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Encyclopedia > Armor

Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. Armour has been used throughout recorded history, beginning with hides, leather, and bone, before progressing to bronze, then steel during the middle ages, to modern fabrics such as Kevlar®, Dyneema® and ceramics. The differences in the spellings of British English and American English are as follows: Spelling differences between U.S. usage on one side and British and Commonwealth usage on the other are generally more conspicuous than spelling differences within the Commonwealth. ... Combat, or fighting, is purposeful violent conflict between one or more persons or organizations, often intended to establish dominance over the opposition. ... Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ... Look up hide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides, pelts and skins of animals, primarily cows. ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Kevlar is the DuPont Companys brand name for material made out of synthetic fiber of poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide which is constructed of para-aramid fibers that the company claims is five times stronger than the same weight of steel, while being lightweight, flexible and comfortable. ... Dyneema® is a synthetic fiber based on UHMWPE, 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικος (keramikos, having to do with pottery). The term covers inorganic non-metallic materials whose formation is due to the action of heat. ...


Armour was also commonly used to protect war animals, such as war horses and elephants. Armour for war horses was called barding. Armour has also been produced for hunting dogs that hunt dangerous game, such as boars. Since World War I, armoured fighting vehicles are protected by vehicle armour. Military animals are creatures that have been employed by humankind for use in warfare. ... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ... Indian war elephant, relief at Mathura, 2nd century BC War elephants were important, although not widespread, weapons in ancient military history. ... A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ... A hunting dog refers to any dog who assists humans in hunting, or whose breed was originally developed to do so. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Young piglets feeding The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... Military vehicles are commonly armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets or shells, protecting the soldiers inside from enemy fire. ...


In modern usage, Armour, or the armoured is also a heavily armoured military force or organization, such as heavy infantry or heavy cavalry (as opposed to light infantry or cavalry). In modern armoured warfare, armoured units equipped with tanks serve the historic role of heavy cavalry, and belong to the armoured branch in a national army's organisation (sometimes, the armoured corps). Heavy infantry have been replaced by mechanised infantry. Armoured forces, collectively the armoured or armour, are military forces traditionally equipped with heavy armour. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Kircholm, a 1925 painting by Wojciech Kossak. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Army (from French armée) can, in some countries, refer to any armed force. ... Mechanized infantry are infantry troops that use armoured fighting vehicles for transport and as heavy weapons support in combat. ...

Contents


History

Japanese Samurai Odoshi Armor.
Japanese Samurai Odoshi Armor.

Throughout human history, the development of armour has always run parallel to the development of increasingly efficient weaponry on the battlefield, creating an arms race of sorts across multiple civilizations to create better protection without sacrificing mobility. Download high resolution version (960x1280, 171 KB) Samurai Armor as seen at the British Museum in London. ... Download high resolution version (960x1280, 171 KB) Samurai Armor as seen at the British Museum in London. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... An Arms Race is a competition between two or more countries for military supremacy. ... The word civilization (or civilisation) has a variety of meanings related to human society. ...


In European history, well-known armour types include the lorica segmentata of the Roman legions, the chainmail hauberk of the early medieval age, and the full steel plate armour worn by later Medieval and Renaissance knights, and a few key components, (breast and back plates) by heavy cavalry in several European countries until the first year of World War 1. (1914-15). This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ... A reenactor dressed as a Roman soldier in lorica segmentata The lorica segmentata was a type of armour primarily used in the Roman Empire, exploiting Hellenistic Greek technology, but the Latin name was first used in the 16th century (the ancient form is unknown). ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... David rejects the unaccustomed armour (detail of fol. ... hauberk, Museum of Bayeux. ... Gothic armour Plate armour is personal armour made from large metal plates, worn on the chest and sometimes the entire body. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ...


In East Asian history, lamellar armour and brigandine was popular. In pre-Qin dynasty times, leather armour was made out of exotic animals such as rhinoceros. Chinese influence in Japan would result in the Japanese adopting Chinese styles, their famous 'samurai armour' being a result of this influence. Japanese Samurai Odoshi Armor. ... A brigandine, a form of body armour, is a cloth garment, generally canvas, lined with small oblong steel plates riveted to the fabric. ...


