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Encyclopedia > Armenian language
Armenian
Հայերեն Hayeren
Spoken in: Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh (de facto a republic, de-jure part of Azerbaijan), and the Armenian diaspora
Total speakers: 7 million 
Ranking: 87
Language family: Indo-European
 Armenian
 
Writing system: Armenian alphabet 
Official status
Official language of: Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh
Regulated by: National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
Language codes
ISO 639-1: hy
ISO 639-2: arm (B)  hye (T)
ISO 639-3: hye

The Armenian language (հայերեն լեզու, IPA: [hajɛɹɛn lɛzu]hayeren lezu, conventional short form hayeren) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as Nagorno-Karabakh (a de facto republic but de-jure part of Azerbaijan). The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora. Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Map of the Armenian diaspora. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the 5th century. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... The Armenian Academy of Sciences, is an institution based in Aragatsotn, Armenia. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... This article is about Armenians as an ethnic group. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Map of the Armenian diaspora. ...


Linguists standardly classify Armenian as an independent branch of the Indo-European language family. Some Indo-Europeanists, notably Clackson (1994), have proposed that Armenian may have been grouped together with the Hellenic branch (Greek). This is called the Graeco-Armenian Hypothesis, in combination with a Graeco-Aryan hypothesis (Colin Renfrew, Clackson and Fortson 1994). Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) refers to the hypothesis that the Greek language and the Armenian language share a common ancestor post-dating the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). ... Graeco-Aryan refers to a hypothesis that the Proto-Greek and the Proto-Indo-Iranian languages share a common history separate from the remaining Indo-European languages. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ...

Contents

History

History of the
Armenian language

(see also: Armenian alphabet)
Proto-Armenian
Graeco-Armenian hypothesis
Classical Armenian (from 405)
Middle Armenian (c. 1100–1700)
Modern Armenian (c. 1820 to present)
Eastern Armenian
Western Armenian

The Armenian language (, IPA: — , conventional short form ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. ... The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the 5th century. ... The earliest testimony of the Armenian language dates to the 5th century AD (the Bible translation of Mesrob Mashtots). ... Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) refers to the hypothesis that the Greek language and the Armenian language share a common ancestor post-dating the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). ... Grabar meaning literary, Armenian was very developed by the time it came to be written down at the beginning of the 5th century. ... Middle Armenian (c. ... Eastern Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian (an Indo-European language), spoken in the Caucasus mountains (particularly in the Armenian Republic). ... Western Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian, an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian diaspora, mainly in North America, Europe and most of the Middle East except for Iran. ...

Origins

Main article: Proto-Armenian
See also: Armenian hypothesis

The Armenian language dates to the early period of Indo-European differentiation and dispersion some 5000 years ago, or perhaps as early as 7,800 years ago according to some recent research. [1] The earliest testimony of the Armenian language dates to the 5th century AD (the Bible translation of Mesrob Mashtots). ... The Armenian hypothesis of the Proto-Indo-European Urheimat, based on the Glottalic theory assumes that the Proto-Indo-European language was spoken during the 3rd millennium BC in the Armenian Highland. ...


Graeco-Armenian hypothesis

Main article: Graeco-Armenian hypothesis

Armenian is regarded by some linguists as a close relative of Phrygian. Many scholars such as Clackson (1994) hold that Greek is the most closely related surviving language to Armenian. The characteristically Greek representation of word-initial laryngeals by prothetic vowels is shared by Armenian, which also shares other phonological and morphological peculiarities of Greek. The close relatedness of Armenian and Greek sheds light on the paraphyletic nature of the Centum-Satem isogloss. Armenian also shares major isoglosses with Greek; some linguists propose that the linguistic ancestors of the Armenians and Greeks were either identical or in a close contact relation. However other linguists including Fortson (2004) comment "by the time we reach our earliest Armenian records in the 5th century A.D., the evidence of any such early kinship has been reduced to a few tantalizing pieces." Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) refers to the hypothesis that the Greek language and the Armenian language share a common ancestor post-dating the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ... The laryngeals were three consonant sounds that appear in most current reconstructions of the Proto-Indo-European language. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Diachronic map showing the Centum (blue) and Satem (red) areals. ... Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ...


