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Encyclopedia > Armenian genocide
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Armenian Genocide photo. Armin T. Wegner © Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen. All rights reserved.
Armenian Genocide photo. Armin T. Wegner © Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen. All rights reserved.
Armenian Genocide
Background
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire · Armenian Question · Hamidian Massacres · 1896 Ottoman Bank Takeover · Yıldız Attempt · Adana Massacre · Young Turk Revolution
The Genocide

Armenian notables deported from the Ottoman capital · Tehcir Law · Armenian casualties of deportations · Ottoman Armenian casualties  · Labour battalion Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixel Image in higher resolution (1909 × 1359 pixel, file size: 329 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a faithful digitalization of a unique historic photograph, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the photographer... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixel Image in higher resolution (1909 × 1359 pixel, file size: 329 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a faithful digitalization of a unique historic photograph, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the photographer... It has been suggested that Ottoman Armenian be merged into this article or section. ... The term Armenian question in European history, become common place among diplomatic circles and in the popular press after Congress of Berlin; that in like Eastern Question, refers to powers of Europes involvement to the Armenian subjects beginning with the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 in the Ottoman... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... The 1986 Ottoman Bank Takeover was the seizing of the Ottoman Bank in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire on August 26, 1896 by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak Party). ... Picture dramatizing the Yildiz attempt. ... The Adana massacre occurred in the city of Adana, in the Ottoman Empire, in April 1909. ... The 1908 Young Turk Revolution even though a popular constitutional movement, was a watershed in the history of the late Ottoman Empire. ... The number of Armenian notables deported from Ä°stanbul/Constantinople in 1915 in the larger framework of Armenian deportations in the Ottoman Empire, plausibly part of that same vast and organized processus, differ greatly from one source to the other. ... the Tehcir Law Tehcir Law (Immigration law) of the parliament of 1912 of the Ottoman Empire was passed on May 27, 1915, begin to be enforced on June 1-1915 with the publication in the Takvim-I Vakayi until February 8-1916. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The number of Ottoman Armenian deaths between 1914 to 1923 during the Armenian Genocide and what followed during the Turkish War of Independence is a subject of controversy. ... A labour battalion (Turkish: Amele Taburu, Greek: Τάγμα Εργασίας Tagma Ergasias) was a form of unfree labor in late Ottoman Empire and later in Turkish Repubic [1] [2] [3]. In them, mostly young and healthy people were forced to work by the Ottoman Administration during the First World War and the Turkish...

Major extermination centers:
Bitlis · Deir ez-Zor · Diyarbakır · Erzurum · Kharput · Muş · Sivas · Trabzon Bitlis is a city in Turkey, capital of Bitlis Province. ... Dayr az Zawr, or Deir ez Zor, town (1994 est. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... Erzurum (Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ«Õ¶ (Karin) in Armenian) is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. ... Elazığ is a city in the Elazığ Province of eastern Turkey and the seat of the province. ... Shows the Location of the Province MuÅŸ MuÅŸ (alternative transliteration: Mush) is a province in eastern Turkey. ... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: , Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ...

Resistance:
Zeitun  · Van · Musa Dagh · Urfa · Shabin-Karahisar · Armenian militia Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian Militia of Armenakans (Ramkavars), Hnchakians (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party), and Dashnaktsutiun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation) Armenian resistance is the military and political activities of the Armenian militia or (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, Armenakan, Armenian Revolutionary Federation) against the Ottoman Empire during the World War One. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire members of Hunchaks (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party) Strength 2nd conflict: 69 grandes, 612 gun, 21 hand-gun, 70 horses Casualties Over 100 soldiers. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian residents of Van Commanders Jevdet Bey Armenak Yekaryan Strength 12,000 1,500 Casualties  ? 12,000 ? (mass civilian casualties) For the conflict of 1896 see Defense of Van. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Germany Armenian militia of ARF Commanders Megerdich Yotneghpayrian Casualties  ?  ? The Armenian resistance in Urfa during the Armenian genocide took place as a reaction to Turkish actions. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Hunchaks (members of the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party) Shabin-Karahisar resistance (June 2-June 30, 1915) was the resistance of the Armenian militia of the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (Hunchaks) of the Giresun Province. ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ...

Foreign aid and relief:
Reactions · American Committee for Relief in the Near East American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief after 1918 American Committee for Relief in the Near East (ACRNE) in short Near East Relief was a relief organization (charity) established during the World War One which was specifically promoted by Henry Morgenthau, Sr. ...

Responsible parties

Young Turks:
Talat · Enver · Djemal · Committee of Union and Progress · Teskilati Mahsusa · The Special Organization · Ottoman Army · Kurdish Irregulars · Topal Osman The Young Turks (Turkish Jön Türkler (plural), from French Jeunes Turcs, Turkish: Genç Türkler) was a coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of Ottoman Empire. ... Talat Pasha Mehmed Talat Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet Talat PaÅŸa) (1874-1921) was one of the leaders of the Young Turks, an Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Sublime Porte from 1913 until 1918. ... Ismail Enver Ä°smail Enver (اسماعيل انور) , known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ... Ahmed Djemal Pasha Ahmed Djemal Pasha (Turkish: Ahmet Cemal PaÅŸa) (May 6, 1872 - July 21, 1922) was born in Midilli. ... Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ... Teskilati Mahsusa (ottoman: TeÅŸkilat-i Mahsusa) is an Ottoman imperial government organization, which dealed with both Arab separatism and Western imperialism. ... Special Organization was name given to a three member executive committee established by the Committee of Union and Progress of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article details the military of the Ottoman Empire. ... now. ... Topal Osman, not to be confused with the earlier Topal Osman Pasha, was late Ottoman and early Turkish colonel. ...

Aftermath
Courts-Martial · Operation Nemesis · Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire · Denial of the Genocide
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The Armenian Genocide (Armenian: Հայոց Ցեղասպանութիւն ("Hayoc' c'ejaspanut'iwn"), Turkish: Ermeni Soykırımı) — also known as the Armenian Holocaust, Great Calamity (Մեծ Եղեռն "Mec Ejer'n" ) or the Armenian Massacre — refers to the slaughter[1] and fatal deportation of hundreds of thousands to over a million Armenians as well as intentional and irreversible ruination of their economic and cultural life environments during the government of the Young Turks from 1915 to 1917 in the Ottoman Empire. [2] Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919-1920 were court martials of the Ottoman Empire after the armistice of Mudros during the aftermath the World War One, which the leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress and selected former officials had court-martial with/including the charges of subversion of the... Operation Nemesis is the Armenian Revolutionary Federation code-name for the covert operation in the 1920s to assassinate the Turkish masterminds of the Armenian Genocide. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... Turkish Denial: To have genocide denied is to die twice — An advertisement for the Armenian Genocide Commemoration Holiday on 24th April, 2006 posted in The Times newspaper. ... The Young Turks (Turkish Jön Türkler (plural), from French Jeunes Turcs, Turkish: Genç Türkler) was a coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of Ottoman Empire. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...


The Republic of Turkey rejects the notion that the event constitutes genocide, claiming rather that the Armenian deaths were a result of inter-ethnic strife, disease and famine during the turmoil of World War I. However, most Armenian, Russian and Western scholars, and a number of Turkish scholars believe that it was indeed the first major genocide of the 20th century,[3] or a campaign of state-sponsored ethnic cleansing and mass extermination. For example, some Western sources point to the sheer scale of the death toll as evidence for a systematic, organized plan to eliminate the Armenians. The event is also said to be the second-most studied case of genocide,[4] and often draws comparison with the Holocaust. To date twenty-one countries have officially recognized it as genocide. Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide. ... The number of Ottoman Armenian deaths between 1914 to 1923 during the Armenian Genocide and what followed during the Turkish War of Independence is a subject of controversy. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

Contents

Ottoman Armenian population

According to sources, in 1914, before World War I, there were an estimated two million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. The vast majority of Armenians were of the Armenian Apostolic faith, though a significant minority belonged to the Armenian Catholic Church, and several very small religious groups were affiliated with Protestant denominations. While the Armenian population in Eastern Anatolia (also called Western Armenia) was large and clustered, there were large numbers of Armenians in the western part of the Ottoman Empire. Many lived in the capital city. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... now. ...

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links LusignanCOA.gif‎ Coat of Arms of the Lusignan Dynasty of Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


History of Armenia The history of Armenia is ancient and stretches back to prehistoric times. ...

Early History
Haik
Armens
Hayasa-Azzi
Nairi
Kingdom of Urartu
Kingdom of Armenia
Orontid Armenia
Artaxiad Dynasty
Arsacid Dynasty
Medieval History
Marzpanate Period
Byzantine Armenia
Bagratuni Armenia
Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Foreign Rule
Persian Domination
Ottoman Domination
Russian Domination
Hamidian Massacres
Armenian Genocide
Early Independence
Democratic Republic of Armenia
Soviet Armenia
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Modern Armenia
Republic of Armenia
Topical
Military history of Armenia
Timeline of Armenian history
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Statue of Haik in Yerevan Haik (Also spelled Hayk or Haig) is the legendary patriarch and establisher of the first Armenian nation. ... Armens, located in the Armenian Highland, the people are usually referred to as Arman, Armenic. ... Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of the Euphrates and to the South of Hayasa. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. ... The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... Marzpanate period is the time in Armenian history after the fall of the Arshakuni Dynasty of Armenia in 428, when most of Armenia was governed by Marzbans (Governors-general of the boundaries), nominated by the Sassanid Persian King. ... Byzantine Armenia is the name given to the Armenian part of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Persian Armenia, AD 387-591 Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. ... It has been suggested that Ottoman Armenian be merged into this article or section. ... Eastern Armenia or Russian Armenia is the portion of Ottoman Armenia that was ceded to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... State motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... The military history of Armenia encompasses a period of several thousand years, as the Armenian people have existed as a nation since the Late Bronze Age. ... // 883 BC: Foundation of the Kingdom of Urartu with Aramé. 834-828 BC: Reign of Sarduri I who constructs Tushpa (Van). ...

The status of the Ottoman Armenians

Until the late 19th century, Armenians were referred to as millet-i sadıka (loyal nation) by the Ottomans.[5] Under the millet system of Ottoman law, Armenians (as dhimmis or recognized non-Muslims, along with Greeks, Jews and other ethnic and religious groups) were subject to separate laws from those that applied to Muslims. They had separate legal courts, although disputes involving a Muslim fell under the sharia-based laws. Armenians were exempt from serving in the military and were instead forced to pay an exemption tax, the jizya; their testimony in Islamic courts was inadmissible against Muslims; they were not allowed to bear arms, they were heavily taxed, and they were treated overall as second-class subjects.[6] Although the largest minority present in the Ottoman Empire, Armenians, being Christians, were in effect infidels in the eyes of Muslims, as described by British ethnographer William Ramsay: Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on free non-Muslim adult males who are neither old nor sick nor monks [1], in exchange for being allowed to live, practice their faith, subject to certain conditions, and to... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... An infidel (literally, one without faith) is one who doubts or rejects central tenets of a religion, especially those regarding its deities. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... Sir William Mitchell Ramsay (March 15, 1851 - April 20, 1939) was a British archaeologist. ...