European Medieval Armour: 500 A.D. to 1250

Few examples of armour survive from the early Middle Ages. The segmented spangenhelm originated in the Middle East and spread to northern Europe by the third century. This remained the dominant type of helmet until the high middle ages. The great helm is associated with the Crusades. Body armour was generally made from chain or leather. Shields were in common use during this period. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A spangenhelm with nasal and cheek flaps. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ...

An example of transitional armour that combines mail with a cuirass, fauld, gauntlets, poleyns, and schynbalds, from a period engraving.
An example of transitional armour that combines mail with a cuirass, fauld, gauntlets, poleyns, and schynbalds, from a period engraving.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1364x2480, 482 KB) Augustin Hirschvogel: Man in armour (King Sigismund of Poland). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1364x2480, 482 KB) Augustin Hirschvogel: Man in armour (King Sigismund of Poland). ... Cuirass (French cuirasse, Latin coriaceus, made of leather, from corium, the original breastplate being of leather), the plate armour, whether formed of a single piece of metal or other rigid material or composed of two or more pieces, which covers the front of the wearers person. ... A partial suit of armor with a prominent fauld. ... Look up gauntlet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up gantlet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Gauntlet (occasionally spelled gantlet) may mean: Gauntlet (arcade game), a video game originally produced in 1985 by Atari Games. ... Ludwig III wearing gothic armor with prominent poleyns, from a fifteenth century manuscript. ... King Sigismund of Poland wearing armor with schynbalds, from a period engraving. ...

Transition to plate

Little by little, small additional plates or disks of steel were added to the mail to protect vulnerable areas. The knees were capped with steel, and two circular disks were fitted to protect the underarms, by the late 1200s. The small skull cap evolved into a bigger true helmet, as it was lengthened downward to protect the back of the neck and the sides of the head. Steel plate was then developed to protect the shins, feet, throat and upper chest, and soon (mid to late 1300s) most of the mail was covered by these protective plates. The next phase saw the plate cover almost all parts of the mail, and several forms of closed-helmets were introduced in the late 1300s.


Plate armour, 1400 - 1620

Main article: plate armour

Probably the most recognised style of armour in the world, associated with the knights of Late Medieval Europe, but continuing later through the 1500 & 1600s in all European countries. Heavy cavalry continued to use breast- and back-plates into the early 20th century in elite cuirassier units. Gothic armour Plate armour is personal armour made from large metal plates, worn on the chest and sometimes the entire body. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ...


Early modern armour

Armour of King Stefan Batory of Poland, painted by Jan Matejko.
Armour of King Stefan Batory of Poland, painted by Jan Matejko.

Conventional wisdom says that plate armour faded away on the battlefield soon after firearms were introduced. This is very much not the case. Crude cannons were being used before plate armour became the norm. Soon, in the 1400s a small, mobile "hand cannon" was being used by horsemen. Improved cross bows, and the first pistols and pre-musket long arms, began to take a heavy toll on the mail clad, and partially plated knights and foot soldiers. Rather than dooming the use of body armour, the threat of small firearms intensified the use and further refinement of plate armour. There was a 150 year period, that more and better metallurgically advanced steel armour was being used, precisely because of the danger posed by the gun. Download high resolution version (630x800, 105 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (630x800, 105 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Stefan Batory (1533-1586) was Prince of Transylvania (1571-1575), then King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1575-1586). ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait Jan Matejko (aka Jan Mateyko; Free City of Kraków, July 28, 1838 – November 1, 1893, Kraków, was a Polish artist famous for paintings of notable Polish political and military events. ... Hand Gonnes from the Historisches Museum, Bern The Gonne, Hand Gonne or Hand Cannon, as it was called, was the first working product in the firearms development. ...


In the early years of pistol and muskets, firearms were relatively low velocity, the full suits of armour, or breast plates actually stopped bullets fired from a modest distance. The front breast plates were, in fact, commonly shot as a test. The impact point would be encircled with ingraving to point it out. This was called the "proof" . It was not uncommon for a man in armour, mounted on a horse, to ride up closer to the enemy, in a tactical maneuver called "The wheel", and discharge his hand-cannon or later, pistols, right into the faces of the adversary at close range. Cross-bow arrows, if still used, would seldom penetrate good plate, nor would any bullet but one fired from close range. In effect, (and this has long been misunderstood), plate armour actually came to replace chain mail because it was relatively, "musket ball proof". Plate would stop all of these at a distance. Hence, guns and cavalry in plate armour were "threat and remedy" together on the battlefield for almost 400 years. For most of that period, it allowed horsemen to fight while being the targets of defending musketeers without being easily killed. Full suits of armour were actually worn by generals and princely commanders right up to the second decade of the 1700s. It was the only way they could be mounted & survey the overall battlefield with safety from distant musket fire. The armour shown here of the Polish King, Stefan Batory, is an early example of the "field-marshall style" battle armour.