Speculations on Anatolian influence

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian  · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic  · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Iranian, Indo-Aryan)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian ·
Thracian · Phrygian) Tocharian For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ...

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans ·
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)  ·
Germanic tribes · Celts (Gauls, Galatians)
Italic peoples  · Indo-Iranians (Iranian tribes)
Illyrians  · Thracians  · Tocharians   For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... This are some historical Germanic Confederations 230 BC - Bastarnae, a mixture of Germanic tribes, at the Black Sea; they participated in the siege of Olbia (modern Odessa) in 220 BC. 109 BC - Huge confederation composed of the Germanic of Cimbri and Teutoni and the Celtic-Germanic Helvetii formed near Miltenberg... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, a branch of Indo-European languages, or descended from those who did. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

W. M. Austin in 1942 concluded[2] that there was an early contact between Armenian and Anatolian languages, based on what he considered common archaisms, such as the lack of a feminine, the absence of inherited long vowels and the centum character. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in or nearby Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... Centum is the collective name for the branches of Indo-European in which the so-called Satem shift, the change of palato-velar *k^, *g^, *g^h into fricatives or affricates, did not take place, and the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh). ...


Iranian influence

The Classical Armenian language (often referred to as grabar, literally "written (language)") imported numerous words from Middle Iranian languages, primarily Parthian, and contains smaller inventories of borrowings from Greek, Syriac, Latin, and autochthonous languages such as Urartian. Middle Armenian (11th–15th centuries AD) incorporated further loans from Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Latin, and the modern dialects took in hundreds of additional words from Modern Turkish and Persian. Therefore, determining the historical evolution of Armenians is particularly difficult because Armenian borrowed many words from Parthian and Persian (both Iranian languages) as well as from Greek. The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... Urartian is the conventional name for the language spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu in Northeast Anatolia (present-day Turkey), in the region of Lake Van. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ...


The large percentage of loans from Iranian languages initially led linguists to classify Armenian as an Iranian language. The distinctness of Armenian was only recognized when Hübschmann (1875) used the comparative method to distinguish two layers of Iranian loans from the true Armenian vocabulary. The two modern literary dialects, Western (originally associated with writers in the Ottoman Empire) and Eastern (originally associated with writers in the Russian Empire), removed almost all of their Turkish lexical influences in the 20th century, primarily following the Armenian Genocide. The comparative method (in comparative linguistics) is a technique used by linguists to demonstrate genetic relationships between languages. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ...


Phonology

Vowels

Part of the series on
Armenians
Հայեր

Armenian culture
Architecture · Art · Cinema ·
Cuisine · Dance · Dress ·
Literature · Music · Media ·
Religion · Sport · Vartavar Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... mao mao mao the mao is back mao mao mao mao mao charlie was here outta my system its me sniches Insert non-formatted text here Italic textBold textfat Over the years Armenia has developed a modern, unique and successful culture. ... The monastery of Geghard in Kotayk, Armenia. ... Armenian cuisine is as ancient as the history of Armenia, and a combination of different tastes and aromas. ... A traditional Armenian dance The Armenian dance heritage has been one of the oldest, richest and most varied in the Near East. ... The dress of the Armenians have been complimented by a rich cultural tradition. ... The existing Armenian literature begins around 400 AD. History The Armenians once had a temple literature of their own, which was destroyed in the 4th and 5th centuries by the Christian clergy, so thoroughly that barely twenty lines of it survive in the history of Moses of Khoren (Chorene). ... Armenia is situated close to the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyans well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music, due to Armenias status as the oldest Christian nation in the... Vartavar (also known as Vardevar or Vardavar, Armenian: ) is a festival in Armenia where people of all ages drench each other with water. ...

By country or region
Armenia · Nagorno-Karabakh
Armenian diaspora Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Map of the Armenian diaspora. ...

