vague resemblance to the musical instrument of the same name (see: bazooka (instrument)). In... A self-propelled anti-tank gun, or tank destroyer, is a type of armoured fighting vehicle. ... PzKpfw V-D, a Panther tank   Panzer? is German for armour. ...


Arab-Israeli wars

Both sides in the Arab-Israeli series of conflicts have made heavy use of tanks and other armoured vehicles. Up until the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israeli armoured units typically had the advantage, mainly due to good tactics and unit cohesion. In 1973, Israel failed to understand the importance of the introduction of anti-tank guided missiles. Hundreds of AT-3 Sagger man-portable anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) supplied to the Egyptians by the Soviet Union inflicted heavy losses on Israeli tanks. Since then, ATGMs have played an important role with Israeli forces too. They are some of the leaders in the development of missile-based "tank destroyers". When an Israeli infantry unit moved up to engage the anti-tank missiliers, they were able to easily defeat them - strong evidence that tanks operating on their own have some severe weaknesses. 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan David Elazar Ariel Sharon Shmuel Gonen Benjamin Peled Israel Tal Rehavam Zeevi Aharon Yariv Yitzhak Hofi Rafael Eitan Abraham Adan Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly Ahmad Ismail Ali Hosni Mubarak Mohammed Aly Fahmy Anwar Sadat Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy Abdul... An Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) or weapon (ATGW) is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles. ... AT-3A Sagger missile The AT-3 Sagger is the NATO reporting name for the 9M14 Malyutka (little or tiny baby) MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union. ...


Today, Israeli Merkava-class Main Battle Tanks were developed against the role of anti-tank weapons. Special "spaced armour" protects the critical points of the tank such as the engines, fuel and ammo compartments. The heavily armoured tank is one of the most advanced in the world. Its design and technology includes strong armour on its front, sides and top, making the Merkava one of the most protected MBTs in existence. Also, the Merkava-class MBT has rear doors, giving its crew an exceptionally high chance of survival when faced with even the strongest anti-tank weapons and tactics. Furthermore, Israel is currently developing the TROPHY Active Protection System, and claims that as a major development in weapons design it will greatly increase the protection provided to the Merkava MBT and its crew. Merkava (Hebrew:  , chariot) is a series of main battle tanks developed and manufactured by Israel Military Industries for the Israel Defense Forces. ... Merkava (Hebrew:  , chariot) is a series of main battle tanks developed and manufactured by Israel Military Industries for the Israel Defense Forces. ... Merkava (Hebrew:  , chariot) is a series of main battle tanks developed and manufactured by Israel Military Industries for the Israel Defense Forces. ... TROPHY (in Hebrew: מעיל רוח, lit. ... Merkava (Hebrew:  , chariot) is a series of main battle tanks developed and manufactured by Israel Military Industries for the Israel Defense Forces. ...


NATO and Warsaw Pact

During the Cold War, NATO and the Warsaw Pact assumed armoured warfare to be a dominant aspect of conventional ground warfare in Europe. For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Infantry fighting vehicles were first developed in the 1960s with the Soviet Union's BMP-1. A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, during the making of the eponymous film. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The BMP-1 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle which was first introduced in the early 1960s. ...


Rotary-wing aircraft were built and theorised as "flying tanks." The Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors. ...


Present

An M2 Bradley IFV from A Company, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment at Fort Benning practising firing the 25 mm M242 Bushmaster cannon.
An M2 Bradley IFV from A Company, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment at Fort Benning practising firing the 25 mm M242 Bushmaster cannon.

Tanks rarely work alone; the usual minimum unit size is a platoon (or troop) of four to five tanks. The tanks of the platoon work together providing mutual support: two might advance while covered by the others then stop and provide cover for the remainder to move ahead. This image was downloaded from http://www. ... This image was downloaded from http://www. ... The M2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and M3 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle) are American infantry fighting vehicles manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments, (formerly United Defense). ... A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, on the making of the eponymous film. ... Fort Benning is a military base facility of the United States military southwest of Columbus, Georgia. ... Caliber: 25 mm NATO Firearm action: Chain gun Manufactured by: ATK Barrel Length: 85. ... Platoon is a term from military science. ...


