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Encyclopedia > Armenia
Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Hayastani Hanrapetutyun

Republic of Armenia
Flag of Armenia Coat of arms of Armenia
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Մեկ Ազգ , Մեկ Մշակույթ  (Armenian)
"Mek Azg, Mek Mshakowyt"  (transliteration)
"One Nation, One Culture"
Anthem
Mer Hayrenik
Our Fatherland
Capital
(and largest city)
Yerevan1
40°16′N, 44°34′E
Official languages Armenian
Government Unitary republic
 -  President Robert Kocharian
 -  Prime Minister Serzh Sargsyan
Formation and independence
 -  Traditional foundation of the Armenian nation
August 11, 2492 BC 
 -  Kingdom of Urartu established
1000 BC 
 -  Kingdom of Armenia
formed

600 BC 
 -  Christianity
officially adopted

301 AD 
 -  Democratic Republic of Armenia established
May 28, 1918 
 -  Independence
from the Soviet Union
Declared
Recognised
Finalised


August 23, 1990
September 21, 1991
December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 29,800 km² (141st)
11,506 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.71
Population
 -  2005 estimate 3,215,8002 (136th3)
 -  2001 census 3,002,594 
 -  Density 101 /km² (98th)
262 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $14.17 billion (127th)
 -  Per capita $4,270 (115th)
Gini? (2003) 33.8 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.768 (medium) (80th)
Currency Dram (AMD)
Time zone UTC (UTC+4)
 -  Summer (DST) DST (UTC+5)
Internet TLD .am
Calling code +374
1 Alternatively spelled "Erevan", "Jerevan", or "Erivan".
2 De jure population estimate by the National Statistics Service.
3 Rank based on 2005 UN estimate of de facto population.

Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստան Hayastan, Հայք Hayq), officially the Republic of Armenia, is a landlocked mountainous country in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, located in the Southern Caucasus. It shares borders with Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan to the south. A former republic of the Soviet Union, Armenia is a unitary, multiparty, democratic nation-state and one of the oldest and most historic civilizations in the world. It has a rich cultural heritage and was the first nation to adopt Christianity as its official religion. Although today Armenia is constitutionally a secular state, the Christian faith plays a major role in both its history and the identification of the Armenian people. Armenia is: the country Armenia the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, sometimes called Lesser Armenia or Armenia Minor places in the United States: Armenia Township, Pennsylvania Armenia, South Carolina Armenia, Wisconsin Little Armenia, Los Angeles, California Armenia, Colombia, capital of the department of Quindío This is a disambiguation page, a... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Armenia. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The national flag of Armenia or the Armenian Tricolor consists of three horizontal bands, colored red, blue and orange. ... The Coat of Arms of Armenia The coat of arms of Armenia consists of an eagle and a lion supporting a shield. ... Many countries choose to include the national motto in the coat of arms. ... The international standard ISO 9985 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Armenian characters. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland) is the national anthem of Armenia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (810x769, 65 KB) My work based on an original image by User:David Liuzzo. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Ethnic groups of Armenia and the South Caucasus in 1995. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,088,000   5196. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... There have been two Presidents of Armenia since independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. ... Robert Sedraki Kocharian (IPA: , Armenian: ) (born August 31, 1954) is the second president of the third republic of Armenia. ... The Prime Minister of Armenia is the most senior minister within the Armenian government, and is required by the constitution to oversee the Governments regular activities [and] coordinate the work of the Ministers. ... Serzh (Azati) Sargsyan (Armenian Սերժ Ô±Õ¦Õ¡Õ¿Õ« Սարգսյան, born on June 30, 1954 in Stepanakert, then part of the Azerbaijan SSR, today in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic) is the Defense Minister of Armenia. ... This article is about Armenians as an ethnic group. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC Decades: 2540s BC 2530s BC 2520s BC 2510s BC 2500s BC - 2490s BC - 2480s BC 2470s BC 2460s BC 2450s BC 2440s BC Years: 2497 BC 2496 BC 2495 BC 2494 BC 2493 BC - 2492 BC - 2491s BC 2490s BC... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Events September 3 - The republic of San Marino is established (traditional date). ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... Symbol: None 1/100th unit: luma USD exchange: 452 (July 2005) GBP exchange: 790 (July 2005) The Dram (AMD) is the monetary unit of Armenia. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Daylight saving time around the world  DST used  DST no longer used  DST never used Daylight saving time (DST), also summer time in British English, is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. ... Daylight saving time (DST), often referred to as daylight savings time, is a widely used system of adjusting the official local time forward, usually one hour, from its official standard time for the duration of the spring and summer months. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .am is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Armenia, a former republic of the Soviet Union. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18,761 cu mi). ... South Caucasus, also referred to as Transcaucasia or Transcaucasus, is the southern portion of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia, extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian Seas. ... The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası, Armenian: Õ†Õ¡Õ­Õ«Õ»Ö‡Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Ô»Õ¶Ö„Õ¶Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика, Persian:جمهوری خودمختار نخجوان, Turkish: Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti), known simply as Nakhichevan, is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... According to the CIA World Factbook, the following states are either democracies or emerging democracies, listed in alphabetical order: // At Table of States: listed in alphabetic order. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Culturally, historically, and politically, Armenia is considered to be part of Europe.[1][2] However, its location in the southern Caucasus means that it can also be considered to be at the arbitrary border between Europe and Asia; in other words, a transcontinental nation.[3] However, both these classifications are entirely arbitrary, as there is no easily definable geographic difference between Asia and Europe.[4] This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A transcontinental nation is a country belonging to more than one continent. ...