Subgroups
Cherkesogai · Hamshenis Cherkesogai is a sub-group of the Armenians. ... The Hamshenis (also known as Hemshinlis or Khemshils; Õ€Õ¡Õ´Õ·Õ«Õ¶Õ« in Armenian; HemÅŸinli in Turkish; Амшенцы in Russian) are an ethnic group of Armenian origin that inhabit the Black Sea coastal areas of Turkey, Russia, and Georgia (Abkhazia). ...

Religion
Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Catholic Church ·
Armenian Evangelical Church Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... The Armenian Evangelical Church (Armenian: Հայ Աւետարանական Եկեղեցի) was established on July 1, 1846 by thirty-seven men and three women in Constantinople. ...

Languages and dialects
Armenian
Eastern Armenian · Western Armenian Eastern Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian (an Indo-European language), spoken in the Caucasus mountains (particularly in the Armenian Republic). ... Western Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian, an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian diaspora, mainly in North America, Europe and most of the Middle East except for Iran. ...

Armenian History The history of Armenia is ancient and stretches back to prehistoric times. ...

Persecution
Armenian Genocide · Hamidian massacres ·
Adana massacre · Anti-Armenianism Armenian Genocide photo. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire, in April 1909. ... Bodies of Armenians killed during the 1915 Armenian Genocide. ...

v  d  e

Modern Armenian has eight monophthong vowel sounds.

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i ʏ     u
Mid ɛ œ ə   o
Open       ɑ  

Classical Armenian distinguishes seven vowels: /a/, /ɪ/, /ə/ (schwa), /ɛ/ (open e), /e/ (closed e), /o/, and /u/ (transcribed as a, i, ə, e, ē, o, ow and u respectively). Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... Exolabial and endolabial [ʏ] in Swedish. ... Exolabial and endolabial [ʏ] in Swedish. ... Exolabial and endolabial [ʏ] in Swedish. ... Exolabial and endolabial [ʏ] in Swedish. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Grabar meaning literary, Armenian was very developed by the time it came to be written down at the beginning of the 5th century. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...


Consonants

The following table lists the Eastern Armenian consonantal system. The occlusives and affricates have a special aspirated series (transcribed with a Greek spiritus asper after the letter): p῾, t῾, c῾, č῾, k῾. Each phoneme in the table is represented by three symbols. The topmost indicates the phoneme's pronunciation in International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA); below that appears the corresponding letter of the Armenian alphabet; and the bottom symbol is its Latin-alphabet transliteration (according to ISO 9985). A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the 5th century. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The international standard ISO 9985 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Armenian characters. ...

  bilabial labio-
dental
alveolar post-
alveolar
palatal velar /
uvular
glottal
plosive p  b
պ  բ
p  b
  t  d
տ  դ
t  d
    k  g
կ  գ
k  g
 
aspirated plosive
փ
p‘
 
թ
t‘
   
ք
k‘
 
nasal m
մ
m
  n
ն
n
       
fricative   f  v
ֆ  վ
f  v
s  z
ս  զ
s  z
ʃ  ʒ
շ  ժ
š  ž
  χ  ʁ
խ  ղ
x  ġ
h
հ
h
affricate     t͡s  d͡z
ծ  ձ
ç  j
t͡ʃ  t͡ʒ
ճ  ջ
č̣  j
     
aspirated affricate     t͡sʰ
ց
c‘
t͡ʃʰ
չ
č
     
approximant     ɹ
ր
r
  j
-յ-
y
   
trill     r
ռ
       
lateral approximant     l
լ
l
       

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ...

Morphology

Armenian manuscript 5-6 cc.
Armenian manuscript 5-6 cc.

Armenian corresponds with other Indo-European languages in its structure, but it shares distinctive sounds and features of its grammar with neighboring languages of the Caucasus region. Armenian is rich in combinations of consonants. Both classical Armenian and the modern spoken and literary dialects have a complicated system of declining nouns, with six or seven noun cases but no gender. In modern Armenian the use of auxiliary verbs to show tense (comparable to will in "he will go") has generally supplemented the inflected verbs of classical Armenian. Negative verbs are conjugated differently from positive ones (as in English "he goes" and "he does not go"). Grammatically, early forms of Armenian had much in common with classical Greek and Latin, but the modern language, like modern Greek, has undergone many transformations. Interestingly enough, it shares the common -tion suffix with Latin (the Armenian cognate is t'youn, թյուն). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Manuscript_arm_5-6AD.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenian language ... Image File history File links Manuscript_arm_5-6AD.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenian language ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Lord Byron studied the Armenian language. He helped to compile an Armenian grammar textbook and translated a few Armenian books into English. “Byron” redirects here. ...