Turkish rule...meant unutterable contempt...The Armenians (and the Greeks) were dogs and pigs...to be spat upon, if their shadow darkened a Turk, to be outraged, to be the mats on which he wiped the mud from his feet. Conceive the inevitable result of centuries of slavery, of subjection to insult and scorn, centuries in which nothing that belonged to the Armenian, neither his property, his house, his life, his person, nor his family, was sacred or safe from violence—capricious, unprovoked violence—to resist which by violence meant death.[7]

The long ruling Sultan Hamid suspended the constitution early in his reign (1876-1909) and ruled as he saw fit. Despite pressure brought to bear on the Sultan by major European countries to treat Christian minorities more gently, abuses increased. Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: İkinci Abdülhamid) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ...


After the Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, the Russians took control of a large swath of territory inhabited by Armenians but ceded much of it after signing the Treaty of Berlin. The Russians claimed they were the protectors of Christians within the Ottoman Empire. The weakening control of the Ottoman government over its empire during the following fifteen years led many Armenians to believe that they could gain independence. Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty...


Before the war

For more details on this topic, see Young Turks, Young Turk Revolution, Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Hamidian massacres.

A minor Armenian unrest in Sasun was suppressed in 1894.[8] In what became known as the Hamidian massacres, an estimated over 80,000 Armenians (most figures range from 80,000 to 300,000) were killed in Ottoman pogroms and massacres between 1894 and 1897.[9] The Young Turks (Turkish Jön Türkler (plural), from French Jeunes Turcs, Turkish: Genç Türkler) was a coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of Ottoman Empire. ... The 1908 Young Turk Revolution even though a popular constitutional movement, was a watershed in the history of the late Ottoman Empire. ... // Balkan Wars The Ottoman army in the balkans was large and appeared on the surface to be modern. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Hunchaks (members of the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party) The First Sassoun resistance of 1894 (Armenian: Սասունի առաջին ապստամբութիւնը) was the resistance of the Hunchak militia of the Sassoun region. ... Region (Sasun) and family (Sanasuni) in Armenia, centered in Sasun. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Five years before World War I, the Ottoman Empire came under the control of the secular Young Turks. In an effort for constitutional reform, Abdul Hamid II was deposed and his younger brother Mehmed V was installed as a figurehead ruler. At first, some Armenian political organizations supported the Young Turks, in hopes that there would be a significant change for the better. Some Armenians were elected to the newly restored Ottoman Parliament, including Gabriel Noradoungian, who was elected by parliamentary members to briefly serve as the country's foreign minister. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... The Young Turks (Turkish Jön Türkler (plural), from French Jeunes Turcs, Turkish: Genç Türkler) was a coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of Ottoman Empire. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... // Political scientists have developed concepts of different ideal types of political parties in order to better compare them with each other. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


However, from 1910-1912 the leadership of the Young Turks split into several parts lead by two main factions: one faction, known as the Liberal Union, remained committed to liberalizing the country and establishing equal status amongst all minorities and; the second faction, the Committee of Union and Progress, was more radical and racist in its views and was headed by a triumvirate: Ismail Enver, Mehmed Talat Pasha and Ahmed Djemal.[10] The CUP rejected the Liberal Union's ideals and assumed full leadership of the country after assassinating the Minister of War, Nazim Pasha, a Union member in January 1913. Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver (November 22, 1881 in Istanbul - August 4, 1922), known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ... Talat Pasha Mehmed Talat Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet Talat PaÅŸa) (1874-1921) was one of the leaders of the Young Turks, an Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Sublime Porte from 1913 until 1918. ... Ahmed Djemal Pasha Ahmed Djemal Pasha (Turkish: Ahmet Cemal PaÅŸa) (May 6, 1872 - July 21, 1922) was born in Midilli. ...


Implementation of the Genocide

Planning

In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers when Ottoman gunboats attacked Russian naval bases and shipping in the Black Sea. In November 1914, Enver, now the Minister of War, launched a disastrous military campaign against Russian forces in the Caucasus in hopes of capturing Baku. Nearly 90% of the Ottoman IIIrd Army was destroyed by Russian forces in the Battle of Sarikamis and many more froze to death after Enver issued a retreat order in January 1915. Returning to Constantinople, Enver largely blamed the Armenians living in the region for actively siding with the Russians.[11] In 1914, the Ottoman Empire's War Office had already began a propaganda drive to present Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire as a liability and threat to the country's security. An Ottoman naval officer in the War Office described the planning: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: AZ10 Area code: +99412 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ...

In order to justify this enormous crime [of the Armenian Genocide] the requisite propaganda material was thoroughly prepared in Istanbul. [It included such statements as] "the Armenians are in league with the enemy. They will launch an uprising in Istanbul, kill off the Ittihadist leaders and will succeed in opening the straits [of the Dardanelles]." These vile and malicious incitements [were such, however, that they] could persuade only people who were not even able to feel the pangs of their own hunger.[12]

Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ...

Legislation

Further information: Tehcir Law
Mehmed Talat Pasha, one of the chief architects of the Armenian Genocide.

In May 1915, Talaat requested that government's cabinet and grand vizier pass and enact a law which would legitimize the deportations of Armenians living both near the Russian front and interior. On May 29, 1915, the CUP Central Committee passed the Temporary Law of Deportation, giving the Ottoman government and military authorization to deport anyone it "sensed" as a threat to national security.[13] Several months later, the Temporary Law of Expropriation and Confiscation was passed, stating that all property, including land, livestock and homes, belonging to Armenians was to be confiscated by the authorities. Only one politician in the Ottoman parliament, Senator Ahmed Riza, a founder-member of the Liberal Union, protested against the legislation: the Tehcir Law Tehcir Law (Immigration law) of the parliament of 1912 of the Ottoman Empire was passed on May 27, 1915, begin to be enforced on June 1-1915 with the publication in the Takvim-I Vakayi until February 8-1916. ... Image File history File links TalatPaÅŸa. ... Image File history File links TalatPaÅŸa. ... Talat Pasha Mehmed Talat Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet Talat PaÅŸa) (1874-1921) was one of the leaders of the Young Turks, an Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Sublime Porte from 1913 until 1918. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ...

It is unlawful to designate the Armenian assets as “abandoned goods” for the Armenians, the proprietors, did not abandon their properties voluntarily; they were forcibly, compulsorily removed from their domiciles and exiled. Now the government through its efforts is selling their goods...Nobody can sell my property if I am unwilling to sell it....If we are a constitutional regime functioning in accordance with constitutional law we can’t do this. This is atrocious. Grab my arm, eject me from my village, then sell my goods and properties, such a thing can never be permissible. Neither the conscience of the Ottomans nor the law can allow it.[14]

At the same time, Enver ordered that all Armenians in the Ottoman forces, some as old as sixty, to be disarmed, demobilized and assigned to labor battalion units (in Turkish, amele taburlari). Many of the Armenian recruits were taken and executed by Turkish soldiers and armed squads known as chetes (groups whose roles were similar to Nazi Germany's Einsatzgruppen) in remote areas.[15] Those who initially survived were turned into road laborers (hamals) and construction mules, but were eventually killed thereafter.[16] The Ottoman government also created a bureaucratic administration divided into three levels that were permitted to act freely from the governing establishment, similar to the Sonderkommandos formed by the Nazis during World War II. They were the Katibi Mesul, "Responsible Secretaries", Murrahas, "Delegates" and Umumi Müfettish, "General Inspectors". The administration's purpose was to ensure that the orders by the government were "implemented strictly."[17] A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Sonderkommandos were groups of Nazi death camp prisoners forced to aid the killing process. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In September 1895, the New York Times headlined a story as "Another Armenian Holocaust." During 1915, that paper published 145 articles about the mass murder of the Armenian people, describing the massacre as "systematic, "authorized" and "organized by the government." In 1918, Theodore Roosevelt called it "the greatest crime of the war." [18]


April 24

Armenian intellectuals were arrested and later executed en masse by Ottoman authorities on the night of April 24, 1915.
Armenian intellectuals were arrested and later executed en masse by Ottoman authorities on the night of April 24, 1915.

In a swift move enacted by the Ottoman government, an estimated 250 Armenians from the intelligentsia were arrested on the night of April 24, 1915.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (907x3061, 2014 KB)[edit] Summary Armenian intellectuals jailed and later executed on the night of April 24, 1915. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (907x3061, 2014 KB)[edit] Summary Armenian intellectuals jailed and later executed on the night of April 24, 1915. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ...


The Special Organization (Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa)

Further information: Teskilati Mahsusa  and  Special Organization (Ottoman Empire)

While there was an official 'special organization' founded in December 1911 by the Ottoman government, a second organization that participated in what led to the destruction of the Ottoman Armenian community was founded by the lttihad ve Terraki.[citation needed] This organization technically appeared in July 1914 and was supposed to differ from the one already existing in one important point; mostly according to the military court, it was meant to be a "government in a government" (needing no orders to act).[citation needed] Teskilati Mahsusa (ottoman: TeÅŸkilat-i Mahsusa) is an Ottoman imperial government organization, which dealed with both Arab separatism and Western imperialism. ... Special Organization was name given to a three member executive committee established by the Committee of Union and Progress of the Ottoman Empire. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization, established by Bahaeddin Sakir initially among Young Turks in 1906, during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Starving Armenian children
Starving Armenian children

Later in 1914, the Ottoman government decided to influence the direction the special organization was to take by releasing criminals from central prisons to be the central elements of this newly formed special organization.[citation needed] According to the Mazhar commissions attached to the tribunal as soon as November 1914, 124 criminals were released from Pimian prison. Many other releases followed; in Ankara a few months later, 49 criminals were released from its central prison.[citation needed] Little by little from the end of 1914 to the beginning of 1915, hundreds, then thousands of prisoners were freed to form the members of this organization. Later, they were charged to escort the convoys of Armenian deportees.[citation needed] Vehib, commander of the Ottoman Third Army, called those members of the special organization, the “butchers of the human species.”[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixel Image in higher resolution (940 × 649 pixel, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a faithful digitalization of a unique historic photograph, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the photographer... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixel Image in higher resolution (940 × 649 pixel, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a faithful digitalization of a unique historic photograph, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the photographer...


The organization was led by the Central Committee Members Doctor Nazim, Behaeddin Sakir, Atif Riza, and former Director of Public Security Aziz Bey.[citation needed] The headquarters of Behaeddin Sakir were in Erzurum, from where he directed the forces of the Eastern vilayets. Aziz, Atif and Nazim Beys operated in Istanbul, and their decisions were approved and implemented by Cevat Bey, the Military Governor of Istanbul.[citation needed] Behaeddin Shakir (d. ... Erzurum is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. ...


According to the military tribunals set up after the war and other records, the criminals were chosen by a process of selection.[citation needed] They had to be ruthless butchers to be selected as a member of the special organization.[citation needed] The Mazhar commission, during the military court, had provided some lists of those criminals.[citation needed] In one instance, of 65 criminals released, 50 were in prison for murder. Such a disproportionate ratio between those condemned for murder and others imprisoned for minor crimes is reported to have been generalized. This selection process of criminals was, according to some researchers in the field of comparative genocide studies, who specialize in the Armenian cases, clearly indicative of the government's intention to commit mass murder of its Armenian population.[citation needed]


Process and camps of deportation

Many went to the Syrian town of Deir ez-Zor and the surrounding desert. The fact that the Turkish government ordered the evacuation of ethnic Armenians at this time is not in dispute. It is claimed, based on a good deal of anecdotal evidence, that the Ottoman government did not provide any facilities or supplies to care for the Armenians during their deportation, nor when they arrived. The Ottoman government also prevented the deportees from supplying themselves. The Ottoman troops escorting the Armenians not only allowed others to rob, kill and rape the Armenians, but often participated in these activities themselves. In any event, the foreseeable consequence of the government's decision to move the Armenians was a significant number of deaths. Dayr az Zawr, or Deir ez Zor, town (1994 est. ...