Normally, multiple platoons would coordinate with mechanised infantry and utilise their mobility and firepower to penetrate weak-points in enemy lines. This is where the powerful engines, tracks and turrets come into play. The possible turret rotation of a full 360 degrees allows for coordinated movement within and between platoons, while defending against attacks from multiple directions and engaging troops and vehicles without stopping or slowing down. When defensive, they would wait in prepared positions or use any natural terrain elements (such as small hills) for cover. A tank sitting just behind a hill crest ("hull-down") exposes only the top of its turret, with the gun and sensors, to the enemy - providing the smallest possible target while allowing it to engage almost anything on the other side of the hill. Tanks are usually able to depress the main gun below the horizontal since contemporary kinetic energy (KE) rounds have fairly flat trajectories. Without this they would be unable to exploit such positions. However upon cresting the hill, the tank will expose its thinly-armored underside to enemy weapons. Mechanized infantry are infantry troops that use armoured fighting vehicles for transport and as heavy weapons support in combat. ... A tank in hull-down, turret-down, and hidden positions behind a crest of ground. ...


Without tanks and infantry working together, problems can arise. During the Yom Kippur War, Israeli tanks operating alone in large numbers were decimated by Egyptian infantry with anti-tank guided missiles. When Israeli infantry and artillery were brought in to help the tanks, the tables were turned and the Egyptian units were suppressed with reduced losses to the Israeli troops. This is an extreme example but exemplifies what has been fairly thoroughly documented since the second World War: tanks and infantry work best by taking advantage of each other's strengths and combining to minimise the weaknesses. In many conflicts, it was usual to see infantry riding on the back of tanks, ready to jump off and provide support when necessary. Unfortunately, the design of many modern tanks makes this a dangerous practice. The M1 Abrams, for example, has such hot exhaust gas that nearby infantry have to be careful where they stand. Tanks can also be very vulnerable to well aimed artillery; well-coordinated air support and counter-battery artillery units can help overcome this. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan David Elazar Ariel Sharon Shmuel Gonen Benjamin Peled Israel Tal Rehavam Zeevi Aharon Yariv Yitzhak Hofi Rafael Eitan Abraham Adan Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly Ahmad Ismail Ali Hosni Mubarak Mohammed Aly Fahmy Anwar Sadat Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy Abdul... The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... The term counter-battery fire refers to the concept of detecting the source of artillery (shells or rockets) landing on friendly forces and firing back at them with artillery, suppressing or destroying them in order to protect the friendly forces and reduce enemy artillery strength. ...


The deposition of armour around a tank is not uniform; the front is typically better armoured than the sides or rear. Accordingly, normal practice is to keep the front towards the enemy at all times, the tank retreats by reversing instead of turning around. Driving backwards away from an enemy is even safer than driving forwards towards them since driving forwards over a bump can throw the front of the tank up in the air, exposing the thin armour of the underside and taking the gun off the target due to its limited angle of depression.


The tracks, wheels and suspension of a tank are outside the armoured hull and are some of the most vulnerable spots. The easiest way to disable a tank (other than a direct hit in a vulnerable area with a full-power anti-tank weapon) is to target the tracks for a "mobility kill" (m-kill). Once a tank is disabled it is easier to destroy. This is why side-skirts are an important feature; they can deflect heavy machine-gun bullets and trigger the detonation of HEAT rounds before they strike the running gear. Other vulnerable parts of a typical tank include the engine deck (with air intakes, radiators, etc.) and the turret ring, where the turret joins the hull. A mobility kill (or M-kill) in armoured warfare refers to damage inflicted by a weapon on a vehicle that immobizes it, but does not totally destroy it, leaving the vehicles crew able to use its weapons. ... In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is defined as energy in transit. ...


When used defensively, tanks are often sunk into trenches or placed behind earth berms for increased protection. The tanks can fire off a few shots from their defensive position, then retreat (reversing) to another prepared position further back and drive behind the berms or into the trenches there. These positions can be constructed by the tank crews, but preparations are better and quicker if carried out by combat engineers with bulldozers. Overhead protection, even if it is fairly thin, can also be very useful since it can help pre-detonate artillery shells and avoid direct hits from above which can be deadly to tanks, by striking them at their thinnest armour. In short, tank crews find as many ways as possible to augment the armour on their vehicles. A berm is a level space or shelf separating two features. ...


