FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375.
The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375.

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Lesser Armenia; Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայկական Թագաւորութիւն, not to be confused with the Armenian Kingdom of Antiquity) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. It was located on the Gulf of İskenderun of the Mediterranean Sea in what is today southern Turkey. The country was independent from around 1078 to 1375. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links Armenianmediterian. ... Image File history File links Armenianmediterian. ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Gulf of Ä°skenderun (Turkish: Ä°skenderun Körfezi), formerly the Gulf of Alexandretta, is a gulf or inlet of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of Turkey near its border with Syria. ... For the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, see Mediterranean Basin. ... Events Romanesque church begun at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Anselm of Canterbury becomes abbot of Le Bec William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built Births Deaths Categories: 1078 ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ...


The Kingdom of Cilicia was founded by the Roupenid dynasty, an offshoot of the larger Bagratid family that at various times held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia. Their capital was Sis. Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served as a focus for Armenian nationalism and culture, since Armenia was under foreign occupation at the time. The Roupenids were an Armenian dynasty who dominated parts of Cilicia, and came to found the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. ... ... Kozan (37°27′N 35°48′E) is a city in Adana Province, Turkey. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ...


Major cities and castles of the kingdom included the port of Korikos, Lampron, Partzerpert, Vahka (modern Feke), Hromgla, Tarsus, Anazarbe, Til Hamdoun, Mamistra (mod. Misis: the classical Mopsuestia), Adana and the port of Ayas (Aias). Corycus (Greek: Κώρυκος; also transliterated Corycos or Korykos) was an ancient city in Cilicia Trachaea, Anatolia, located at the mouth of the Calycadnus (now Göksu); the site is now occupied by the town of Kızkalesi (formerly Ghorgos), Mersin Province, Turkey. ... Namrun Kalesi is a castle near the town of Çamliyayla in Mersin Province, Turkey. ... Feke is a district of Adana Province of Turkey. ... The Qalat ar-Run was a powerful fortress on the river Euphrates, 50 km northeast of Gaziantep, Turkey. ... Tarsus is a city in present day Turkey, located on the mouth of the Tarsus Cay (Cydnus) which empties into the Mediterranean. ... Anazarbus (med. ... Mopsuestia is an ancient city of Cilicia. ... Adana (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... Ayas is a small town in Yumurtalık district, Adana Province, Turkey, located east of the mouth of the Ceyhan River. ...

Contents

Byzantine Cilicia

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links LusignanCOA.gif‎ Coat of Arms of the Lusignan Dynasty of Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


History of Armenia // Prehistory Archaeologists refer to the Shulaveri-Shomu culture of the central Transcaucasus region, including modern Armenia, as the earliest known prehistoric culture in the area, carbon-dated to roughly 6000 - 4000 BC. However, a recently discovered tomb has been dated to 9000 BC. Another early culture in the Armenian Highland...

Early History
Haik
Armens
Hayasa-Azzi
Mitanni
Nairi
Kingdom of Urartu
Kingdom of Armenia
Orontid Armenia
Artaxiad Dynasty
Arsacid Dynasty
Medieval History
Marzpanate Period
Byzantine Armenia
Bagratuni Armenia
Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Foreign Rule
Persian Rule
Ottoman Rule
Russian Rule
Hamidian Massacres
Armenian Genocide
Early Independence
Democratic Republic of Armenia
Soviet Armenia
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Modern Armenia
Republic of Armenia
Topical
Military history of Armenia
Timeline of Armenian history

Cilicia was conquered from the Arabs by the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas around 965. He expelled the Muslims living there, and Christians from Syria and Armenia were encouraged to settle in the region. Emperor Basil II (976-1025) attempted to expand into Armenian Vaspurakan in the East and Arab-held Syria towards the south. As a result of the Byzantine military campaigns, the Armenians spread into Cappadocia and eastward from Cilicia into the mountainous areas of northern Syria and Mesopotamia.[1] Statue of Haik in Yerevan Haik (Also spelled Hayk or Haig) is the legendary patriarch and establisher of the first Armenian nation. ... Armens, located in the Armenian Highland, the people are usually referred to as Arman, Armenic. ... Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of the Euphrates and to the South of Hayasa. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under the Artaxiad Dynasty after the conquests of Tigranes the Great, 80 BC The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 1. ... The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... Marzpanate period is the time in Armenian history after the fall of the Arshakuni Dynasty of Armenia in 428, when most of Armenia was governed by Marzbans (Governors-general of the boundaries), nominated by the Sassanid Persian King. ... Byzantine Armenia is the name given to the Armenian part of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Persian Armenia, AD 387-591 Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eastern Armenia or Russian Armenia is the portion of Ottoman Armenia that was ceded to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... State motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Vardan Mamikonian leading Armenians in the Battle of Vartanantz (451) The military history of Armenia encompasses a period of several thousand years, as the Armenian people have existed as a nation since the Late Bronze Age. ... // 883 BC: Foundation of the Kingdom of Urartu with Aramé. 834-828 BC: Reign of Sarduri I who constructs Tushpa (Van). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ... March 1 - Pope Leo VIII is restored in place of Pope Benedict V October 1 - Pope John XIII succeeds Pope Leo VIII as the 133rd pope. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (from Persian: Katpatuka meaning the land of beautiful horses, Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names; Turkish Kapadokya) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ...