It is believed that twenty-five major concentration camps existed, under the command of Şükrü Kaya, one of the right hands of Talat Pasha.[20] Mehmed Talat Pasha was one of leaders of the Young Turks , Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Ottoman government from 1913 to 1918. ...

Major concentration camps
Major concentration camps
The bodies of dead Armenians lie in a grove of trees in eastern Ottoman Empire, 1915.
The bodies of dead Armenians lie in a grove of trees in eastern Ottoman Empire, 1915.
The remaining bones of the Armenians of Erzinjan.
The remaining bones of the Armenians of Erzinjan.
Deir ez-Zor
35°17′N 40°10′E
Ras al-Ain Bonzanti
37°25′N 34°52′E
Mamoura
Intili, Islahiye, Radjo, Katma,
Karlik, Azaz, Akhterim, Mounboudji,
Bab, Tefridje, Lale, Meskene,
Sebil, Dipsi, Abouharar, Hamam,
Sebka, Marat, Souvar, Hama,
Homs Kahdem

The majority of the camps were situated near what are now the Iraqi and Syrian frontiers, and some were only temporary transit camps.[20] Others are said to have been used only as temporary mass burial zones—such as Radjo, Katma, and Azaz—that were closed in Fall 1915.[20] Some authors also maintain that the camps Lale, Tefridje, Dipsi, Del-El, and Ra's al-'Ain were built specifically for those who had a life expectancy of a few days.[20] As with Jewish kapos in the concentration camps, the majority of the guards inside the camps were Armenians.[20] Image File history File links Armeniangenocidemap. ... Image File history File links Armeniangenocidemap. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Morgen53. ... Image File history File links Morgen53. ... Erzincan (also Erzingan or Erzinjan) is the capital of Erzincan Province in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. ... Dayr az Zawr, or Deir ez Zor, town (1994 est. ...


Even though nearly all the camps, including all the major ones, were open air, the rest of the mass killings in other minor camps was not limited to direct killings, but also to mass burning,[21] poisoning[22] and drowning.[23]


Results of deportations

The Ottoman government ordered the evacuation or deportation of many Armenians living in Anatolia, Syria, and Mesopotamia.


Foreign corroboration

Despite Turkish contentions to the contrary, hundreds of eyewitnesses, including the neutral United States and the Ottoman Empire's own allies, Germany and Austria-Hungary, recorded and documented numerous acts of state-sponsored massacres, adding further weight to the Genocide argument. Many foreign officials offered to intervene on behalf of the Armenians including one by Pope Benedict XV only to be turned away by Turkish government officials who claimed they "retaliating against a pro-Russian fifth column[24] Pope Benedict XV (Latin: ), (Italian: Benedetto XV), (November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), born Giacomo della Chiesa, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from September 3, 1914 to January 22, 1922; he succeeded Pope Pius X (1903–14). ...


The US mission in Ottoman Empire

Further information: Van Resistance

Throughout the Ottoman Empire the United States had established consulates in Adrianople, Kharput, Samsun, Smyrna, Trebizond, Van, as well as one in the Syrian town of Aleppo. The State Department mission at the time was headed by ambassador Henry Morgenthau Sr. in Constantinople. The United States was an officially neutral party in the war until it joined the side of the Allies in 1917. As the order for deportations and massacres were enacted, many consular officials reported back to the ambassador on what they were witnessing. One such documentation came in September 1915 by the American consul in Kharput, Leslie A. Davis who described his discovery of the bodies of nearly 10,000 Armenians dumped into several ravines near Lake Göeljuk, later referring to it as the "slaughterhouse province"[25] Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian residents of Van Commanders Jevdet Bey Armenak Yekaryan Strength 12,000 1,500 Casualties  ? 12,000 ? (mass civilian casualties) For the conflict of 1896 see Defense of Van. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Elazığ is a city in the Elazig Province of eastern Turkey. ... Samsun, Turkey Samsun (Greek: Σαμψούντα Sampsoúnta) is a city in northern Turkey, on the coast of the Black Sea, with a population of 396,900 as of 2004. ... Agora of Smyrna Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. ... A van is a vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of people. ... Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Henry Morgenthau Henry Morgenthau (April 26, 1856 - November 25, 1946), was a U.S. diplomat and businessman, most famous as the American ambassador to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. ...

A telegram sent by Ambassador Henry Morgenthau Sr. to the State Department on July 16, 1915 describes the massacres as a "campaign of race extermination."
A telegram sent by Ambassador Henry Morgenthau Sr. to the State Department on July 16, 1915 describes the massacres as a "campaign of race extermination."
The United States contributed a significant amount of aid to the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide. Shown here is a poster for the American Committee for Relief in the Near East vowing that they (the Armenians) "shall not perish."
An article by the New York Times dated December 15, 1915 states that nearly one million Armenians had deliberately been put to death by the Ottoman government.
An article by the New York Times dated December 15, 1915 states that nearly one million Armenians had deliberately been put to death by the Ottoman government.
Workers of the American Committee for Relief in the Near East in Sivas.
Workers of the American Committee for Relief in the Near East in Sivas.

Similar reports soon began to arrive to Morgenthau from Aleppo and Van (Van Resistance) to which he finally began holding occasional meetings with Talaat and Enver. As he courted them on the testimonies of the consulate officials, both justified the deportations as necessary to the wars cause by pointing out to the alleged armed Armenian revolution for the (Van Resistance} and elsewhere along the Russian front. Morgenthau would however contest their explanations in his memoirs as excuses conjured up by the CUP leaders.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (597x685, 554 KB) Summary This is an official telegram sent by Henry Morgenthau Sr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (597x685, 554 KB) Summary This is an official telegram sent by Henry Morgenthau Sr. ... Henry Morgenthau Henry Morgenthau (April 26, 1856 - November 25, 1946), was a U.S. diplomat and businessman, most famous as the American ambassador to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x833, 888 KB) Near East Relief Poster, uploaded by w:Clevelander File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Armenian Genocide User:Clevelander Wikipedia:WikiProject Armenia Template:ArmWiki... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x833, 888 KB) Near East Relief Poster, uploaded by w:Clevelander File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Armenian Genocide User:Clevelander Wikipedia:WikiProject Armenia Template:ArmWiki... Image File history File linksMetadata NY_Times_Armenian_genocide. ... Image File history File linksMetadata NY_Times_Armenian_genocide. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (968x824, 1475 KB) Summary Newspaper Pictorials, http://memory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (968x824, 1475 KB) Summary Newspaper Pictorials, http://memory. ... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian residents of Van Commanders Jevdet Bey Armenak Yekaryan Strength 12,000 1,500 Casualties  ? 12,000 ? (mass civilian casualties) For the conflict of 1896 see Defense of Van. ... Armenian rebellions were the rebellions of ethnic Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian residents of Van Commanders Jevdet Bey Armenak Yekaryan Strength 12,000 1,500 Casualties  ? 12,000 ? (mass civilian casualties) For the conflict of 1896 see Defense of Van. ...


In addition to the consulates, there were also several Protestant missionary compounds established in Armenian-populated regions, including Van and Kharput. Many of the head missionaries vividly described the brutal methods used by Turkish forces and documented numerous accounts of atrocities committed by them.[27] Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Newspapers and literary journals in the United States and around the world, including the New York Times (which ran 145 articles in 1915 alone), The Nation, the Halifax Herald, and The Independent, printed hundreds of articles both during and after the war, describing the deportations as state-enacted genocide.[28] Numerous American figures also spoke out against the Genocide including former president Theodore Roosevelt, rabbi Stephen Wise, William Jennings Bryan, and Alice Stone Blackwell. The American Near East Relief Committee, a relief organization for refugees in the Middle East helped donate over $102 million to Armenians both during and after the war.[29] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article is about the U.S publication. ... The Chronicle-Herald is a broadsheet published in Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... Rabbi, in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in knowledge). Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation רַבִּי rabbī is derived from a recent (18th... Stephen Samuel Wise (1874 - 1949) was a U.S. rabbi and Zionist leader. ... William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ... Alice Stone Blackwell 1857-1950, was an American feminist, journalist and human rights defender. ...


Allied forces in the Middle East

In addition to the Gallipoli campaign, on the Middle Eastern front, the British military was preoccupied in fighting against Ottoman forces in southern Syria and Mesopotamia. Throughout the fighting, the British also documented and essentially confirmed what was being reported by the American consuls and missionaries. British diplomat and later "Oriental Secretary" of Baghdad, Gertrude Bell filed the following report after hearing the account of a captured Ottoman soldier: A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (July 14, 1868–July 12, 1926) was a British woman who had a major hand in creating the modern state of Iraq. ...

The battalion left Aleppo on 3 February and reached Ras al-Ain in twelve hours....some 12,000 Armenians were concentrated under the guardianship of some hundred Kurds...These Kurds were called gendarmes, but in reality mere butchers; bands of them were publicly ordered to take parties of Armenians, of both sexes, to various destinations, but had secret instructions to destroy the males, children and old women...One of these gendarmes confessed to killing 100 Armenian men himself...the empty desert cisterns and caves were also filled with corpses....No man can ever think of a woman's body except as a matter of horror, instead of attraction, after Ras al-Ain.[30]

Reacting to the numerous eyewitness accounts, British politician Viscount James Bryce, and historian Arnold J. Toynbee compiled statements from survivors and eyewitnesses from other countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland who similarly attested to the deliberate massacres of innocent Armenians by Ottoman government forces. In 1916, they published The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916. Although the book has since been criticized as British war-time propaganda to build up sentiment against the Central Powers, Bryce had submitted the work to scholars for verification prior to its publication. University of Oxford Regius Professor Gilbert Murray stated of the tome, "I realize that in times of persecution passions run high...But the evidence of these letters and reports will bear any scrutiny and overpower any skepticism. Their genuineness is established beyond question."[31] Other professors including Herbert Fisher of Sheffield University and Moorfield Storey, the former president of the American Bar Association, affirmed the same conclusion.[32] Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Photograph of James Bryce James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce (1838-1922), was a British jurist, historian and politician, He was the son of James Bryce (LL.D. of Glasgow, who had a school in Belfast for many years), and was born at Belfast on May 10 1838. ... Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Gilbert Murray (or George Gilbert Aime) (January 2, 1866 - 1957) was a British classical scholar and diplomat. ... Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher (21 March 1865–18 April 1940) was an English historian, educator, and Liberal politician. ... University of Sheffield Rerum Cognoscere Causas (To discover the causes of things) Shield image © University of Sheffield The University of Sheffield is a university located in Sheffield, England. ... Moorfield Storey (March 19, 1845 - October 24, 1929) was a U.S. lawyer, publicist, and civil rights leader. ... American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ...