Plate Armour for Horses

Main article: barding

The horse was afforded protection from lances and infantry weapons by steel plate barding. This gave the horse protection and enhanced the visual impression of a mounted knight. Late in the era, elaborate barding was used in parade armour. A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ...


Characteristics of armour

Going back to the heyday of armour in the 1400s, most parts of the human body have been fitted with specialised steel pieces, typically worn over linen or woollen underclothes and attached to the body via leather straps and buckles, with mail (maille) protecting those areas that could not be fitted with plate (the backs of the knee for instance). Well-known constituent parts of plate-armour include the helm, gauntlets, gorget or 'neckguard', breastplate, and greaves worn on the lower legs. Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. ... Pickelhaube of a Swedish Royal Guard soldier For the band, see Helmet A helmet (a 15th century loan from Middle French, a diminutive of Frankish helm, from Proto-Germanic *khelmaz, PIE *kelmo- a cover) is a form of protective clothing worn on the head and usually made of metal or... Pair of gauntlets, Germany, end of the 16th century Gauntlet is a name for several different styles of glove. ... Sir Philip Sidney wears a gorget for a portrait A gorget is a type of armor designed to protect the neck. ... Cuirass ( French cuirasse, Latin coriaceus, made of leather, from corium, the original breastplate being of leather), the plate armour, whether formed of a single piece of metal or other rigid material or composed of two or more pieces, which covers the front of the wearers person. ... A greave (from 12th century French greve shin, of uncertain origin) is a piece of armour that protects the leg. ...


Typically, full-body plate armour was custom-made for the individual. This was understandably a very time-consuming and expensive undertaking, costing as much as a family house or high-powered car in today's money. As such, it was almost exclusively the luxury of the noble and landed classes, with soldiers of lower standing generally wearing cheaper armour (if at all) typically limited to a helm and a breastplate. Armour often bore an insignia in the interior, that was only visible to the wearer upon removal. Full plate armour made the wearer virtually impervious to sword blows as well as providing some protection against arrows, bludgeons and even early musket shot. Although sword edges could not penetrate the relatively thin (as little as 2 mm) plate, they could cause serious concussive damage via the impact. Also, although arrows shot from bows could often pierce early plate at close range, later improvements in the steel forging techniques and armour design made even this line of attack increasingly difficult. By its apex, toughened steel plate was almost impregnable on the battlefield. Knights were instead increasingly felled by blunt weapons like maces or warhammers that could send concussive force through the plate armour resulting in injuries such as broken bones, organ haemorrhage and/or head trauma. Another tactic was to attempt to strike though the gaps between the armour pieces, using daggers to attack the Knight's eyes or joints. Assorted maces For its symbolical derivative, see ceremonial mace. ... For the tabletop games, see Warhammer Fantasy and Warhammer 40,000. ... Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ...


Contrary to common misconceptions, a well-made suit of medieval 'battle' armour (as opposed to the primarily ceremonial 'parade' and 'tournament' armours popular with kings and nobility of later years) hindered its wearer no more than the equipment carried by soldiers today. An armoured Knight (trained since his teens in its wearing) could comfortably run, crawl, climb ladders, as well as mount and dismount his horse without recourse to a crane (a myth probably originating from an English music hall comedy of the 1830's, and popularised in Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court). A full suit of medieval plate is thought to have weighed little more than 60 lb (27 kg) on average, considerably lighter than the equipment often carried by the elite of today’s armies (e.g., SAS patrols have been known to carry equipment weighing well over 200 lb (91 kg) for many miles). Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, novelist, writer, and lecturer. ... A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court book cover A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court is a novel by American humorist and writer Mark Twain, first published in 1889. ...