The Armenian immigration increased with the formal annexation of Greater Armenia to the Byzantine Empire in 1045 and the following Seljuk conquest 19 years later, giving two new waves of migration.[1] After the fall of Bagratid Armenia, and during the following centuries, Armenia wasn't capable of reaffirming itself and its sovereignty. It stayed under the hoofs of Turkic tribes. Events Emperor Go-Reizei ascends the throne of Japan. ...


Foundation of Armenian power in Cilicia

Coat of Arms of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, given to Leo II of Armenia of the Rubenid Dynasty by Pope Celestine III of Rome
Coat of Arms of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, given to Leo II of Armenia of the Rubenid Dynasty by Pope Celestine III of Rome

The Armenians came to serve the Byzantines, as military officers and governors; they were given control of important cities on the Byzantine Empire's eastern frontier. When Imperial power in the region weakened in the chaotic years after the Battle of Manzikert, some of these seized the opportunity to set themselves up as sovereign Lords, while others remained, at least in name, loyal. The most successful of these early warlords was Philaretos Brachamios, a former Armenian general of Romanus IV Diogenes. Between 1078 and 1085, Philaretus built a principality stretching from Malatia in the north to Antioch in the south, and from Cilicia in the east to Edessa in the west, but after his death his dominion disintegrated into local lordships again. He invited many Armenian nobles, and gave them land and castles.[1] Image File history File links RubenidCOA.gif‎ Coat of Arms of the Rubenid Dynasty of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links RubenidCOA.gif‎ Coat of Arms of the Rubenid Dynasty of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Leo II of Armenia, (Armenian: Levon II) known as The Magnificent (1150 – May 5, 1219) was king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1187–1219. ... The Rubenids were an Armenian dynasty who dominated parts of Cilicia, and who established the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. ... Celestine III, né Giacinto Bobone (Rome, ca. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV Nikephoros Bryennios Theodore Alyates Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 30,000 ~ 70,000 Casualties About 10,000[citation needed] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk forces led by Alp Arslan... Seal of Philaretos Brachamios, Protokuropalates & Domestic of the Scholae. ... Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence of the... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... Malatya is a city in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Malatya Province. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ...


One of those princes was Ruben, who had close ties with the last Bagratid Armenian king, Gagik II. He thought that he would never be able to reinstate the Bagratid kingdom, so he rebelled against the Byzantine Empire in Cilicia. He rallied with him many other Armenian landlords and nobles. Thus, in 1080, the foundations of the independent Armenian princedom of Cilicia, and of the future kingdom, were laid under Ruben's and his descendants' (who would be called Rubenids) leadership.[2] Region (Bagrevand) and family Bagratuni (or Bagratids) that ruled it, of the old Armenia c. ... The Rubenids were an Armenian dynasty who dominated parts of Cilicia, and who established the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. ...


By the end of the 11th century, upon Ruben's death in 1095, there were six important principalities in the area: Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ...

  • Lampron (after Namrun, now Camliyayla) and Babaron (Candir Kale), located at the southern end of the Cilician Gates, were controlled by the former Byzantine general Oshin, the founder of the important Hethumid dynasty.
  • To the north east was the principality of Constantine I of Armenia, the son of prince Roupen I. His power was based around the fortresses of Partzapert and Vahka.
  • Further to the north east, and outside of Cilicia, was the principality of Marash (modern Kahramanmaraş). It was ruled by Tatoul, a former Byzantine official.
  • East of Maraş, the Armenian Kogh Vasil held the fourtresses of Raban (modern Altınaşkale) and Kesoun as a Seljuk vassal.
  • To the north of these, on the Upper Euphrates, lay the principality of Malatya (Melitene), held by Gabriel, one of Philaretus' former officers, under Seljuk overlordship.
  • Finally, beyond Malatya, was Edessa, controlled by Thoros, another of Philaretus' officers, and son-in-law of Gabriel of Malatya.