Noun

Classical Armenian has no grammatical gender, not even in the pronoun. The nominal inflection, however, preserves several types of inherited stem classes. The noun may take seven cases, nominative, accusative, locative, genitive, dative, ablative, instrumental. In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Dative has several meanings. ... In linguistics, the ablative case is a noun case found in several languages, including Latin, Sanskrit and in the Finno_Ugric languages. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ...


Verb

Main article: Armenian verbs

Verbs in Armenian have an expansive system of conjugation with two main verb types (three in Western Armenian) changing form based on tense, mood and aspect. The verbal morphology of Armenian is fairly simple in theory, but is complicated by the existence of two main dialects, Eastern and Western. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ...


Dialects

The major division is between the Eastern and Western dialects. The most distinctive feature of Western Armenian is that it has undergone several phonetic mergers; these may be due to proximity to Arabic and Turkish-speaking communities.


For example, Eastern Armenian speakers pronounce (թ) as an aspirated "t" as in "tiger", (դ) like the "d" in "develop", and (տ) as an unaspirated voiceless stop, sounding somewhere between the two as in "stop." Western Armenian has simplified the stop system into a simple division between voiced stops and voiceless aspirate ones; the first series corresponds to the unaspirated voiceless series of Eastern Armenian, and the second corresponds to the Eastern voiced and aspirated voiceless series. Thus, the Western dialect pronounces both (թ) and (դ) as an aspirated "t" as in "tiger," and the (տ) letter is pronounced like the letter "d" as in "develop."


There is no precise linguistic border between one dialect and another because there is nearly always a dialect transition zone of some size between pairs of geographically identified dialects). The main difference between both blocks are:

Armenian can be subdivided in two major dialectal blocks and those blocks into individual dialects, though many of the Western Armenian dialects have died due to the effects of the Armenian Genocide. In addition, neither dialect is completely homogeneous: any dialect can be subdivided into several subdialects. While Western and Eastern Armenian are often described as different dialects of the same language, some subdialects are not readily mutually intelligible. It is true, however, that a fluent speaker of two greatly varying subdialects who are exposed to the other dialect over even a short period of time will be able to understand the other with relative ease. Western Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian, an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian diaspora, mainly in North America, Europe and most of the Middle East except for Iran. ... Eastern Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian (an Indo-European language), spoken in the Caucasus mountains (particularly in the Armenian Republic). ...


English - Eastern Armenian

  • Yes = Ayo (այո)
  • No = Voch (ոչ)
  • Excuse me = Neroghoutioun (ներողություն)
  • Hello = Barev (բարեւ)
  • Please = Khntrem (խնդրեմ)
  • Thank you = Shnorhakal em (շնորհակալ եմ)
  • Thank you very much = Shat shnorhakal em (շատ շնորհակալ եմ)
  • Welcome = Bari galust (բարի գալուստ) / Barov eq yekel
  • Goodbye = Tstesoutioun (ցտեսություն)
  • Good morning = Bari louys (բարի լույս)
  • Good afternoon = Bari or (բարի օր)
  • Good evening = Bari yereko (բարի երեկո)
  • Good night = Bari gisher (բարի գիշեր)
  • I love you = Yes sirum em qez (ես սիրում եմ քեզ)

English - Western Armenian

  • Yes = Ayo (այո)
  • No = Voch (ոչ)
  • Excuse me = Neroghoutioun (ներողութիւն)
  • Hello = Parev (բարեւ)
  • Please = Khntrem (խնդրեմ)
  • Thank you = Shnorhagal em (շնորհակալ եմ)
  • Thank you very much = Shad shnorhagal em (շատ շնորհակալ եմ)
  • Welcome = Pari yegar / Pari yegak (բարի եկար / բարի եկաք)
  • Goodbye = Tsdesoutioun (ցտեսութիւն)
  • Good morning = Pari louys (բարի լոյս)
  • Good afternoon = Pari or (բարի օր)
  • Good evening = Parirgoun / Pari irigoun (բարի իրկուն / բարի իրիկուն)
  • Good night = Kisher pari (գիշեր բարի)