Plate Armour slowly discarded

Gradually starting in the mid 1500s, one plate element after another was discarded to save weight for foot soldiers, but breast and back plates continued to be used though the entire period of the 1700s through Napoleonic times in many (heavy) European cavalry units, all the way to the early 20th Century. Rifled muskets from about 1750 and later, could pierce plate, so cavalry had to be far more mindful of the fire. At the start of World War 1 the French Cuirassiers, in the thousands, rode out to engage the German Cavalry who likewise used helmets and armour. By that period, the shiny armour plate was covered in dark paint and a canvas wrap covered their elaborate Napoleonic style helmets. Their armour was meant to protect only against sabres and light lances. The cavalry had to beware of high velocity rifles and machine guns like the foot soldiers, who at least had a trench to protect them. Machine gunners in that war also occasionally wore a crude type of heavy armour.


Modern personal armour

A modern ballistic vest.
A modern ballistic vest.

Today, bullet proof vests made of ballistic cloth (e.g Kevlar®, Dyneema®, Twaron®, Spectra® etc.) and ceramic or metal plates are common among police forces, security staff, corrections officers and in some branches of the military. For infantry applications, lighter protection (historically known as a flak jacket) is often used to protect soldiers from grenade fragments and indirect effects of bombardment, but usually not small arms fire. This is because assault rifles usually fire harder, higher-energy bullets than pistols, and the increased protection needed to stop these would be too cumbersome and heavy to use in combat. ImageMetadata File history File links Bodyarmor. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Bodyarmor. ... A bulletproof vest – also called body armour (U.S. body armor) – is an article of protective clothing that works as a form of armour to minimize injury from being hit by a fired bullet. ... Kevlar is the DuPont Companys brand name for material made out of synthetic fiber of poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide which is constructed of para-aramid fibers that the company claims is five times stronger than the same weight of steel, while being lightweight, flexible and comfortable. ... Dyneema® is a synthetic fiber based on UHMWPE, 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Spectra is the plural of spectrum. ... For the band, see The Police. ... A security guard is a private person who is employed to protect property and people. ... A prison officer is a person charged with the responsibility of the supervision of prisoners in a prison. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... A flak jacket is a MILSPEC jacket used by troops in wartime conditions. ... A soldier is a person who serves in an armed force for pay. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire directed against fortifications, troops or towns and buildings. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Combat, or fighting, is purposeful violent conflict between one or more persons or organizations, often intended to establish dominance over the opposition. ...


The US Army has adopted Interceptor Body Armor, however, which uses ceramic plates in the chest and back of the armour. Each plate is rated to stop 3 hits from a 7.62 round at a range of 10m, though accounts in Iraq and Afghanistan tell of soldiers shot as much as seven times in the chest without penetration. However, as the name implies, modern ballistic armour is much less impervious to stabbing weapons unless they are augmented with anti-knife/anti-stab armour. This article or section needs to be updated. ...


See also

Commons logo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Armour

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Jousting is a staple entertainment at Renaissance Fairs. ... Portrait: Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden in military dress uniform, with medals. ... Battledress is a general term for the military uniform worn into combat, as opposed to display dress and formal uniforms worn at parades and functions. ... Statue showing a Gallic shield with a butterfly boss. ... Military history is information composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Military vehicles are commonly armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets or shells, protecting the soldiers inside from enemy fire. ... This is a List of armoured fighting vehicles worldwide. ... PzKpfw V-D, a Panther tank   Panzer? is German for armour. ... RHA stands for Rolled Homogeneous Armour. ... Hillbilly armor is improvised armour for humvees made by attaching scrap metal. ... Conceptual drawing of an exoskeleton produced by the U.S Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. ...

External links

  • Medieval Armor and its History
  • Japanese Sword and Armor
  • Bullet Resistant Armour
  • Ballistic Testing and Armour Evaluation

  Results from FactBites:
 
Armor - WoWWiki - Your guide to the World of Warcraft (663 words)
Armor is a class of items that mitigate damage and are equipped in the different armor slots (head, shoulder, back, chest, wrist, hands, waist, legs, feet, and off-hand for shield).
This sort of armor contributes to the Armor attribute, a numerical value that translates into physical damage mitigation in combat.
Given a constant melee DPS amount, each additional point of armor (whether it be from 0 to 1 or from 30000 to 30001) will increase the tanks time to live by the same effective amount.
Armor - GuildWiki (1035 words)
Armor is the equipment that a character wears to reduce damage.
All armor is customized for their owners, thus armor received in a trade cannot be worn (unless, of course, the armor you are getting was once yours).
If you put an armor piece in storage, delete the character, and create a new character with the exact same name and profession, that new character will not be able to wear the old armor.
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