The Cilician Gates of wic (Turkish Külek Boazi or Gulek Bogazi) form the main passage through the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. ... The Hethumids were the rulers of Armenia from 1226 to 1373. ... Constantine I of Armenia (d. ... Ruben I of Armenia (also Rhupen or Roupen) (1025–1095) was the Lord of Gobidar and Goromosol, and was the first to declare Cilician Armenia to be an independent nation. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Malatya is a city in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Malatya Province. ... Gabriel of Melitene was the ruler of Melitene (modern Malatya). ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Şanlı Urfa. ... Thoros (or Theodoros, died March 9, 1098) was the ruler of Edessa at the time of the First Crusade. ...

The First Crusade and the Roupenid principality

During the reign of Constantine I, the Crusaders, in retaliation to the Seljuk invasion of Jerusalem, descended upon Anatolia and the Middle East. With the First Crusade, the Armenians in Cilicia gained powerful allies among the Frankish crusaders. With their help, they secured Cilicia from the Turks both by direct military actions in Cilicia, and by establishing Crusader states in Antioch and Edessa.[2] The Armenians also helped the Crusaders to an extent that Pope Gregory XIII said: Constantine I of Armenia (d. ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians Turkish people Muslims/Arabs The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the stated goal of capturing the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims. ... The Crusader states, c. ... The Principality of Antioch (in red) within the frame of the Crusader states. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope from 1572 to 1585. ...

Cilicia among the Crusader States.
Cilicia among the Crusader States.

Among the good deeds which the Armenian people has done towards the church and the Christian world, it should especially be stressed that, in those times when the Christian princes and the warriors went to retake the Holy land, no people or nation, with the same enthusiasm, joy and faith came to their aid as the Armenians did, who supplied the crusaders with horses, provision and guidance. The Armenians assisted these warriors with their utter courage and loyalty during the Holy wars. (Ecclesia Romana, 1584) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (450x657, 80 KB) Created by Clevelander. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (450x657, 80 KB) Created by Clevelander. ... The Crusader states, c. ...


The Armenians and crusaders were partly allied, partly rivals for two centuries to come.


Eventually, there emerged some sort of centralized government in the area with the rise of the Roupenid princes. During the 12th century they were the closest thing to a ruling dynasty, and wrestled with the Byzantines for the power over the region. Prince Leon I integrated the Cilician coastal cities to the Armenian principality, thus consolidating Armenian commercial leadership in the region. He was eventually defeated by the Emperor John II in 1137, who still considered Cilicia as a Byzantine province, and was imprisoned with several other family members.[2] He died in prison three years later. Leon's son and successor, Thoros II, was also imprisoned, but escaped in 1141. He returned to lead the struggle with the Byzantines. Initially he was successful, but eventually, in 1158, he paid homage to the Emperor Manuel I. The Roupenids were an Armenian dynasty who dominated parts of Cilicia, and came to found the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. ... Leo I of Armenia (died February 14, 1140) was Lord of the Mountains 1129–1140. ... Mosaic of John II John II Comnenus (September 13, 1087 - April 8, 1143) was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Thoros II of Armenia (died 1169) was prince of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1140 to 1169. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Lincoln. ... Events January 11 - Vladislav II becomes King of Bohemia End of the formal reign of Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan, also the beginning of his cloistered rule, which will last to his death in 1192. ... Manuel I Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α ο Κομνηνός; November 28, 1118 – September 24, 1180), was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. ...


Cilicia had become so significant in these years, that in 1151, the head of the Armenian Church transferred his see to Hromgla.[1] Events Ghazni is burned by the princes of Ghur Geoffrey of Anjou dies, and succeeded by his son Henry, aged 18. ... The Qalat ar-Run was a powerful fortress on the river Euphrates, 50 km northeast of Gaziantep, Turkey. ...


The Roupenid princes continued to rule Cilicia.


The Kingdom of Armenia

Leon II started his reign as a prince in 1187. He became one of the most important figures of the Cilician Armenian state. Leo II of Armenia, (Armenian: Levon II) known as The Magnificent (1150 – May 5, 1219) was king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1187–1219. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ...


During his reign, he had to face Konya's, Aleppo's, and Damascus' rulers. By doing so, he integrated new lands to Cilicia and doubled the state's ownership of the Mediterranean coast. He also put great effort into augmenting the state's military might.[2] Tomb of Mevlana Rumi is a popular attraction of Konya. ... Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ...

Fortress of Cilician Armenia. 13th century
Fortress of Cilician Armenia. 13th century

At that time, Saladin of Egypt greatly weakened the Crusader states, forcing the Europeans to launch another Crusade. Leo II profited from the situation by improving relations with the Europeans. Thanks to the support given to him by the Holy Roman Emperors (Frederick Barbarossa, and his son, Henry VI), he was able to elevate the princedom's status to a kingdom. In 1198 the Roupenid prince Leon II managed to secure his crown, becoming the first King of Armenian Cilicia. [2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1772x943, 333 KB) This is a logo of an organization, item, or event, and is protected by copyright and/or trademark. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1772x943, 333 KB) This is a logo of an organization, item, or event, and is protected by copyright and/or trademark. ... Artistic representation of Saladin. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... This article is about the English king. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... Leo II of Armenia, (Armenian: Levon II) known as The Magnificent (1150 – May 5, 1219) was king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1187–1219. ...