First Lord of the Admiralty, and later prime minister of Great Britain, Winston Churchill described in his multivolume work on the war, The World Crisis, 1911-1918, the massacres as an "administrative holocaust" and noted that "the clearance of race from Asia Minor was about as complete as such an act could be...There is no reason to doubt that that this crime was planned and executed for political reasons. The opportunity presented itself for clearing Turkish soil of a Christian race opposed to all Turkish ambitions."[33] The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


The joint Austrian and German mission

As allies during the war, the Imperial German mission in the Ottoman Empire included both military and civilian components. While experienced staff officers were sent to train and assist the Ottoman military in fending off the offensives launched by the combined British, French and ANZAC forces at Gallipoli and in Syria, Germany had also brokered a deal with the Sublime Porte to commission the building of a railroad stretching from Berlin to the Middle East called the Baghdad Railway. An ANZAC soldier gives water to a wounded Turk The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli, in the Middle East and on the Western Front. ... Gallipoli peninsula (Turkish: , Greek: ) is located in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. ... In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire planned to construct a Baghdad Railway under German control. ...

Armenian children dying in the streets.
Armenian children dying in the streets.

Among the most famous persons to document the massacres was a German military medic in von der Goltz' detachment and second lieutenant by the name of Armin T. Wegner. Due to the strict censorship imposed by both Germany and the Ottoman Empire at the time, Wegner's desire to take photographs of the massacres was overruled by his superiors. Nevertheless, Wegner disobeyed those orders and took hundreds of photographs of Armenians being deported and being held in the camps in northern Syria and later smuggled them out of the country.[34] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixel Image in higher resolution (964 × 679 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a faithful digitalization of a unique historic photograph, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the photographer... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixel Image in higher resolution (964 × 679 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a faithful digitalization of a unique historic photograph, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the photographer... Armin T. Wegner (October 16, 1886 – May 17, 1978) was a soldier in World War I, a writer and a co-creator of German Expressionism, a political activist for Armenian and Jewish human rights and a victim of Nazi persecution. ...


German engineers and workers who were involved in building the railway also witnessed seeing Armenians being crammed into cattle cars — up to ninety in each car — and shipped along the railroad line. Franz Gunther, a representative for German based Deutsche Bank which was funding the construction of the Baghdad Railway, forwarded photographs to his directors and expressed his frustration over keeping silent while witnessing such things. Gunther described the train system used by the Ottoman government as another example of its "bestial cruelty".[35] This process was noted by German historian Hilmar Kaiser as the first time "'railway transport of civilian populations' [was used] as part of a plan of race 'extermination'."[36] Major General Otto von Lossow, the acting military attaché and head of the German Military Plenipotentiary in Ottoman Empire attested in a conference held in Batum in 1918 to the intentions of the Ottoman government: Deutsche Bank AG NYSE: DB (German for German Bank) is a multinational bank operating worldwide and employing more than 67,500 people (December, 2005). ... A view of Batumi, circa, 1911, towards the mountains Batumi (also Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city (population: approximately 137,000) on the Black Sea coast and capital of Ajaria, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ...

The Turks have embarked upon the "total extermination of the Armenians in Transcaucasia...The aim of Turkish policy is, as I have reiterated, the taking of possession of Armenian districts and the extermination of the Armenians. Talaat's government wants to destroy all Armenians, not just in Turkey but also outside Turkey. On the basis of all the reports and news coming to me here in Tiflis there hardly can be any doubt that the Turks systematically are aiming at the extermination of the few hundred thousand Armenians whom they left alive until now.[37]

Similarly, Major General Kress von Kressenstein noted that "The Turkish policy of causing starvation is an all too obvious proof...for the Turkish resolve to destroy the Armenians."[38] Another notable figure in the German military camp was Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter. Scheubner-Richter, who was serving as a vice-consul in the provinces of Erzerum and Bitlis, documented the numerous massacres by Turkish forces against Armenians in the regions and wrote a total of fifteen reports regarding "deportations and mass killings" to Germany's chancellor in Berlin. He noted in his final report that less than 100,000 Armenians were left alive in the Ottoman Empire; the rest had otherwise been exterminated (in German, ausgerottet).[39] Scheubner-Richter also detailed the methods used by the Ottoman government including its use of the Special Organization and other organised criminal groups. View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church, ca. ... Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (1870 - 1948) was a German General and a member of the group of German officers who directed the Ottoman Army during World War I. Von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to Turkey. ... Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (January 9, 1884 - (November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi party. ... Erzurum (or Erzerum, Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. ... Bitlis is a city in Turkey, capital of Bitlis Province. ...


In a genocide conference in 2001, professor Wolfgang Wipperman of Berlin's Free University introduced documents that showed numerous officers in the Germany's military High Command were aware of the mass killings but instead chose not to interfere nor condemn the Ottoman government.[40] Satellite photo of Berlin. ...


Germany's diplomatic mission was lead by Ambassador Count Paul von Wolff-Metternich. Like Morgenthau, Wolff-Metternich also began to receive tracts from consul officials in Ottoman Empire. From the province of Adana, Eugene Buge reported that the CUP chief had sworn to kill and massacre any Armenians who survived the deportation marches.[41] Wolff-Metternich himself stated, "The Committee [CUP] demands the extirpation of the last remnants of the Armenians and the government must yield....A Committee representative is assigned to each of the provincial administrations....Turkification means license to expel, to kill or destroy everything that is not Turkish."[42] Adana (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ...


The Russian military

The Russian Empire's response to the bombardment of its Black Sea naval ports was primarily a land campaign through the Caucasus. Early victories against the Ottoman Empire from the winter of 1914 to the spring 1915 saw significant gains of territory, including relieving the Armenian bastion resisting in the city of Van in May 1915. The Russians also recorded encountering the bodies of Armenians in the areas they advanced through. In March 1916, the scenes they saw in the city of Erzerum led the Russians to retaliate against the Turkish IIIrd Army whom they held responsible for the massacres, destroying it in its entirety.[43] Erzurum (or Erzerum, Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. ...

Armenian civilians, forced out of their homes, while being deported.
Armenian civilians, forced out of their homes, while being deported.

Image File history File links Marcharmenians. ... Image File history File links Marcharmenians. ...

1919-1920 Military tribunals

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Domestic courts-martial

Domestic court-martials began on 23 November 1918. These courts were designed by the Sultan Mehmed VI, who blamed the Committee of Union and Progress for the destruction of the empire through pushing it into World War I. The Armenian issue was used as a tool in these courts to punish the leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress. Most of the documents generated in these courts later moved to international trials. By January 1919, a report to Sultan Mehmed VI accused over 130 suspects, most of them were high officials. Mehmed Talat Pasha and Enver had left Istanbul, before 1919, on the fact that Sultan Mehmed VI would not accept any verdict that does not include their life. The term Three Pashas generally refers to this prominent triumvirate that pushed the Ottomans into World War I. Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... Talat Pasha Mehmed Talat Pasha (Turkish: Mehmet Talat PaÅŸa) (1874-1921) was one of the leaders of the Young Turks, an Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Sublime Porte from 1913 until 1918. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver (November 22, 1881 in Istanbul - August 4, 1922), known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... The Three Pashas are the famous Pashas who enabled the Ottoman Empire to enter the WWI. Talat, along with Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha formed a group called the three pashas. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


The court-martials officially disbanded the Committee of Union and Progress, which had actively ruled the Ottoman Empire for ten years. All the assets of the organization were transferred to the treasury, and the assets of the people who were found guilty moved to "teceddüt firkasi". According to verdicts handed down by the court, all members except for the Three Pashas were transferred to jails in Bekiraga, then moved to Malta. The Three Pashas were found guilty in absentia. The court-martials blamed the members of Ittihat Terakki for pursuing a war that did not fit into the notion of Millet. Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


International trials

On 24 May 1915 the Triple Entente warned the Ottoman Empire that "In the view of these...crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization ... the Allied governments announce publicly.. that they will hold personally responsible... all members of the Ottoman government and those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres.[4]" European military alliances in 1915. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...

A photograph of a starving Armenian mother and child.
A photograph of a starving Armenian mother and child.

Following the Armistice of Mudros in January 1919, the preliminary Peace Conference in Paris (Paris Peace Conference, 1919) established "The Commission on Responsibilities and Sanctions" which was chaired by U.S. Secretary of State Lansing. Following the commission's work, several articles were added to the treaty, and the acting government of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mehmed VI and Damat Adil Ferit Pasha, were summoned to trial. The Treaty of Sèvres gave recognition of the Democratic Republic of Armenia and developed a mechanism to bring to trial the criminals of "barbarous and illegitimate methods of warfare... [including] offenses against the laws and customs of war and the principles of humanity".[4] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of...


Article 230 of the Treaty of Sèvres required the Ottoman Empire, "to hand over to the Allied Powers the persons whose surrender may be required by the latter as being responsible for the massacres committed during the continuance of the state of war on territory which formed part of the Ottoman Empire on August 1, 1914." The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...


At the Military Trials in Istanbul in 1919 many of those responsible for the genocide were sentenced to death in absentia, after having escaped trial in 1918. It is believed that the accused succeeded in destroying the majority of the documents that could be used as evidence against them before they escaped. Admiral Calthorpe, the British High Commissioner, described the destruction of documents: "Just before the Armistice, officials had been going to the archives department at night and making a clean sweep of most of the documents." Aydemir, S.S., on the other hand, writes in his "Makedonyadan Ortaasyaya Enver Pasa.": Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Admiral of the Fleet the Honourable Sir Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe (1865–1937) was a British Royal Navy admiral. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ...

Before the flight of the top CUP leaders, Talat Pasa stopped by at the waterfront residence of one of his friends on the shore of Arnavudköy, depositing there a suitcase of documents. It is said that the documents were burned in the basement's furnace. Indeed ... the documents and other papers of the CUP's Central Committee are nowhere to be found.

The military court established the will of the CUP to eliminate the Armenians physically, via its special organization. The Court Martial, Istanbul, 1919 pronounced sentences as follows: Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ... Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ... Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ...

The Court Martial taking into consideration the above-named crimes declares, unanimously, the culpability as principal factors of these crimes the fugitives Talat Pasha, former Grand Vizir, Enver Efendi, former War Minister, struck off the register of the Imperial Army, Cemal Efendi, former Navy Minister, struck off too from the Imperial Army, and Dr. Nazim Efendi, former Minister of Education, members of the General Council of the Union & Progress, representing the moral person of that party;... the Court Martial pronounces, in accordance with said stipulations of the Law the death penalty against Talat, Enver, Cemal, and Dr. Nazim.

Mehmed Talat Pasha was one of leaders of the Young Turks , Ottoman statesman, grand vizier (1917) , and leading member of the Ottoman government from 1913 to 1918. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver (November 22, 1881 in Istanbul - August 4, 1922), known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha (Turkish: Enver PaÅŸa) or Enver Bey was a Turkish military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution. ... Foundation: 1890 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: Ä°ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti) was a political organization during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire which came to power between 1908 and 1918. ...