Indo-European linguistic comparison

Armenian is an Indo-European language, and so many of its Proto-Indo-European-descended words are cognates of words in other Indo-European languages such as English, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit. This table lists only some of the more recognizable cognates that Armenian shares with English (more specifically, with English words descended from the Old English(Anglo-Saxon) language). (Source: Online Etymology Dictionary.[3]) For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

Armenian English Latin Classical and Hellenistic Greek Sanskrit PIE
mayr "mother" mother (< OE modor) mater "mother" meter "mother" matar "mother" *mater- "mother"
hayr "father" father (< OE fæder) pater "father" pater "father" pitar "father" *pater- "father"
ekhbayr "brother" brother (< OE brothor) frater "brother" phrater "brother" bhratar "brother" *bhrater "brother"
dustr "daughter" daughter (< OE dohtor) thygater "daughter" duhitar "daughter" *dhugheter "daughter"
kin "woman" queen (< OE cwen "queen, woman, wife") gyné "a woman, a wife" janis "woman" *gwen- "woman, wife"
im "my" my, mine (< OE min) mei "my" emeo "my" mama "my" *mene- "my, mine"
anun "name" name (< OE nama) nomen "name" onoma "name" nama "name" *nomn- "name"
out "8" eight (< OE eahta) octo "eight" okto "eight" astau "eight" *okto "eight"
ine "9" nine (< OE nigen) novem "nine" ennea "nine" nava "nine" *newn "nine"
tase "10" ten (< OE ten, tien) (< P.Gmc. *tekhan) decem "ten" deka "ten" dasa "ten" *dekm "ten"
achk "eye" eye (< OE ege, eage) oculus "eye" opsis "a sight" akshi "eye" *oqw- "to see"
armunk "elbow" arm (< OE earm "joined body parts below shoulder") armus "shoulder" arthron "a joint" irmah "arm" *ar- "fit, join (that which is fitted together)"
tsunk "knee" knee (< OE cneo, cneow) genu "knee" gony "knee" janu "knee" *geneu "knee"
votk "foot" foot (< OE fot) pedis "foot" podos "foot" padam "foot" *pod-, *ped- "foot"
sirt "heart" heart (< OE heorte) cor, cordis "heart" kardia "heart" hrdaya "heart" *kerd- "heart"
kashi "skin" hide (< OE hyd "animal skin cover") cutis "skin" keutho "to cover, to hide" caadayati "hide" *keu- "to cover, conceal"
muk "mouse" mouse (< OE mus) mus "mouse" mys "mouse" mus "mouse" *muhs "mouse, small rodent"
kov "cow" cow (< OE cu) bos, bovis "cow" bous "cow" gaus "cow" *gwous "cow"
shun "hound" hound (< OE hund "hound, dog") canis, caninus "hound, dog" (canine) kyon "hound, dog" svan "dog" *kwon- "hound, dog"
tari "year" year (< OE gear, ger) hornus "of this year" hora "year" varsa "year" *yer-, *yor- "year"
amis "month" moon, month (< OE mona, monath) mensis "month" mene, men "moon, month" masah "moon, month" *menses- "moon, month"
amar "summer" summer (< OE sumor) sama "season" *sem- "hot season of the year"
jerm "warm" warm (< OE wearm) formus "warm" thermos "warm" gharmah "heat" *ghwerm- "warm"
luys "light" light (< OE leht, leoht "brightness") lucere, lux, lucidus "to shine, light, clear" leukos "bright, shining, white" aloka "light" *leuk- "light, brightness"
hur "fire, torch" fire (< OE fyr) pyr "fire" pu "fire" *paewr- "fire"
heru "far" far (< OE feorr "to a great distance") per "through" pera "beyond" parah "farther" *per- "through, across, beyond"
helum "I pour" flow (< OE flowan) pluere "to rain" plyno, pleo "I wash, swim or go by sea" plavate "swim" *pleu- "flow, float"
utem "I eat" eat (< OE etan) edere "to eat" (edible) edo "I eat" admi "I eat" *ed- "to eat"
gitem "I know" wit (< OE wit, witan "intelligence, to know") video "I see" woida "I know" veda "I know" *weid- "to know, to see"
gorts "work " work (< OE weorc, worc) urgere "push, drive" ergon "work" varcas "activity" *werg- "to work"
mets "great " much (< OE micel "great, big, many") magnus "great" megas "great, large" maha "great" *meg- "great"
antsanot "stranger, unfamiliar" unknown (< OE uncnawen, ungecnawen (un "not" + ge "to get to" + cnawen "know")) incognitus "in (not) + co (to get to) + gnitus (know)" (incognito) agnotos "unknown" ajnatah "unfamiliar" *n- + *gno- "not" + "to know"
merats "dead" murder (< OE morthor) mortalis "mortal" ambrotos "immortal" mrtih "death" *mrtro-, from (*mor-, *mr-) "to die"
mejtel "middle" mid, middle (< OE mid, middel) medius "middle" mesos "middle" madhya "middle" *medhjo- from *me- "mid, middle"
jour "water" water (< OE wæter) unda "wave" hydor "water" udnah "water" (*wodor, *wedor, *uder-) from *wed- "water"
ayl "other" else (< OE elles "other, otherwise, different") alius, alienus "other, another" allos "other, another" anya "other" *al- "beyond, other"
nore "new" new (< OE neowe) novus "new" neos "new" navah "new" *newos "new"
p'ul gal "downfall" fall (< OE feallan) galita "fallen" *phol- "to fall"
dur "door" door (< OE dor, doru, duru) foris "door" thura "door" dvarah "door" *dhwer-, *dhwor- "door, doorway, gate"