The crown later passed to the rival Hethoumid dynasty through Leon's daughter Zabel and her second marriage to prince Hethoum. At that time, the Mongols reached the Middle East and conquered Greater Armenia, Mesopotamia, Syria, and advanced towards Egypt. The Mongol conquest was disastrous for the Armenians who still inhabited Greater Armenia, but it wasn't the case for those in Cilcia, as the Mongols never attempted to subjugate them. On the contrary, Hethoum established friendly relations with the Golden Horde, and the doing so, he guaranteed the safety of the Armenians outside Cilicia. Hethoum even attempted, in vain, to convert the Mongols to Christianity. [2] Queen Isabella of Armenia (died c. ... Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol, Turkish: Moğollar) are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China or more specifically on the Central Asian plateau north of the Gobi desert and south of Siberia. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ...


Decline with the Lusignan dynasty

The Hethoumids ruled Cilicia until the murder of Leon V in 1341, when his cousin Guy Lusignan was elected king. The Lusignan dynasty was of French origin, and already had a foothold in the area, the Island of Cyprus. There had always been close relations between the Lusignans of Cyprus and the Armenians. However, when the pro-Latin Lusignans took power, they tried to impose Catholicism and the European way of life. The Armenian leadership largely accepted this, but the peasantry opposed the changes. Eventually, this led way to civil strife. [2] King Levon V doing justice by Sarkis Pitzak, 1331 Leo (also Leon or Levon) V of Armenia (1309 – August 28, 1341) was king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1320 to 1341. ... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Constantine IV of Armenia (died 1344) was the first Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1342 to 1344. ...


In the late 14th century, Cilicia was invaded by the Mameluks. The fall of Sis in April, 1375 put an end to the kingdom; its last King, Leon VI, was granted safe passage and died in exile in Paris in 1393 after, in vain, calling for another Crusade. The title was claimed by his cousin, James I of Cyprus, uniting it with the titles of Cyprus and Jerusalem. [2] An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Leo (or Leon) VI of Armenia (1342-1393) ruled the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1374 to 1393. ... Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... James I of Cyprus (1334–September 9, 1398) was King of Cyprus 1382–1398. ...


Dispersion of the Armenian population of Cilicia

Although the Egyptian Mameluks had taken over Cilicia, they weren't able to firmly hold it. Turkic tribes eventually made their way to the region and affirmed themselves there, which led to the conquest of Cilicia by Tamerlane. As a result, 30 000 wealthy Armenians left Cilicia and settled in Cyprus, which continued to be under French rule until 1489. Only the humbler Armenians remained in Cilicia, and by doing so, conserved the Armenian foothold in the region until the Armenian genocide of 1915. Their descendants are now dispersed in the Armenian diaspora, and the Holy See of Cilicia is now based in Antelias, Lebanon. [2] For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Map of the Armenian diaspora. ... Image:Armenian Catholicossate Antelias. ... Antelias is a city in Lebanon, which is a country in the middle east. ...


See also

Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... This is a list of the Lords, Kings and Queens of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, an Armenian state in the region of Cilicia in what is today southeast Turkey. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Donal Stewart, Angus (2001). The Armenian Kingdom and the Mamluks: War and Diplomacy During the Reigns of Het'um II. Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, p. 33-34. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i (Armenian) Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume II. Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti, p. 29-56. 
  • Boase, T. S. R. (1978). The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7073-0145-9. 
  • The Armenians - by Elizabeth Redgate, A. E. (Anne Elizabeth)
  • The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times - by Richard G. (EDT) Hovannisian - 1997 - 493 pages
  • The Armenian kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades - by Jacob G. Ghazarian

External links

  • Barony and Kingdom of Cilicia (Kurkjian's History of Armenia, Chs. 27‑31)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cilicia - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1414 words)
Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus.
Cilicia was given an eponymous founder in the mythic Cilix, but the historic founder of the dynasty that ruled Cilicia Pedias was Mopsus, identifiable in Phoenician sources as Mpš, the founder of Mopsuestia and protector of an oracle nearby.
The Armenian population of Cilicia was affected by the Armenian Genocide.On 1 January 1919, Cilicia was occupied by French troops.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (2853 words)
The Kingdom of Cilicia was founded by the Rubenian dynasty, an offshoot of the larger Bagratid family that at various times held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia.
Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East.
East of Maraş, the Armenian Gogh Vasil (Basil the Robber) held the fortresses of Raban (modern Altınaşkale) and Kesoun as a Seljuk vassal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m