Casualties, 1914 to 1918

Targets of movements from Ottoman Archives
Targets of movements from Ottoman Archives

While there is no clear consensus on how many Armenians lost their lives during what is called the Armenian genocide, there is general agreement among Western scholars that over a million Armenians may have perished between 1914 and 1918. Estimates vary between 300,000 (the Turkish claim) and 1.5 million (the Armenian claim), while Encyclopædia Britannica makes special reference to the research conducted by Arnold J. Toynbee who was appointed by the British Foreign Office to investigate the forced deportation of the Armenians and the related casualties, who estimated a death toll of around 600,000 to 800,000; which formed the basis of the Allies' charges against the Ottoman government at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 that up to 800,000 Armenians were killed during the war. The number of Ottoman Armenian deaths between 1914 to 1923 during the Armenian Genocide and what followed during the Turkish War of Independence is a subject of controversy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1223x799, 84 KB) Summary Ottoman Archives; document dates to 1915, govermnent documents are public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1223x799, 84 KB) Summary Ottoman Archives; document dates to 1915, govermnent documents are public domain. ... Ottoman Archives is a collection of sources related to Ottoman Empire in 19 Middle east, 11 EU and Balkan states, 3 Cacuses, 2 central asia, 2 Cyprus, Isreal and Republic of Turkey. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom abroad. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Influence on the Jewish Holocaust

Main article: Armenian quote

The lack of a public prosecution of the organizers behind Armenian Genocide by the Allied powers was said to have largely influenced Nazi Germany's fascist leader Adolf Hitler. Among the most closest advisers and friends to the future German dictator was Scheubner-Richter, the vice-consul from Erzerum. In the aftermath of the war, Hitler and Scheubner-Richter sought to blame many of the ailing troubles Germany was suffering against the central government and Jews. Scheubner-Richter called for a "ruthless and relentless" attempt to "cleanse" the Jews out of the country. In 1923, when Hitler and his followers in the Nazi Party failed to seize power in a Munich beer hall, Scheubner-Richter was shot and killed by the police. The Armenian quote is a paragraph allegedly included in a speech by Adolf Hitler to Wehrmacht commanders at his Obersalzberg home on August 22, 1939, a week before the German invasion of Poland. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Nazi Party, (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the...


The extent of Hitler's knowledge of the Armenian Genocide is unclear, but he referred to their destruction several times. He first addressed their plight in 1924 and referred to them as "cowards".[44] The most notable quote attributed to Hitler on the Armenians was in a August 1939 conference with German military commanders prior to the invasion of Poland: Polish Defensive War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign or Defensive War of 1939 (Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku) was the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany, the Soviet...

Our strength consists in our speed and in our brutality. Genghis Khan led millions of women and children to slaughter -- with premeditation and a happy heart. History sees in him solely the founder of a state. It’s a matter of indifference to me what a weak western European civilisation will say about me. I have issued the command -- and I’ll have anybody who utters but one word of criticism executed by a firing squad -- that our war aim does not consist in reaching certain lines, but in the physical destruction of the enemy. Accordingly, I have placed my death-head formation in readiness -- for the present only in the East -- with orders to them to send to death mercilessly and without compassion, men, women, and children of Polish derivation and language. Only thus shall we gain the living space [Lebensraum] which we need. Who, after all, speaks to-day of the annihilation of the Armenians?[45]

This quote has been fiercely contended by Turkish scholars and historians who claim that the quotation is a fabrication and does not in fact exist.[46] However, numerous accounts of Hitler speaking in regards to the Armenians exist and at least two similar versions of the 1939 speech were found in the German High Command archives. In 1931, for example, two years prior to his ascension as Germany's leader, Hitler gave an interview to a German newspaper editor, saying "everywhere people are awaiting a new world order. We intend to introduce a great resettlement policy...remember the extermination of the Armenians."[47] In 1943, during the height of his attempts to exterminate the Jews in Europe, Hitler demanded from the Hungarian regent Admiral Miklós Horthy to deport them from the country. After chastising Horthy in a bitter speech, he ended by saying "Nations which did not get rid of the Jews perished. One of the most famous examples of this was the downfall of a people who were so proud--the Persians, who now lead a pitiful existence as Armenians."[48] Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Duke of Szeged and Otranto (Hungarian: Vitéz* nagybányai Horthy Miklós, Szeged és Otranto hercege; Kenderes, June 18, 1868 – Estoril, February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


The positions of Turkish people

See also: Denial of the Armenian Genocide

Turkish Denial: To have genocide denied is to die twice — An advertisement for the Armenian Genocide Commemoration Holiday on 24th April, 2006 posted in The Times newspaper. ...

Views of Turkish academic community and intellectuals

Almost all Turkish intellectuals, scientists and historians accept that many Armenians died during the conflict, but they do not necessarily consider these events to be genocide.


Some Turkish intellectuals support the genocide thesis despite opposition from Turkish nationalists; these include Ragıp Zarakolu, Ali Ertem, Taner Akçam, Halil Berktay, Yektan Türkyilmaz. Fatma Müge Göcek, Dr. Fikret Adanır, and Seyla Benhabib. In 2004, five hundred Turkish intellectuals protested a new high-school history curriculum which ordered teachers to denounce to students "the unfounded allegations" of the Armenians. Ragıp Zarakolu (born Büyükada 1948) is a Turkish publisher who has long faced legal harassment for publishing books on controversial subjects in Turkey, especially on minority and human rights in Turkey. ... Taner Akçam (born on October 23, 1953, Turkey) is a Turkish historian, sociologist and publicist. ... Born in Turkey in 1947. ... Seyla Benhabib (born 1950, Istanbul) is a professor of political science and Philosophy at Yale and director of the program in Ethics, Politics, and Economics, and a contemporary philosopher. ...


The position of the Turkish government

The Republic of Turkey does not accept that the deaths of Armenians during the "relocation" or "deportation" were the results of an intention of Ottoman authorities (or those in charge during the war) to eliminate in whole or in part the Armenian people indiscriminately. Public prosecutors have made recourse to Article 301 of the Turkish Penal Code that prohibits "insulting Turkishness" against some Turkish intellectuals who implied that the events did indeed constitute a genocide; but Turkish courts have acquitted the prosecutors in all of the cases[citation needed]. The Turkish government has frequently protested against recognition of the genocide by other countries. Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Article 301 is a controversial article of the Turkish penal code, taking effect on June 1, 2005, and introduced as part of a package of penal-law reform in the process preceding the opening of negotiations for Turkish membership of the European Union (EU), in order to bring Turkey up...


In March 2005, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan invited Turkish, Armenian and international historians to form a Commission to establish the events of 1915. In April 2005 Armenian president Robert Kocharyan responded to Turkish Prime Minister's offer by sending a letter to Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and in the letter telling "suggestion to address the past cannot be effective if it deflects from addressing the present and the future. In order to engage in a useful dialog, we need to create the appropriate and conducive political environment. It is the responsibility of governments to develop bilateral relations and we do not have the right to delegate that responsibility to historians. That is why we have proposed and propose again that, without pre-conditions, we establish normal relations between our two countries.” In that context, President Kocharian said, “an intergovernmental commission can meet to discuss any and all outstanding issues between our two nations, with the aim of resolving them and coming to an understanding.” 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ... Robert Sedraki Kocharian (Armenian: Ռոբերտ Քոչարյան) (born August 31, 1954) is the second president of the third republic of Armenia. ...


In 1994, Turkish authors Ayşe Nur Zarakolu, Ragıp Zarakolu and Emirhan Oğuz were prosecuted for translating a French text, "The Armenians: story of a genocide", which had been banned in Turkey.


Hrant Dink

Hrant Dink, a Turkish citizen of Armenian origin, was the chief editor of the Agos newspaper. Dink was often critical of both Turkey's denial of the Armenian genocide, and of the Armenian diaspora's campaign for its international recognition. However, his criticism of Turkey gained much more attention, and as a result, he became hate figure for Turkish ultra-nationalists.[49] Dink was prosecuted three times for insulting Turkishness.[50][51] He was acquitted the first time, but the second time, his misinterpreted statement, "replace the poisoned blood associated with the Turk, with fresh blood associated with Armenia"[52] resulted in a six-month suspended sentence.[53] Hrant Dink (Armenian: , IPA: [][1]) (September 15, 1954 – January 19, 2007) was a Turkish-Armenian editor, journalist and column writer. ... Agos is an Armenian weekly newspaper published in Turkey, established 5 April, 1996. ... Article 301 is a controversial article of the Turkish penal code, taking effect on June 1, 2005, and introduced as part of a package of penal-law reform in the process preceding the opening of negotiations for Turkish membership of the European Union (EU), in order to bring Turkey up...


Hrant Dink was assassinated in Istanbul on January 19, 2007, allegedly by Ogün Samast, an ultra-nationalist Turk. It has been suggested that Extrajudicial Executions and Assasinations be merged into this article or section. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Still shot from the CCTV video footage showing Ogün Samast, the presumed assassin of Hrant Dink (published by the Istanbul Police Department) Ogün Samast (b. ...


Orhan Pamuk

During a February 2005 interview with Das Magazin, novelist Orhan Pamuk made statements implicating Turkey in massacres against Armenians and persecution of the Kurds, declaring: "Thirty thousand Kurds and a million Armenians were killed in these lands and nobody but me dares to talk about it". Subjected to a hate campaign, he left Turkey, before returning in 2005 in order to defend his right to freedom of speech: "What happened to the Ottoman Armenians in 1915 was a major thing that was hidden from the Turkish nation; it was a taboo. But we have to be able to talk about the past".[54] Lawyers of two Turkish ultra-nationalist professional associations then brought criminal charges against Pamuk.[55] On January 23, 2006, however, the charges of "insulting Turkishness" were dropped (because of formal reasons without finding it necessary to judge on the essence of the case), a move welcomed by the EU — that they had been brought at all was still a matter of contention for European politicians. Das Magazin - in English, the magazine - is the Saturday supplement of the Swiss newspaper Tages-Anzeiger. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation and... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Academic views on the issue outside Turkey

Recognition of Genocide

There is a general agreement among Western historians that the events described above constitute genocide. The International Association of Genocide Scholars (the major body of scholars who study genocide in North America and Europe), for instance, formally recognize the event and consider it to be undeniable. Some consider denial to be a form of hate speech or/and historical revisionism. The International Association of Genocide Scholars is the major body of scholars who study genocide in North America and Europe. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation and... Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ...


Denial

A number of Western academics in the field of Ottoman history, including Bernard Lewis (Princeton University), Heath Lowry (Princeton University), Justin McCarthy (University of Louisville), Gilles Veinstein (Collège de France),[56] Stanford J. Shaw (UCLA), J.C. Hurewitz (Columbia University), Guenter Lewy (University of Massachusetts), Roderic Davison (Central European University), Jeremy Salt (University of Melbourne),[57] Malcolm Yapp (University of London)[58], Rhoads Murphey (University of Birmingham) and Edward J. Erickson (retired U.S. Army officer)[59] have expressed doubts as to the genocidal character of the events. They offer the opinion that the weight of evidence instead points to serious inter-communal warfare, perpetrated by both Muslim and Christian irregular forces, aggravated by disease and famine, as the causes of suffering and massacres in Anatolia and adjoining areas during the First World War. They acknowledge that the resulting death toll among the Armenian communities of the region was immense, but claim that much more remains to be discovered before historians will be able to sort out precisely responsibility between warring and innocent, and to identify the causes for the events which resulted in the death or removal of large numbers in eastern Anatolia. Turkish Denial: To have genocide denied is to die twice — An advertisement for the Armenian Genocide Commemoration Holiday on 24th April, 2006 posted in The Times newspaper. ... Prof. ... Dr. Justin A. McCarthy is an American demographer, Ottoman expert, and history professor at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky. ... The University of Louisville (also known as U of L) is a public, state-supported university located in Louisville, Kentucky, United States. ... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... Guenter Lewy (born 1923) is professor emeritus of political science, University of Massachusetts. ...