Armenia is currently a member of more than thirty-five different international organizations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, Asian Development Bank, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the World Trade Organization and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. It is a Partnership for Peace (PfP) member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and in a military alliance of CSTO. It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community, La Francophonie, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Armenia is also active in the international sports community with full membership in the Union of European Football Associations and International Ice Hockey Federation. The country is an emerging democracy and because of its strategic location, it lies among both the Russian and Western spheres of influence. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... European flag of the Council of Europe which is also adopted by the European Union. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a multilateral development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation is an organization created on June 25, 1992, to promote cooperation between its members, hoping to transform the BSEC into a regional economic organization. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Headquarters Moscow Membership 7 member states Official language Russian Secretary General Nikolai Bordyuzha Formation As CST - Signed - Effective As CSTO - Signed - Effective - 15 May 1992 - 20 April 1994 - 7 October 2002 - 18 September 2003 In the framework of Commonwealth of Independent States the CIS Collective Security Treaty (CST) was signed... Flag of EurAsEC The Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC or EAEC) was put into motion on 10 October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan signed the treaty. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The Union of European Football Associations, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) was founded in 1908 and is the worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ...

Contents

Name

The original Armenian name for the country was Hayq. The name later evolved into Hayastan a combination of Hayasa (Հայասա) or Hayk (Հայկ) with the Persian suffix '-stan' (land) in the Middle Ages. Hayk was one of the great Armenian leaders after whom the The Land of Hayk was named. According to legend, Hayk was a great-great-grandson of Noah (son of Togarmah, who was a son of Gomer, who was a son of Japheth, who was a son of Noah), and according to an ancient Armenian tradition, a forefather of all Armenians. He is said to have settled at the foot of Mount Ararat, traveled to assist in building the Tower of Babel, and, after his return, defeated the Babylonian king Bel (believed by some researchers to be Nimrod) in 2492 BCE near the mountains of Lake Van, in the southwestern part of historic Armenia (present-day eastern Turkey). Pre-Christian accounts[5] suggest that Nairi, meaning "land of rivers", used to be an ancient name for the country's mountainous region, first used by Assyrians around 1200 BCE. In the fifth century BCE Herodotus, in his review of the troops opposing the Greeks, he wrote that “the Armenians were armed like the Phrygians, being Phrygian settlers (refugees) [6]. The traditional etymology for the ethnology is from Armenak or Aram, the great-grandson of Haik's great-grandson, and another leader who is, according to Armenian tradition, the ancestor of all Armenians. Akkadian language inscriptions (2400 BCE) mention Armani, locating them in the southern Armenian Highlands near Lake Van. Armani was the earlier form of Armens who were of Proto-Indo-European descent.[7] To this day Assyrians (direct descendents of Akkadians) refer to Armenians by their inscription form Armani. The Armenians are a nation and an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor. ... Haik is the legendary establisher of the first Armenian nation. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the DevanāgarÄ« script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... In the Torah, Togarmah is listed in the genealogy of nations as the son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen. ... Gomer (גֹּמֶר, Standard Hebrew Gómer, Tiberian Hebrew Gōmer) is the eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah mentioned in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible. ... Japheth (יֶפֶת / יָפֶת enlarge, Standard Hebrew Yéfet / Yáfet, Tiberian Hebrew / ) is one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: ‎, Russian: , Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... Engraving The Confusion of Tongues by Gustave Doré (1865), who based his conception on the Minaret of Samarra According to the narrative in Genesis Chapter 11 of the Bible, the Tower of Babel was a tower constructed to reach the heavens by a united humanity. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... In the Bible and in legend, Nimrod (Standard Hebrew נִמְרוֹד Nimrod, Tiberian Hebrew נִמְרֹד Nimrōḏ), son of Cush, grandson of Ham, great-grandson of Noah, was a Mesopotamian monarch and a mighty hunter before Yahweh. He is mentioned in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10), in the First Book of Chronicles, and... // The ruined pyramid of Userkaf at Saqqara. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: ÕŽÕ¡Õ¶Õ¡ Õ¬Õ«Õ³) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Nairi may refer to one of the following. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Statue of Haik in Yerevan Haik (Also spelled Hayk or Haig) is the legendary patriarch and establisher of the first Armenian nation. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Armenian Highland (Armenian Upland) is part of the Transcaucasian Highland and constitutes the continuation of the Caucasus mountains. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: ÕŽÕ¡Õ¶Õ¡ Õ¬Õ«Õ³) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Proto-Indo-European (PIE) may refer to: Proto-Indo-European language the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European roots, A list of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European roots Categories: | ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ...


