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Encyclopedia > Armenian calendar
Calendars
v  d  e
Common use Chinese · Islamic · Gregorian · ISO · Astro · Julian
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected usage Armenian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Buddhist · Coptic · Ethiopian · Germanic · Hebrew · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Malayalam · Maya · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepali · Nepal Sambat · Tamil · Thai (LunarSolar) · Tibetan · Vietnamese· Yoruba · Zoroastrian
Calendar Types
Original Julian · Runic

The Armenian calendar uses the Armenian numerals. It begins in AD 552 as the start of the Armenian era. A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar oriented at the moon phase. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: , Assamese: Vaskar), is the traditional calendar used in Bangladesh and eastern regions of India in the state of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ‎) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. ... The Maya calendar is actually a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Runic calendar (or Rune staff) appears to have been a medieval Swedish invention, whereas clog almanacs appear in several European countries. ... The system of Armenian numerals is a historic numeral system originating using the (capital) letters of the ancient Armenians. ... Events July - Battle of Taginae: The Byzantine general Narses defeats and kills Totila, king of the Ostrogoths. ...


Dates are marked by the letters ԹՎ t’v, a siglum for t’vin "in the year" followed by one to four letters of the Armenian Alphabet, each of which stands for an Armenian numeral. For example, "in the year 1455 [AD 2007]" would be written ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ. Scribal abbreviations (sigla) were abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin. ... The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the 5th century. ... The system of Armenian numerals is a historic numeral system originating using the (capital) letters of the ancient Armenians. ...


The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar, and as noted by Antoine Meillet in two cases Kartvelian influence. The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... Antoine Meillet (Paul-Jules-Antoine Meillet, November 11, 1866 - September 21, 1936), was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century. ...

1. (March/April) Nawasard (Avestan *nava sarəδa "new year")
2. (April/May) Hoi (from Georgian ori "two")
3. (May/June) Sahmi (from Georgian sami "three")
4. (June/July) Trē (Zoroastrian Tïr)
5. (July/August) K’adoç ("month of crops"; Zoroastrian Amerōdat̰)
6. (August/September) Araç
7. (September/October) Mehekan (from Iranian *mihrakāna; Zoroastrian Mitrō)
8. (October/November) Areg ("sun month"; Zoroastrian Āvān)
9. (November/December) Ahekan (Zoroastrian Ātarō)
10. (December/January) Marēr (perhaps from Avestan maiδyaīrya "mid-year"; Zoroastrian Dīn)
11. (January/February) Margaç (Zoroastrian Vohūman)
12. (February/March) Hrotiç (from Pahlavi *fravartakān "epagomenal days"; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰)

The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them, a peculiarity also found in the Avestan calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in at least five names. The names are 1. Areg "sun", 2. Hrand, 3. Aram, 4. Margar "prophet", 5. Ahrank’ "half-burned", 6. Mazdeł, 7. Astłik "Venus", 8. Mihr (Mithra), 9. Jopaber, 10. Murç "triumph", 11. Erezhan "hermit", 12. Ani, 13. Parxar, 14. Vanat, 15. Aramazd (Ahura Mazda), 16. Mani "beginning", 17. Asak "beginningless", 18. Masis (Mount Ararat), 19. Anahit (Anahita), 20. Aragac, 21. Gorgor, 22. Kordi (a district of Ancient Armenia considered the homeland of the Kurds), 23. Cmak "east wind", 24. Lusnak "half-moon", 25. C̣rōn "dispersion", 26.Npat (Apam Napat), 27. Vahagn (Zoroastrian Vahrām, name of the 20th day), 28. Sēin "mountain", 29. Varag, 30. Gišeravar "evening star". The five epagomenal days are called Aveleac̣ "superfluous". Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... The walls of Ani showing a defensive tower Ani (Armenian: , Latin: Abnicum[1] ) is a ruined and uninhabited medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: , Russian: , Hebrew: , Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... Temple of Anahita: goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... In Hinduism, Apam Napat is the god of fresh water, such as in rivers and lakes. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


The ancient Armenians had a calendar of 28 days per month, based on the visible phases of the moon which corresponds to the days of the menses of womaen.


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Armenian has a page on the topic of
Calendar

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The system of Armenian numerals is a historic numeral system originating using the (capital) letters of the ancient Armenians. ... // 1 Third Day of the Fast of the Nativity 2 Fourth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 3 Fifth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 4 Sixth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 5 Eve of the Nativity and Theophany of our Lord Jesus Christ 6 Feast... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ) also known as Persian calendar or the Jalāli Calendar is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ...

Literature

  • Jost Gippert, Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems in The Annual of The Society for The Study of Caucasia“, 1, 1989, 3-12.[1][2]
  • Louis H. Gray, On Certain Persian and Armenian Month-Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1907)
  • Édouard Dulaurier, Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne technique et historique (1859), 2001 reprint ISBN 978-0543966476.
  • V. Bănăţeanu, “Le calendrier arménien et les anciens noms des mois”, in: Studia et Acta Orientalia 10, 1980, pp. 33-46
  • P'. Ingoroq'va, “Jvel-kartuli c'armartuli k'alendari” (“The Old Georgian pagan calendar”), in: Sakartvelos muzeumis moambe (“Messenger of the Museum of Georgia”), 6, 1929-30, pp. 373-446 and 7, 1931-32, pp. 260-336
  • K'. K'ek'elije, “Jveli kartuli c'elic'adi” (“The Old Georgian year”), in: St'alinis saxelobis Tbilisis Saxelmc'ipo Universit'et'is šromebi (“Working papers of the Tbilisi State University by the name of Stalin”) 18, 1941, reprinted in the author's “Et'iudebi jveli kartuli lit'erat'uris ist'oriidan” (“Studies in the history of Old Georgian literature”) 1, 1956, pp. 99-124.
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