On May 19, 1985, a total of 63 scholars from various American universities sent a letter to the U.S. House of Representatives opposing the House Joint Resolution 192 which defines the events of 1915 as genocide. May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ...


The position of the international community

See also: Post-Armenian Genocide timeline

Although there has been much academic recognition of the Armenian Genocide, this has not always been followed by governments and media. Many governments, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Ukraine, and Georgia, do not officially use the word genocide to describe these events. Although there is no federal recognition of the Armenian Genocide, 39 of the 50 U.S. states recognize the events of 1915 to 1917 as genocide.[60] Several significant occurrences followed the Armenian Genocide of 1915 to 1917. ...


In recent years, parliaments of a number of countries where Armenian diaspora has a strong presence have officially recognized the event as genocide. Two recent examples are France and Switzerland. Turkish entry talks with the European Union were met with a number of calls to consider the event as genocide, though it never became a precondition. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The French lower house decided on October 12, 2006 to make it illegal to deny the Armenian genocide.[61] The bill has yet to be ratified by the French Senate in order to become law. As expected, it has provoked intense negative media reactions in Turkey.[62] Orhan Pamuk, Hrant Dink, French President Jacques Chirac and Daniel Fried, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, expressed their concerns about the new law.[63][64] October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Hrant Dink (Armenian: , IPA: [][1]) (September 15, 1954 – January 19, 2007) was a Turkish-Armenian editor, journalist and column writer. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932) has served as the Gaullist President of France since he was first elected in 1995. ... Daniel Fried took the oath of office as Assistant Secretary of State on May 5, 2005. ...

Political map showing countries, US states, and UK Constitute countries which have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide.
Political map showing countries, US states, and UK Constitute countries which have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide.

Countries officially recognizing the Armenian Genocide include Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Lebanon, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela. Although part of the United Kingdom, Wales also officially recognizes the Armenian Genocide. The Parliament of the State of New South Wales, Australia passed a resolution acknowledging and condemning the Armenian Genocide in 1997.[2],[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 24 KB) Summary Political map showing countries which have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x625, 24 KB) Summary Political map showing countries which have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide. ... Motto: (French) Ik zal handhaven(Dutch) I shall stand fast1 Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Netherlands() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Amsterdam2 Official languages Dutch3 Ethnic groups 80. ... This article is about the country. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ...

Genocide memorial in Lebanon.
Genocide memorial in Lebanon.

Many newspapers for a long time would not use the word genocide without disclaimers such as "alleged" and many continue to do so. A number of those policies have now been reversed so that even casting doubt on the term is against editorial policy, as is the case with the New York Times. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (300x726, 148 KB)A photograph of the Armenian Genocide Memorial in Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (300x726, 148 KB)A photograph of the Armenian Genocide Memorial in Lebanon. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


In September 2004, President Mohammad Khatami of Iran visited the Armenian Genocide Memorial at Tsitsernakaberd in Yerevan.[65] Hujjatul Islam wal Muslimeen Sayyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ...


On June 15, 2005, the German Bundestag passed a resolution that "honors and commemorates the victims of violence, murder and expulsion among the Armenian people before and during the First World War". The German resolution mentions that "many independent historians, parliaments and international organizations describe the expulsion and annihilation of the Armenians as genocide", but stops short of doing so itself. It also contains an apology for any German responsibility.[66] June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ...


On 12 April 2006, some members of the French parliament submitted a bill to create a law that would punish any person denying the existence of the Armenian genocide with up to 5 years of imprisonment and a fine of €45,000. The proposition was originally set to be debated on 18 May 2006, but debates were postponed until 12 October 2006.[67] Despite Turkish protests, the French National Assembly (Lower House of Parliament) adopted a bill making it a crime to deny that Armenians suffered genocide in 1915 at the hands of the Ottoman Turks and overwhelmingly passed in the National Assembly.[68] The bill has been criticized by Turks as an attempt to garner votes amongst the 500,000 people of Armenian descent in the 2007 presidential elections.[69] As of 12 October 2006, the bill still needs the approval of the French Senate and possibly a validation by the French Constitutional Council to become law. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The 2007 French presidential election will be held to elect a president of France for a five year term. ... (Redirected from 12 October) October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ...


On 10th May 2006, the Bulgarian Government rejected a bill on recognition of the Armenian Genocide.[70] This came after Emel Etem Toşkova, the Deputy Prime Minister of Bulgaria and one of the leaders of the MRF, the main Turkish party in Bulgaria, declared that her party would walk out of the coalition government if the bill was passed. The bill itself was brought forward by the nationalist Ataka party. Emel Etem Toshkova (4 March 1958- )is a Bulgarian politician with the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF), the main Turkish party in Bulgaria. ... The Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Движение за права и свободи, Dviženie za Prava i Svobodi) is a centrist ethnic political party in Bulgaria, based in the Turkish minority. ... The National Union Attack (Национален съюз Атака, Nacionalen Sayuz Ataka; also[citation needed] translated as the Attack Coalition) is a nationalist political party in Bulgaria. ...


International bodies that recognize the Armenian genocide include the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities,[71] the International Center for Transitional Justice, based on a report prepared for TARC, the International Association of Genocide Scholars,[72] the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the World Council of Churches, the self-declared unofficial Parliament of Kurdistan in Exile,[73] and the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal. The European Parliament (formerly European Parliamentary Assembly) is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... Council of Europe Flag: used by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe () is an international organization of 46 member states in the European region (with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Cyprus also extending into Southwest Asia and Russia into North Asia). ... Mission Statement The International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) assists countries pursuing accountability for past mass atrocity or human rights abuse. ... The International Association of Genocide Scholars is the major body of scholars who study genocide in North America and Europe. ... The Union for Reform Judaism, formerly known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UHAC), is an organization which supports Reform Jewish congregations in North America. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ...


On 4 September 2006, Members of the European Parliament voted for the inclusion of a clause prompting Turkey "to recognize the Armenian genocide as a condition for its EU accession" in a highly critical report, which was adopted by a broad majority in the foreign relations committee of the Strasbourg Parliament.[74] This requirement was later dropped on 27 September 2006 by the general assembly of the European Parliament by 429 votes in favor to 71 against, with 125 abstentions.[75] September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP) is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... The European Parliament (formerly European Parliamentary Assembly) is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


On September 26, 2006, the two largest political parties in the Netherlands, Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and the Labour Party (PvdA), removed in total three Turkish candidates for the upcoming national elections scheduled for November 22, 2006, because they either deny or refuse to publicly declare that the Armenian Genocide had happened. The magazine HP/De Tijd reported that the number 2 of the PvdA list of candidates, Nebahat Albayrak (who was born in Turkey and is of Turkish descent) had acknowledged that the term "genocide" was appropriate to describe the events. Albayrak denied having said this and accused the press of putting words in her mouth, saying that "I'm not a politician that will trample my identity. I've always defended the same views everywhere with regard to the 'genocide'".[76] It was reported that a large section of the Turkish minority are considering boycotting the elections. This could swing the tight electoral race towards the CDA since Turks traditionally vote heavily for the PvdA. Netherlands' Turkish minority numbers 365,000 people, out of which 235,000 are eligible to vote. September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) (Dutch: Christen Democratisch Appèl) is a Dutch Christian-democratic political party. ... The Labour Party (in Dutch: Partij van de Arbeid, PvdA) is a Dutch social-democratic political party. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Nebahat Albayrak (born April 10, 1968 in Şarkışla, Sivas, Turkey) is a Dutch-Turkish politician in the Netherlands. ...


On November 29, 2006, the lower house of Argentina's parliament adopted a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide. The bill was overwhelmingly adopted by the assembly and declared April 24th, the international day of remembrance for the Armenian genocide as an official “day of mutual tolerance and respect” among peoples around the world.


On July 17, 2006, the Brazilian state of Ceará became the second state after São Paulo to ratify a bill recognizing the Armenian Genocide. Flag of Ceará See other Brazilian States Capital Fortaleza Largest City Fortaleza Area 148,016 km² Population   - Total   - Density 6,500,000 43. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


On March 8, 2007, Turkish nationalist Doğu Perinçek became the first person convicted by a court of law for denying the Armenian Genocide, found guilty by a Swiss district court in Lausanne. Perinçek appealed the verdict.[77] DoÄŸu Perinçek (born June 17, 1942 in Gaziantep) is a Turkish politician of Turkeys nationalist socialist left, leader of Turkeys Workers Party, former chairman of the Revolutionary Workers and Peasants Party of Turkey. ... Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ...


Impact on culture

Memorial

Genocide memorial at the Tsitsernakaberd hill, Yerevan.
Genocide memorial at the Tsitsernakaberd hill, Yerevan.

The idea for the memorial came in 1965, at the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the genocide. A 24 hour mass protest (the first such demonstration in the USSR) was initiated in Yerevan, Armenian SSR, to demand recognition of the Armenian Genocide by Soviet authorities. Two years later the memorial (by architects Kalashian and Mkrtchyan) was completed at the Tsitsernakaberd hill above the Hrazdan gorge in Yerevan. The 44 metre stele symbolizes the national rebirth of Armenians. 12 slabs are positioned in a circle, representing 12 lost provinces in present day Turkey. In the centre of the circle, in depth of 1.5 metres, there is an eternal flame. Along the park at the memorial there is a 100 metre wall with names of towns and villages where massacres are known to have taken place. In 1995 a small underground circular museum was opened at the other end of the park where one can learn basic information about the events in 1915. Some photos taken by German photographers (Turkish allies during World War I) including photos taken by Armin T. Wegner and some publications about the genocide are also displayed. Near the museum is a spot where foreign statesmen plant trees in memory of the genocide. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixel Image in higher resolution (1060 × 787 pixel, file size: 380 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Armenia, Monument for the Commemoration of the Armenian Genocide in Yerevan (Tsitsernakaberd); Source: My own picture; Date: created May 2005; Author: Konrad... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixel Image in higher resolution (1060 × 787 pixel, file size: 380 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Armenia, Monument for the Commemoration of the Armenian Genocide in Yerevan (Tsitsernakaberd); Source: My own picture; Date: created May 2005; Author: Konrad... Genocide memorial at Tsitsernakaberd, Yerevan Tsitsernakaberd (Armenian: ) is a memorial dedicated to the the victims of the Armenian Genocide located on a hill overlooking Yerevan, Armenia. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,226,000   5196. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The 1965 Yerevan Demonstrations were a 24 hour mass protest in Yerevan, Armenian SSR (today Armenia), to demand recognition of the Armenian Genocide. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Genocide memorial at Tsitsernakaberd, Yerevan Tsitsernakaberd (Armenian: ) is a memorial dedicated to the the victims of the Armenian Genocide located on a hill overlooking Yerevan, Armenia. ... Hrazdan is the capital of the Kotayk province of Armenia. ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,226,000   5196. ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... This is a list of notable photographers in the art, documentary and fashion traditions. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Armin T. Wegner (October 16, 1886 – May 17, 1978) was a soldier in World War I, a writer and a co-creator of German Expressionism, a political activist for Armenian and Jewish human rights and a victim of Nazi persecution. ...


Each April 24th (Armenian Genocide Commemoration Holiday) hundreds of thousands of people walk to the genocide monument and lay flowers (usually red carnations or tulips) around the eternal flame. Armenians around the world mark the genocide in different ways, and many memorials have been built in Armenian Diaspora communities.


Edward Saint-Ivan's story DeJa Vu that appears in his anthology "The Black Knight's God" includes a fictional survivor of Armenian genocide.