Tanks usually go into battle with a round in the gun, ready to fire, to minimise reaction time when encountering an enemy. The US doctrine calls for this round to be a kinetic energy (KE) round, as the reaction time is most important when meeting enemy tanks, to get the first shot (and possibly the first kill). If troops or light vehicles are encountered, the usual response is to fire this round at them, despite it not being ideal - it is difficult and time-consuming to remove a round which is already in the breech. In this case, after the KE round is fired, a HEAT round would normally be loaded next to continue the engagement. Breech may refer to: A breech birth The part of a firearm behind the barrel. ...


Tanks can be decisive in city fighting, with the ability to demolish walls and fire medium and heavy machine guns in several directions simultaneously. However, tanks are especially vulnerable in urban combat. It's much easier for enemy infantry to sneak up behind a tank or fire at its sides, where it is most vulnerable. In addition, firing down from multi-story buildings allows shots at the soft upper turret armour and even basic weapons like molotov cocktails, if aimed at the engine air intakes, can disable a tank. Because of these limitations, tanks are difficult to use in city conflicts where civilians or friendly forces might be nearby, since their firepower can't be used effectively. Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


Airborne Threats and Tactics

AH-64 Apache, an attack helicopter designed to destroy armoured vehicles.
Enlarge
AH-64 Apache, an attack helicopter designed to destroy armoured vehicles.
The Avenger mounts Stinger missiles on HMMWV vehicles for mobile, low altitude air defence.
The Avenger mounts Stinger missiles on HMMWV vehicles for mobile, low altitude air defence.

Tanks and other armoured vehicles are vulnerable to attack from the air for several reasons. One is that they are easily detectable - the metal they are made of shows up well on radar, and is especially obvious if they are moving in formation. A moving tank also produces a lot of heat, noise and dust. The heat makes seeing them on a forward-looking infra-red system easy and the dust is a good visual clue during the day. The other major reason is that most armoured vehicles have thinner armour on the roof of the turret and on the engine deck, so an anti-tank guided missile (from an attack helicopter or ground-attack jet) hitting them from the top can be deadly even if it has a small warhead. Even machine guns and small automatic cannon are powerful enough to penetrate the rear and top sections of the engine compartment of a tank. Image File history File links AH-64_Apache. ... Image File history File links AH-64_Apache. ... This image was downloaded from http://airdefense. ... This image was downloaded from http://airdefense. ... Type MANPADS Nationality United States Era Cold War/modern Launch platform Man portable Target aircraft History Builder Raytheon Missile Systems Date of design 1967 Production period Service duration 1981-present Operators Britain, Germany, Israel, Iran, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Pakistan, Switzerland, United States Variants Number built Approx. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ... A forward looking infrared (FLIR) system is a television camera that takes pictures in infrared. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ...

Close-up of the A-10 GAU-8 Avenger gun.
Close-up of the A-10 GAU-8 Avenger gun.

Certain airplanes have been developed to attack armoured vehicles. Most notable is the 'purpose-built' Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, affectionately known as the 'Warthog' because of its shape in contrast to more aesthetically pleasing military aircraft. The 'Hog' may be blunt but is exceptionally effective in its purpose: hunt and kill enemy armor and vehicles and its reputation as an effective ‘Tankbuster’ is not unfounded. Although able to carry a number of different missiles and bombs (including anti-tank ordnance such as the AGM-65 Maverick), its main weapon is the 30mm GAU-8/A Avenger Gatling gun which is capable of firing 3,900 depleted uranium armor-piercing rounds per minute (a popular belief is that the plane was actually built around the gun and not vice-versa). Capable of low-velocity, low-altitude flight the A-10 is itself an airborne armoured vehicle with a titanium enclosure for the pilot, an airframe that can survive direct hits from armor-piercing and high-explosive projectiles and triple redundancy in its flight systems, with mechanical systems to back up double-redundant hydraulics. Image File history File links A10_gun. ... Image File history File links A10_gun. ... The A-10/OA-10 Thunderbolt II, often known as the Warthog, is the first US Air Force aircraft specifically designed for close air support of ground forces. ... The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-surface tactical missile (ASM) designed for close air support, prohibition, and forceful prevention. ... The GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm, seven-barrel Gatling gun that is mounted on the United States Air Forces A-10 Thunderbolt II. It is the largest (it is the size and weight of a family saloon car (sedan)), heaviest and most powerful aircraft gun in... An 1865 Gatling gun. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 47. ...