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

See also

Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the 5th century. ... Western Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian, an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian diaspora, mainly in North America, Europe and most of the Middle East except for Iran. ... Eastern Armenian is one of the two modern dialects of Armenian (an Indo-European language), spoken in the Caucasus mountains (particularly in the Armenian Republic). ... Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) refers to the hypothesis that the Greek language and the Armenian language share a common ancestor post-dating the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Nicholas Wade, "Biological dig for the roots of language," International Herald Tribune, (March 18, 2004) 10; Gray & Atkinson, "Anatolian Theory of Indo-European origin," 437.
  2. ^ Austin, William M. (Jan. - Mar., 1942). "Is Armenian an Anatolian Language?:Language, Vol. 18, No. 1": 22-25. DOI:10.2307/409074. 
  3. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. etymonline.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Clackson, James. 1994. The Linguistic Relationship Between Armenian and Greek. London: Publications of the Philological Society, No 30. (and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing)
  • Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004) Indo-European Language and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Hübschmann, Heinrich (1875) "Über die Stellung des armenischen im Kreise der indogermanischen Sprachen," Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 23.5-42. English translation
  • Mallory, J. P. (1989) In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth. London: Thames & Hudson.
  • Vaux, Bert. 1998. The Phonology of Armenian. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Armenian language (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia (463 words)
Armenian language, member of the Thraco-Phrygian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Indo-European).
Today Armenian is the mother tongue of more than 5 million people, of whom over 3 million live in Armenia; 1 million live elsewhere in the republics of the former Soviet Union; and the rest are in the Middle East, the Balkans, and the United States.
For example, Armenian has absorbed words from Persian, owing to Parthian domination in the centuries immediately before and after Jesus, from Greek and Syriac as a result of Christian influence, from French during the Crusades, and from Turkish in the course of several centuries of Turkish rule.
Armenian Alphabet by www.haias.net (1448 words)
The Armenian alphabet was derived primarily from the Greek alphabet in the fifth century and consists of thirty eight (originally thirty six) letters.
Armenian is the official language in Armenia and is used in schools and by the media.
Armenians of the diaspora have gained renewed interest in their homeland as a result of the Armenian revolution and the establishment of the Republic of Armenia.
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