Art

The well-known band System of a Down, four musicians all of whom are desendants of Armenian Genocide survivors but living in California, frequently promote awareness of the Armenian Genocide. Every year (except 2006), the band puts on a Souls concert tour in support of the cause. The band wrote the song "P.L.U.C.K. (Politically Lying, Unholy, Cowardly Killers)" about this genocide in their eponymous debut album. The booklet reads: "System of a Down would like to dedicate this song to the memory of the 1.5 million victims of the Armenian Genocide, perpetrated by the Turkish Government in 1915." "Holy Mountains" (Hypnotize), is also believed to be about the Armenian genocide. System of a Down (also referred to as SOAD or System) is a four-piece Grammy-award winning Alternative metal band, formed in 1995 in Los Angeles, California. ... P.L.U.C.K. (subtitled (Politically Lying, Unholy, Cowardly Killers. ... System of a Down is the eponymous debut album by System of a Down, first released in 1998. ... Holy Mountains is a song from the 2005 album Hypnotize, by the Californian alternative metal band System of a Down. ... Hypnotize is the fifth album by System of a Down and the second half of the Mezmerize/Hypnotize double album. ...


The American hardcore band Integrity wrote a song about the Armenian Genocide called Armenian Persecution which was included in their 1995 album Systems Overload. Hardcore punk (usually referred to simply as hardcore) is a subgenre of punk rock which originated in the United States of America in the late 1970s. ... // Integrity was formed in Cleveland in 1989 chiefly as a vehicle for the philosophical and spiritual musings of vocalist Dwid, the one constant in the bands membership, who also handles sampling and electronics (as he also does in his hardcore techno-influenced side project Psywarfare). ...


American composer and singer Daniel Decker has achieved critical acclaim for his collaborations with Armenian composer Ara Gevorgian. The song "Adana", named after the city where one of the first massacres of the Armenian people took place, tells the story of the Armenian Genocide. Decker wrote the song's lyrics to complement the music of Ara Gevorgian. Cross Rhythms, Europe's leading religious magazine and web portal said of "Adana", "seldom has a disaster of untold suffering produced such a magnificent piece of art." He was officially invited by the Armenian government to sing "Adana" at a special concert in Yerevan, Armenia on April 24 2005 to commemorate the 90th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. To date, "Adana" has been translated into 17 languages and recorded by singers around the world. Daniel Decker is an American composer, singer and recording artist known for his unique blending of musical influences from around the globe and infusing them into his own works. ... The Adana massacre occurred in the city of Adana, in the Ottoman Empire, in April 1909. ... Cross Rhythms is a Christian media organisation based in Stoke-on-Trent, England. ... Yerevan (Armenian: Երեվան or Երևան; sometimes written as Erevan; former names include Erivan and Erebuni) (population: 1,201,539 (1989 census); 1,088,300 (2004 estimate)[1]) is the largest city and capital of Armenia. ...


Armenian-American keyboardist Derek Sherinian collaborated with duduk master Djivan Gasparyan on the song "Prelude To Battle", which Sherinian "dedicated to his great grandmother who fought the Turks in the Armenian genocide" as part of his 2006 album "Blood of the Snake". Derek Sherinian is a ‎rock and fusion keyboardist based in Los Angeles, California. ... A duduk player The duduk (pronounced ) is a traditional woodwind instrument popular in the Caucasus region. ... Djivan Gasparyan (b. ... Blood of the Snake is an album by keyboardist Derek Sherinian released on August 1, 2006 by Inside Out Records. ...


The topic of the Armenian Genocide is also occurring in film and literature. In 1919 a Hollywood movie called Ravished Armenia was produced based on a book written by a survivor, Aurora Mardiganian. It is a major theme of Atom Egoyan's film Ararat (2002). There are also references in Elia Kazan's America, America or Henri Verneuil's Mayrig. Known Italian directors, Vittorio and Paolo Taviani, are planning to make another Genocide film based on a book called La Masseria Delle Allodole (The Farm of the Larks), by Antonia Arslan. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Promotional poster for the film Ravished Armenia is the title of both a book written in 1918 by Aurora Mardiganian about her experiences in the Armenian Genocide and the Hollywood film based on it that was filmed a year later. ... Atom Egoyan and wife Arsinee Khanjian at the Golden Apricot Film Festival in Yerevan, Armenia. ... Ararat is a 2002 film by Atom Egoyan about the Armenian Genocide, an event that is denied by the government of Turkey. ... Elia Kazan, (Greek Ηλίας Καζάν), (September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was a Greek-American film and theatre director and producer. ... Henri Verneuil (1924-2002), born Ashod Malakian to Armenian parents in Rodosto (Turkey), is a prominent French playwright and filmmaker. ... Mayrig movie poster Mayrig (Mother) is a 1992 semi-autobiographical film written and directed by French-Armenian filmmaker Henri Verneuil. ...


In literature, the most famous piece concerning the Armenian Genocide is Franz Werfel's The Forty Days of Musa Dagh, published in 1933 and subsequently marked as "undesirable" by German (Nazi) authorities. The book became a bestseller and the Hollywood studio MGM wanted to make The Forty Days of Musa Dagh as a film, but this attempt was successfully foiled by Turkey (twice). The film was finally made independently in 1982, but its artistic value is questionable. Kurt Vonnegut wrote the 1988 fictional book Bluebeard, in which the Armenian Genocide was a major theme. Louis de Berniéres uses the time and place of the Armenian Genocide as a background in his novel Birds without Wings, which is considered by some as rather pro-Turkish. Another book using the Armenian Genocide topic is Edgar Hilsenrath's The Story of the Last Thought (Das Märchen vom letzten Gedanken), published in 1989. The first novel to mention Armenian Genocide is Polish writer Stefan Żeromski's Before the Spring, published in 1925. Franz Werfel, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Werfels grave in the Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. ... Musa Mountain and Vakıflı village, near Antakya, in Hatay, Turkey. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Kurt Vonneguts Bluebeard was written in 1988 and describes the late years of fictional Abstract Expressionist painter Rabo Karabekian, who first appeared, rather briefly, in Breakfast of Champions. ... Louis de Bernières (born London, UK on December 8, 1954) is a British novelist most famous for his book Captain Corellis Mandolin. ... Stefan Jelita-Å»eromski Stefan Å»eromski ((?); October 14, 1864 - November 20, 1925) was a Polish novelist. ... Before the Spring (Polish: PrzedwioÅ›nie) is a novel by Stefan Å»eromski, printed in 1925. ...


There is also a play by Richard Kalinoski, Beast on the Moon, about two Armenian Genocide survivors.


See also

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Adana massacre occurred in the city of Adana, in the Ottoman Empire, in April 1909. ... Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Alma Johansson (1880-1974) was a Swedish missionary who worked in the city of Mush in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Bodies of Armenians killed during the 1915 Armenian Genocide. ... Aram Andonian was an Armenian intellectual who worked for in the Young Turkish government during World War I. Andonian served in the department of military censorship and he gained fame after the war for introducing what has now been known as the Andonian Telegrams. They are a series of documents... Ararat is a 2002 film by Atom Egoyan about the Armenian Genocide, an event that is denied by the government of Turkey. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Atom Egoyan and wife Arsinee Khanjian at the Golden Apricot Film Festival in Yerevan, Armenia. ... Map of the Armenian diaspora. ... The Armenian quote is a paragraph allegedly included in a speech by Adolf Hitler to Wehrmacht commanders at his Obersalzberg home on August 22, 1939, a week before the German invasion of Poland. ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... Flag of the ASALA, prominently featuring a red star and a map of their goal. ... Armenian-Turkish Relations in modern times have strongly been affected by the Armenian Genocide of 1915, particularly due to Turkeys ongoing campaign of denial and historical revisionism of the genocide. ... It has been suggested that Ottoman Armenian be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Fall of the Ottoman Empire summarize the reasons why it could not revert the path that ended with its dissolution. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... Mark Lambert Bristol (17 April 1868 – 13 May 1939) was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy. ... The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4][5] (Greek: Γενοκτονία των Ελλήνων του Πόντου, Turkish: Pontus Rumları Soykırımı) is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars AntlaÅŸması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Musa Mountain and Vakıflı village, near Antakya, in Hatay, Turkey. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Franz Werfel, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Werfels grave in the Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. ... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Kazim Karabekir, Albay Halit Bey Beginning on 24 July 1920, the Turkish-Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... now. ... White Genocide (Armenian: ÕƒÕ¥Ö€Õ´Õ¡Õ¯ or Õ½ÕºÕ«Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯ Õ»Õ¡Ö€Õ¤, Jermag or Spitag Chart) is the term Western Armenians use to describe assimilation in the West. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ...

