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Encyclopedia > Armenian SSR
Հայկական Սովետական
Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն
Flag of Armenian SSR Coat of Arms of Armenian SSR
State motto:
Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացե'ք!

("Workers of the world, unite!") Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenian_SSR.svg Flag of the Armenian SSR. Based on Image:Flag of Moldavian SSR.svg, attributed to Perconte. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Flag of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic This flag was adopted by the Armenian SSR on December 17, 1952. ... The USSR State motto is a quotation from Karl Marxs and Friedrich Engels Communist Manifesto, meaning Workers of the world, unite!. It appeared in the language of the Soviet Republics in the USSR Coat of arms, by the reverse order they were mentioned on the Constitution of the USSR...

Image:SovietUnionArmenia.png
Official language None.

De facto, Armenian and Russian. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Capital Yerevan
Chairman of the Supreme Council Levon Ter-Petrossian (at independence)
Established
In the USSR:
 - Since
 - Until
November 29, 1920

December 30, 1922
September 21, 1991
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 15th in former Soviet Union
29,800 km²
--
Population


 - Total (1989)
 - Density In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Yerevan (Armenian: ÔµÖ€Õ¥Ö‚Õ¡Õ¶ or ÔµÖ€Ö‡Õ¡Õ¶; sometimes written as Erevan; former names include Erebuni and Erivan) (population: 1,088,300 (2004 estimate) [1]) is the largest city and capital of Armenia. ... Levon Ter-Petrossian (Armenian: Ô¼Ö‡Õ¸Õ¶ Տեր-ÕŠÕ¥Õ¿Ö€Õ¸Õ½ÕµÕ¡Õ¶ Russian: Левон Тер-Петросян) (born January 9, 1945 in Aleppo, Syria in a family of a Syrian Communist) was the President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Constitutional order The order they were mentioned in the Constitution of the USSR; also the order in which the motto appeared in the USSR Coat of Arms. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ...

Ranked 13th in the former Soviet Union


3,287,700
110.3/km² Constitutional order The order they were mentioned in the Constitution of the USSR; also the order in which the motto appeared in the USSR Coat of Arms. ...

Currency Ruble (ռուբլի)
Time zone UTC + 4
Anthem Anthem of Armenian SSR

The Armenian SSR (Armenian: Հայկական Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն; Russian: Армянская Советская Социалистическая Республика) or Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia came into being when the Communist Party of Armenia proclaimed control of Armenia on 29 November 1920. On 1 December 1920 Prime Minister Simon Vratsian ceded control of the country. It later changed its name to the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. The period is sometimes known as the Second Republic of Armenia, which followed the short lived Democratic Republic of Armenia (also known as the First Republic of Armenia). 1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... It has been suggested that leap second be merged into this article or section. ... The State Anthem of the Armenian SSR ( (help· info)) was the national anthem of Armenia when it was an union republic in the USSR, used from 1944 to 1991. ... The Armenian Communist Party (Hayastani Komunistakan Kusaktsutyun) is a communist political party in Armenia. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... The Prime Minister of Armenia is the most senior minister within the Armenian government, and is required by the constitution to oversee the Governments regular activities [and] coordinate the work of the Ministers. ... Order: 4th Prime Minister of Armenia Term: 25 November 1920 - 2 December 1920 Predecessor: Hamo Ohanjanyan Successor: Soviet control Simon Vratsian (1882 - 1969) was an Armenian political figure. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of...


On August 23, 1990, it was renamed into Republic of Armenia, remaining in the USSR for a year before independence. This is the song that never ends yes it gos on and on my friends some people started singing it not knowing what it was they just started singing it forever just becauseThis is the song that never ends yes it gos on and on my friends some... This article is about the year. ...