Similarly, a number of helicopter gunships have been designed mainly to engage enemy armoured vehicles. The AH-64 Apache, Westland Lynx, Mi-24 Hind,Eurocopter Tiger and Denel Aviation AH-2 Rooivalk are examples. Helicopters are very effective against armored vehicles for many reasons. The AH-64D (Longbow), for example is equipped with an improved sensor suite and weapon systems and the AN/APG-78 Longbow Fire Control Radar dome installed over the main rotor. A helicopter gunship is a military helicopter armed for attacking targets on the ground, using automatic cannon and machinegun fire, rockets, and precision guided missiles such as the Hellfire. ... The Boeing AH-64 Apache is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... The Westland Lynx is a helicopter designed by Westland and built at Westlands factory in Yeovil, first flying on 21 March 1971 as the Westland WG.13. ... The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations. ... The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by the Eurocopter Group. ... The Denel Aviation AH-2 Rooivalk is a latest generation attack helicopter manufactured by Denel Aviation of South Africa. ...


Airborne threats can be countered in several ways. One is air supremacy. This is what the United States relies on most, which is demonstrated by their distinct lack of effective short-range, mobile air defence vehicles to accompany armoured units. Most other countries accompany their armoured forces with highly mobile self-propelled anti-aircraft guns such as the Russian ZSU-23, short and medium-range surface-to-air missile systems such as the SA-6, SA-8 and SA-11, or combine both on the same vehicle (the ZSU-23 for example can also host SA-18 or SA-16 AA missiles). Air supremacy is the most favorable state of control of the air. ... SPAAG stands for Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun. ... The ZSU-23-4 Shilka is a lightly armoured, self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG). ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... A 3M9 TEL in desert camoflage. ... An SA-8 9K33M3 TELAR w/Land Roll radars. ... A 9K37M TEL The Novator 9K37 Buk (Russian 9К37 Бук - beech, NATO reporting name SA-11 Gadfly) is the successor to the well-regarded NIIP/Vympel 3M9 Kub (SA-6 Gainful) medium-altitude, medium-range surface-to-air missile system. ... 9K38 Igla The 9K38 Igla (Russian 9К38 Игла́ - needle) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. ... 9K38 Igla The 9K38 Igla (Russian 9К38 Игла́ - needle) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. ...


Support

Armoured warfare is mechanically and logistically intensive and requires extensive support mechanisms.


Armoured Fighting Vehicles require armoured vehicles capable of working in the same terrain to support them. These are operated by the appropriate branches of the army e.g. recovery and maintenance vehicles by the REME and combat engineering vehicles by the RE in the British Army.


These include:

  • Armoured Recovery vehicles (ARV)
Many of these are based on the chassis for the vehicle they support. e.g. the ARV for the UK Challenger tank is a Challenger hull with winch.
  • Armoured supply vehicles
  • (armoured) Combat Engineering Vehicles (CEV)
e.g. bulldozers

Future

While tanks have been integral to armoured warfare in the past, recent conflicts have put more emphasis on mobility, which main battle tanks cannot provide. It takes a few weeks to transfer tanks and their supporting equipment by air or sea, and tanks still require frequent maintenance. The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ...


See also

Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... Modern warfare is a complex affair, involving the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... This article is about the history of the tank. ... This is a List of armoured fighting vehicles worldwide. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ) (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970), in France commonly referred to as Général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... J.F.C. Fuller (September 1, 1878 – February 10, 1966), full name John Frederick Charles Fuller, was a British Major General, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ... Major-General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart (14 June 1885-19 February 1957) was a British military engineer and commander of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II. He was responsible for many of the specialised armoured vehicles (Hobarts Funnies) that took part in the invasion of Normandy. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937), Soviet military... Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (ca. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... General George Smith Patton Jr. ... Israel Tal (b. ...

References

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
Armoured warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3467 words)
Armoured warfare in modern warfare is understood to be the use of armoured fighting vehicles as a central component of the methods of war.
The units were entirely mobile and consisted of reconnaissance tankettes and armoured cars, a battalion of 48 Vickers medium tanks, a motorized machine gun battalion, a mechanized artillery regiment, which had one battery of fully-tracked self-propelled guns capable of acting as conventional or anti-aircraft artillery (Birch guns), and a motorized company of field engineers.
During the Cold War, NATO and the Warsaw Pact assumed armoured warfare to be a dominant aspect of conventional ground warfare in Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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