References

  1. ^ New York Times Dispatch. Lord Bryce's report on Armenian atrocities an appalling catalogue of outrage and massacre.. The New York Times, October 8, 1916.
  2. ^ "Cultural Cleansing: Who Remembers The Armenians," in Robert Bevan. The Destruction of Memory, Reaction Books, London. 2006, pages 25-60
  3. ^ Ferguson, Niall. The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. New York: Penguin Press, 2006 p. 177 ISBN 1-5942-0100-5
  4. ^ a b c R. J. Rummel, The Holocaust in Comparative and Historical Perspective, A Journal Social Issues, April 1, 1998 — Vol.3, no.2
  5. ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1995 p. 192 ISBN 1-5718-1666-6
  6. ^ Melson, Robert. Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. pp. 54-56 ISBN 0-2265-1991-0
  7. ^ Ramsay, William M. Impressions of Turkey During Twelve Years' Wanderings. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1897 pp. 206-207
  8. ^ Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Hayots Badmoutioun, Volume III. Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Ousoumnagan Khorhourti, p. 42-44. 
  9. ^ Ramsay, Impressions of Turkey, pp. 156-157
  10. ^ Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: Perennial, 2003. pp. 144-159 ISBN 0-0601-9840-0
  11. ^ Balakian. The Burning Tigris, p. 200
  12. ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N., History of the Armenian Genocide, p. 220
  13. ^ Balakian, The Burning Tigris, pp. 186-188
  14. ^ Y. Bayur. Turk Inkilabz. vol. III, part 3 op. cit. in Dadrian, History of the Armenian Genocide
  15. ^ Balakian, The Burning Tigris, p. 178
  16. ^ Toynbee, Arnold. Armenian Atrocities: The Murder of a Nation. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1915. pp. 181–182
  17. ^ Balakian, The Burning Tigris, p. 185
  18. ^ The hidden holocaust - by Ruth Rosen
  19. ^ Balakian, The Burning Tigris, pp. 211-212
  20. ^ a b c d e (French) Kotek, Joël and Pierre Rigoulot. Le Siècle des camps: Détention, concentration, extermination: cent ans de mal radica. JC Lattes, 2000 ISBN 2-7096-1884-2
  21. ^ Eitan Belkind was a Nili member, who infiltrated the Ottoman army as an official. He was assigned to the headquarters of Camal Pasha. He claims to have witnessed the burning of 5000 Armenians, quoted in Yair Auron, The Banality of Indifference: Zionism and the Armenian Genocide. New Brunswick, N.J., 2000, pp. 181, 183. Lt. Hasan Maruf, of the Ottoman army, describes how a population of a village were taken all together, and then burned. See, British Foreign Office 371/2781/264888, Appendices B., p. 6). Also, the Commander of the Third Army, Vehib's 12 pages affidavit, which was dated December 5, 1918, presented in the Trabzon trial series (March 29, 1919) included in the Key Indictment(published in Takvimi Vekayi, No. 3540, May 5, 1919), report such a mass burning of the population of an entire village near Mus. S. S. McClure write in his work, Obstacles to Peace, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917. pp. 400-401, that in Bitlis, Mus and Sassoun, The shortest method for disposing of the women and children concentrated in tile various camps was to burn them. And also that, Turkish prisoners who had apparently witnessed some of these scenes were horrified and maddened at the remembering the sight. They told the Russians that the stench of the burning human flesh permeated the air for many days after. The Germans, Ottoman allies, also witnessed the way Armenians were burned according to the Israeli historian, Bat Ye’or, who writes: The Germans, allies of the Turks in the First World War, … saw how civil populations were shut up in churches and burned, or gathered en masse in camps, tortured to death, and reduced to ashes,… (See: B. Ye'or, The Dhimmi. The Jews and Christians under Islam, Trans. from the French by D. Maisel P. Fenton and D. Liftman, Cranbury, N.J.: Frairleigh Dickinson University, 1985. p. 95)
  22. ^ During the Trabzon trial series, of the Martial court (from the sittings between March 26 and Mat 17, 1919), the Trabzons Health Services Inspector Dr. Ziya Fuad wrote in a report that Dr. Saib, caused the death of children with the injection of morphine, the information was allegedly provided by two physicians (Drs. Ragib and Vehib), both Dr. Saib colleagues at Trabzons Red Crescent hospital, where those atrocities were said to have been committed. (See: Vahakn N. Dadrian, The Turkish Military Tribunal’s Prosecution of the Authors of the Armenian Genocide: Four Major Court-Martial Series, Genocide Study Project, H. F. Guggenheim Foundation, published in The Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 1997). Dr. Ziya Fuad, and Dr. Adnan, public health services director of Trabzon, submitted affidavits, reporting a cases, in which, two school buildings were used to organize children and then sent them on the mezzanine, to kill them with a toxic gas equipment. This case was presented during the Session 3, p.m., 1 April 1919, also published in the Constantinople newspaper Renaissance, 27 April 1919 (for more information, see: Vahakn N. Dadrian, The Role of Turkish Physicians in the World War I Genocide of Ottoman Armenians, in The Holocaust and Genocide Studies 1, no. 2 (1986): 169–192). The Turkish surgeon, Dr. Haydar Cemal wrote in Türkce Istanbul, No. 45, 23 December 1918, also published in Renaissance, 26 December 1918, that on the order of the Chief Sanitation Office of the IIIrd Army in January 1916, when the spread of typhus was an acute problem, innocent Armenians slated for deportation at Erzican were inoculated with the blood of typhoid fever patients without rendering that blood ‘inactive’. Jeremy Hugh Baron writes : Individual doctors were directly involved in the massacres, having poisoned infants, killed children and issued false certificates of death from natural causes. Nazim's brother-in-law Dr. Tevfik Rushdu, Inspector-General of Health Services, organized the disposal of Armenian corpses with thousands of kilos of lime over six months; he became foreign secretary from 1925 to 1938. (See: Jeremy Hugh Baron, Genocidal Doctors, publish in Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, November, 1999, 92, pp.590-593). The psychiatrist, Robert Jay Lifton, writes in a parenthesis when introducing the crimes of NAZI doctors in his book Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, Basic Books, (1986) p. xii: (Perhaps Turkish doctors, in their participation in the genocide against the Armenians, come closest, as I shall later suggest). and drowning.
  23. ^ Oscar S. Heizer, the American consul at Trabzon, reports: This plan did not suit Nail Bey .... Many of the children were loaded into boats and taken out to sea and thrown overboard. (See: U.S. National Archives. R.G. 59. 867. 4016/411. April 11, 1919 report.) The Italian consul of Trabzon in 1915, Giacomo Gorrini, writes: I saw thousands of innocent women and children placed on boats which were capsized in the Black Sea. (See: Toronto Globe, August 26, 1915) Hoffman Philip, the American Charge at Constantinople chargé d'affairs, writes: Boat loads sent from Zor down the river arrived at Ana, one thirty miles away, with three fifths of passengers missing. (Cipher telegram, July 12, 1916. U.S. National Archives, R.G. 59.867.48/356.) The Trabzon trials reported Armenians having been drown in the Black Sea. (Takvimi Vekdyi, No. 3616, August 6, 1919, p. 2.)
  24. ^ Ferguson. War of the World p. 177
  25. ^ Balakian. Burning Tigris, pp. 244–245, 314
  26. ^ In his memoirs, Morgenthau noted "When the Turkish authorities gave the orders for these deportations, they were merely giving the death warrant to a whole race; they understood this well, and, in their conversations with me, they made no particular attempt to conceal the fact....I am confident that the whole history of the human race contains no such horrible episode as this. The great massacres and persecutions of the past seem almost insignificant when compared to the sufferings of the Armenian race in 1915."
  27. ^ See, for example, James L. Barton, Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915-1917. Gomidas Insttitute, 1998 ISBN 1-8846-3004-9
  28. ^ Balakian, The Burning Tigris, pp. 282-285
  29. ^ Goldberg, Andrew. The Armenian Genocide. Two Cats Productions, 2006
  30. ^ Fisk, Robert. The Great War for Civilisation: the Conquest of the Middle East. London: Alfred Knopf, 2005. p. 327 ISBN 1-84115-007-X
  31. ^ Dadrian, History of the Armenian Genocide, p. 228
  32. ^ Dadrian, History of the Armenian Genocide, pp. 228-229
  33. ^ Churchill, Winston. The World Crisis, 1911-1918. London: Free Press, 2005. p. 157
  34. ^ Fisk, Great War for Civilisation, p. 326
  35. ^ Ibid, p. 326
  36. ^ Balakian. Burning Tigris, p. 191
  37. ^ Dadrian, History of the Armenian Genocide, p. 349
  38. ^ Dadrian, History of the Armenian Genocide, p. 350
  39. ^ Fisk, Great War for Civilisation, pp. 329-330
  40. ^ Fisk, Great War for Civilisation, p. 331
  41. ^ Balakian, Burning Tigris, p. 186
  42. ^ Auswärtiges Amt, West German Foreign Office Archives, K170, no. 4674, folio 63, op. cit. in Burning Tigris, p. 186
  43. ^ New York Times Dispatch. Russians Slaughter Turkish IIIrd Army: Give No Quarter to Men Held Responsible for the Massacre of Armenians. The New York Times, March 6, 1916.
  44. ^ Fisk, Great War for Civilisation, p. 330
  45. ^ Lochner, Louis P.What About Germany? Dodd, Mead & Company, 1942 pp. 11-12
  46. ^ Note: numerous versions of the "Armenian quote" have appeared although they differ mostly in linguistics rather than meaning.
  47. ^ Fisk, Great War for Civilisation, p. 330
  48. ^ Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1985 p. 556 ISBN 0-8050-0348-7
  49. ^ Turk police warned of editor murder plot: press. Reuters (2007-01-30).
  50. ^ By Robert Mahoney (2006-06-15). Bad blood in Turkey (PDF). Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  51. ^ IPI Deplores Callous Murder of Journalist in Istanbul. International Press Institute (2007-01-22).
  52. ^ Bilgen Reinart, Üstün (2006-02-07). Hrant Dink: forging an Armenian identity in Turkey. openDemocracy. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  53. ^ Why do they call Apo (Abdullah Öcalan) "Armenian spawn" rather than "Kurdish spawn"?. Vatan (2006-02-07). Retrieved on 2005-02-10.
  54. ^ BBC News — "Author's trial set to test Turkey" — 14 December 2005
  55. ^ Nouritza Matossian. "They say 'incident'. To me it's genocide", The Observer, 2005-02-27. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  56. ^ Gilles Veinstein, "Trois questions sur un massacre", L’Histoire, no. 187 (April 1995), pp. 40–41.
  57. ^ Jeremy Salt, "The Narrative Gap in Ottoman Armenian History, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol 39, No 1, January 2003 pp 19-36
  58. ^ Emeritus Professor Malcom Yapp, Middle Eastern Studies (MES) journal Oct 96, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p 395, 3p
  59. ^ Erickons, E.J., 2006. Armenian Massacres: New Records Undercut Old Blame. The Middle East Quarterly. Summer 2006, Vol.13, No.3.
  60. ^ The 39 states of the United States recognizing the Armenian Genocide are Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin.
  61. ^ French National Assembly, legislative file
  62. ^ [1].
  63. ^ http://www.internethaber.com/news_detail.php?id=47327
  64. ^ http://www.zaman.com/?bl=international&trh=20041219&alt=&syf=butun
  65. ^ OurArarat.com - "International Affirmation And Recognition Of The Armenian Genocide"
  66. ^ Bundestag resolution
  67. ^ "French MPs shelve 'genocide' vote", BBC News, 2006-05-18. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  68. ^ (French) legislative file of the French National Assembly; vote tally
  69. ^ Accusation of an attempt to garner votes.. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  70. ^ http://www.panarmenian.net/news/eng/?nid=17162
  71. ^ Excerpts from The UN Report on Genocide 1985
  72. ^ A Letter from The International Association of Genocide Scholars
  73. ^ Cilicia.com - "Kurdistan Recognizes the Armenian Genocide"
  74. ^ http://euobserver.com/9/22331/?rk=1 "MEPs back Armenia genocide clause in Turkey report" by Lucia Kubosova, published by EU Observer on 5 September 2006
  75. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5385954.stm
  76. ^ http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/article.php?enewsid=56157
  77. ^ "Turkish politician fined over genocide denial", Swissinfo with agencies, March 9, 2007.

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Links

  • Armenian Genocide on the armeniapedia.org website
  • Photos of Armenian Deportees: 1915-1916
  • Learning from history: the Holocaust of the Armenian People omedia

Bibliography

  • Akçam, Taner, From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide, Zed Books, 2004
  • Akçam, Taner. A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. Metropolitan Books, 2006
  • Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: Perennial, 2003
  • Bartov, Omer, Mirrors of Destruction: War, Genocide and Modern Identity, Oxford Univ. Press, 2000
  • Dadrian, Vahakn, N. The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus Berghahn Books, 1995
  • Dündar, Fuat, Ittihat ve Terakki'nin Müslümanlari Iskan Politikasi (1913-18), Iletisim, 2001
  • Fisk, Robert, The Great War for Civilisation: the Conquest of the Middle East London: Alfred Knopf, 2005
  • Gust, Wolfgang, Der Völkermord an den Armeniern, Zu Klampen, 2005
  • Lepsius, Johannes. Deutschland und Armenien 1914–1918, Sammlung diplomatischer Aktenstücke. Donat & Temmen Verlag, 1986
  • Melson, Robert, Revolution and Genocide. On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust, The University of Chicago Press, 1996
  • Power, Samantha. "A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide. Harper, 2003
  • Wallimann, Isidor (ed.): Genocide and the Modern Age: Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death, Syracuse Univ. Press, 2000
  • The Armenian Genocide: A Bibliography. University of Michigan, Dearborn: Armenian Research Center. Retrieved on March 18, 2005.
  • The Armenian Genocide: A Supplemental Bibliography, 1993-1996. University of Michigan, Dearborn: Armenian Research Center. Retrieved on March 18, 2005.

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