Contents


History

Armenia is absorbed into the Soviet Union

After suffering numerous casualties under Ottoman rule with the Armenian Genocide and the subsequent Turkish-Armenian War, the historic Armenian area was overrun with despair and devestation. When the Democratic Republic of Armenia was invaded by the Bolsheviks in 1920, it was declared a Soviet republic. Afterwards, both Turkey and the new proclaimed Soviet republic negotiated the Treaty of Kars, in which Turkey ceded Adjara to the USSR in exchange for Kars, Iğdır, and Ardahan. The land given to Turkey included the ancient city of Ani and Mount Ararat, the spirtual Armenian homeland which appears on the Soviet Armenian coat of arms. To this day, Armenia does not recognize the Kars treaty. Armenian Genocide The Armenian Genocide (also known as the Armenian Holocaust or the Armenian Massacre) refers to the forced mass relocation and related deaths of hundreds of thousands or over a million Armenians, during the government of the Young Turks (Committee of Union and Progress) from 1915 to 1917 in... Combatants First Republic of Armenia Turkish Revolutionaries In 1920 the Turkish Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the First Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Turkey Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars was a friendship treaty between Turkey and the Soviet Union. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Kars is a province of Turkey, and is located in the northeastern part of the country, next to the border with Armenia. ... shows the Location of the Province IÄŸdır Igdir is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the border with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. ... shows the Location of the Province Ardahan Ardahan is a province in the northwestern-most corner of Turkey, along part of the border with Georgia. ... Ani, Church of Saint Gregory and Citadel Ani, known to Romans as Abnicum, is a ruined capital of medieval Armenia, now situated in the Turkish province of Kars, immediately south of the Turko-Armenian frontier, at an altitude of 4390 ft. ... Mount Ararat (Armenian Ô±Ö€Õ¡Ö€Õ¡Õ¿; Turkish AÄŸrı Dağı; Kurdish Agirî, Ararat; Persian آرارات Ararat; Hebrew אררט, Standard Hebrew Ararat, Tiberian Hebrew ), the tallest peak in modern Turkey, is a snow-capped dormant volcanic cone, located in the far northeast of Turkey, 16 km west of Iran and 32 km south of Armenia. ...


From March 12, 1922 to December 5, 1936 it was part of the Transcaucasian Federative Soviet Socialist Republic together with the Georgian SSR and the Azerbaijan SSR. Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow and the communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire. The situation was, of course, difficult for the church which struggled under Soviet rule. After the death of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin took the reins of power. Under Stalin, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia were all proclaimed separate republics. However, the lands of Nakhichevan and Nagorno-Karabakh (both of which were promised to Armenia by the Bolsheviks in 1920) were transferred to Azerbaijan. March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... (Russian: Влади́мир И́льич Ле́нин, IPA:, born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov; April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of what has come to be called Leninism, which is described... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...

A propaganda poster prasing Soviets for "liberating" Aremenia from the Dashnaks
A propaganda poster prasing Soviets for "liberating" Aremenia from the Dashnaks

Image File history File links Soviet_Propaganda_in_the_Armenian_SSR_1937. ... Image File history File links Soviet_Propaganda_in_the_Armenian_SSR_1937. ...

The reign of Stalin

In a period of twenty-five years, Armenia was industrialized and educated under strictly prescribed conditions, and nationalism was harshly suppressed. Stalin took several measures in persecuting the Armenian Apostolic Church already weakend by the Armenian Genocide and russification policy of the Russian Empire. In the 1920s the Church was robbed of its worldly possesions. In the 1930s Soviets began attempts to physically eliminate the Church culuminated by the murdered of Catholicos Khoren I in 1938, as part of the Great Purge, and closing the Ejmiatsin on 4 August 1938. The Church however survived underground and in the diaspora. Official standard of Catholicos Garegin II of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes incorrectly called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church is the worlds oldest national church and one of the original churches. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Social issues of the 1920s. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Great Purge (Russian: ) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. ... Categories: Stub | Tourist attractions in Armenia | Towns and Cities in Armenia | World Heritage Sites in Armenia ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


As with various other ethnic minorities who lived in the Soviet Union under Stalin, millions of innocent Armenians were executed and deported. In 1936, together with Lavrenty Beria, Stalin worked to deport Armenians to Siberia and Turkmenistan in an attempt to bring the Armenian SSR's population under 700,000 and so justify its annexation into Georgia. Under his command, the Communist Party of Armenia used police terror to strengthen its political hold on the population and suppress all expressions of nationalism. Many writers, artists, scientists and political leaders were executed or forced into exile. Lavrenty Beria Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... Siberia is also an album by Echo & The Bunnymen. ... The Armenian Communist Party (Hayastani Komunistakan Kusaktsutyun) is a communist political party in Armenia. ...


Additionally, in 1944, roughly 200,000 Hamshenis (Sunni Muslim Armenians who live near the Black Sea costal regions of Russia, Georgia and Turkey) were deported from Georgia to areas of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Further deportations of Armenians from the coastal occurred in 1948, when 58,000 nationalist Armenian Dashnaks and Greeks were forced to move to Kazakhstan. Hamshenis or Hemshils (Turkish HemÅŸinli, plural HemÅŸinliler) are a distinct ethnic group inhabiting the Black Sea region of Turkey. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. ...


Revival

Nikita Khruschev in Yerevan, 1961
Nikita Khruschev in Yerevan, 1961

After Stalin's death, Nikita Khruschev emerged as the country's new leader. The Kremlin soon began a process allowing for greater expression of national feeling. Khruschev's De-Stalinization process also eased fears for Soviet residents. Additionally, he also put more resources into the production of consumer goods and housing. Almost immediately, Armenia began a rapid cultural and economic rebirth. Also, to a limited degree, some religious freedom was granted to Armenia when Catholicos Vazgen I assumed the duties of his office in 1955. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1344x958, 390 KB) Summary Nikita Kruschev in Yerevan, 1961. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1344x958, 390 KB) Summary Nikita Kruschev in Yerevan, 1961. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... // De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ... Vazgen I , originally Levon Garabed Baljian, Catholicos Vazgen (1908 - 1994), was an Armenian (Romanian-born) prelate. ...


Glasnost, Perestroika and their effects on Armenians

Mikhail Gorbachev's introduction of the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika in the 1980s also fueled Armenian visions of a better life under Soviet rule. The Hamshenis who were deported by Stalin to Kazakhstan began petitioning for the government to move them to the Armenian SSR. However, this move was denied by the Soviet government because of fears that the Muslim Hamshenis might spark ethnic conflicts with their Christian Armenian brothers. However, another event that occured during this time made an ethnic clash between Christian Armenians and Muslims inevitable. (Russian: , IPA: , commonly anglicized as Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Poster showing Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika ( , Russian: ) is the Russian word (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. ... MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...

Armenia becomes independent from the USSR - September 21, 1991. Click here to see the video.
Enlarge
Armenia becomes independent from the USSR - September 21, 1991. Click here to see the video.

Armenians in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh, which was promised to Armenia by the Bolsheviks and transferred to the Azerbaijan SSR by Stalin, began a peaceful, democratic movement to unite the area with Armenia. The majority Armenian population in the area claimed to be fearful of the "forced Azerification" of the region. On February 20, 1988, Armenian deputies to the National Council of Nagorno-Karabakh voted to unify that region with Armenia. However, ethnic riots soon began breaking out between both Armenians and Azeris, thus preventing a solid unification from taking place. Even worse, Soviet Armenia suffered the devestating 1988 Spitak Earthquake. Image File history File linksMetadata Armenia-soviet-independence. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Armenia-soviet-independence. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Spitak Earthquake was a tremor, measuring 6. ...


Independence

On August 23, 1990, a whole year before the Soviet Union broke apart, Armenia declared its independence. It was not, however, officially recognized until September 21, 1991. It was on this day that the new Armenian republic was declared and re-established. Still, tensions between Armenia and Azerbaijan continued to escalate, ultimately leading to the Nagorno-Karabakh war. Despite a cease-fire in place since 1994, Armenia has yet to resolve its conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh. Aside from this, Armenia has seen substantial development over the years and, although blockaded by both Turkey and Azerbaijan over the Karabakh dispute, maintains friendly relations with its neighboring states of Russia, Georgia, and Iran. The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an armed conflict that began in the latter half of 1991 and raged on until 1994 in the Caucasus region between mostly Christian Armenia and its eastern neighbor, predominantly Muslim Azerbaijan. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated like the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ...


Government

Chairmen of the Supreme Council and the Presidium of the Supreme Council

  • Alexandr Myasnikyan
  • Sargis Lukashin Srapionyan
  • Sargis Hmbardzumyan
  • Sahak Ter-Gabrielyan
  • Abraham Guloyan
  • Aram Piruzyan
  • Aghasi Sargsyan
  • Sahak Karapetyan
  • Anton Qochinyan
  • Badal Muradyan
  • Grigor Arzumanyan
  • Fadey Sargsyan
  • Vladimir Margaryants
  • Levon Ter-Petrossian

References

  • Bauer, Elisabeth. Armenia: Past and Present. New York, 1981.
 
History of Armenia
Armenia

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August 27 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani Republic declared as illegal the decision of the congress of authoritative representatives of the Armenian population of NKAR from August 16, 1989.
December 7 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR assessed this resolution of the Armenian Supreme Soviet from December 1, 1989 as inadmissible interference in the affairs of the Azerbaijani SSR, encroachment on its territorial integrity.
March 24 - The attack of the armed thugs of the Armenian SSR to the villages of the Gazakh region of the Azerbaijani SSR.
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