History

The Kingdom of Urartu during the time of Sarduris II in 743 BC.
The Kingdom of Urartu during the time of Sarduris II in 743 BC.
Main article: History of Armenia

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1708x976, 148 KB) Summary Urartus maximal expansion in 743 BC catalanian wikipedia by Usuari:Jolle File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Urartu Maps of Armenia... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1708x976, 148 KB) Summary Urartus maximal expansion in 743 BC catalanian wikipedia by Usuari:Jolle File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Urartu Maps of Armenia... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC Events and Trends February 26 747 BC - Nabonassar becomes king of Assyria 747 BC - Meles becomes king... The history of Armenia is ancient and stretches back to prehistoric times. ...

Antiquity

Armenia has been populated since prehistoric times, and has been proposed as the site of the Biblical Garden of Eden. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat, upon which, as Judeo-Christian theology states, Noah's Ark came to rest after the flood. (Gen. 8:4). Archaeologists continue to uncover evidence that Armenia and the Armenian Highlands were among the earliest sites of human civilization. From 6000 BCE to 1000 BCE, tools such as spears and axes and trinkets of copper, bronze, and iron were commonly produced in Armenia and traded in neighbouring lands where those metals were less abundant.[8] The territory of Armenia is also one of the candidates for the legendary Aratta, mentioned in Sumerian records. In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire (at the height of its power), Mitanni (South-Western historic Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (fifteenth to twelfth centuries BCE). In the Iron Age, the Indo-European Phrygians and Mushkis arrived in the Near East, and toppled the Mitanni Kingdom.[9] Then, the Nairi people (twelfth to ninth centuries BCE) and the Kingdom of Urartu (ninth to sixth centuries BCE) successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people.[10] Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BCE by the Urartian king Argishti I. The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew Gan Ä’den, גַּן עֵדֶן) (Arabic jannato aden جنة عدن) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve, lived after they were... Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: ‎, Russian: , Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ... Armenian Highland (Armenian Upland) is part of the Transcaucasian Highland and constitutes the continuation of the Caucasus mountains. ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... -1... Aratta was an ancient state formation of renown somewhere in the Middle East, ca. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Boğazköy in todayss north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium BC. The Hittite kingdom, which at... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of the Euphrates and to the South of Hayasa. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands, part of modern Turkey. ... The Nairi were a Late Bronze Age nation corresponding in the territory of the later Kingdom of Urartu, located around Lake Van, in what is now the East Anatolia Region (between Hakkari to Dersim), southeastern Turkey. ... Urartu was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia, centred in the mountainous region around Lake Van (presently in Turkey), which existed from about 1000 BC, or earlier, until 585 BC, and which, at its apogee, stretched from northern Mesopotamia through the southern Caucasus. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,088,000   5196. ... Red and dark tuff monument of king Argishti riding a chariot with two horses in Yerevan, Armenia in front of the Erebuni Museum. ...

Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great.
Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great.

Around 600 BCE, the Kingdom of Armenia was established under the Orontid Dynasty, which existed under several local dynasties till 428 CE. The kingdom reached its height between 95 - 66 BCE under Tigranes the Great, becoming one of the most powerful kingdoms of its time within the region. Throughout its history, the kingdom of Armenia enjoyed periods of independence intermitted with periods of autonomy subject to contemporary empires. Armenia's strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including the Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Mongols, Persians, Ottoman Turks and Russians. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x564, 25 KB) Summary Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under the Artaxiad Dynasty after the conquests of Tigranes the Great, 80 BC Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x564, 25 KB) Summary Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under the Artaxiad Dynasty after the conquests of Tigranes the Great, 80 BC Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Tigranes the Great (Armenian: , EA: Tigran Mets, WA: Dikran Medz, Greek: ) (ruled 95 BCE–55 BCE) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a king of Armenia under whom the country became for a short time the strongest state in the Roman East. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... Events April 10 - Nestorius is made Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Tigranes the Great (Armenian: , EA: Tigran Mets, WA: Dikran Medz, Greek: ) (ruled 95 BCE–55 BCE) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a king of Armenia under whom the country became for a short time the strongest state in the Roman East. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...

St. Gregory the Illuminator's influence led to the adoption of Christianity in Armenia in the year 301 CE. He is the patron saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
St. Gregory the Illuminator's influence led to the adoption of Christianity in Armenia in the year 301 CE. He is the patron saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church.

In 301, Armenia became the first country in the world to adopt Christianity as its official state religion, while a number of Christian communities have been established in Armenia since 40 CE. There had been various pagan communities before Christianity, but they were converted by an influx of Christian missionaries. Tiridates III (238-314 CE) was the first ruler to officially Christianise his people, his conversion ten years before the Roman Empire granted Christianity official toleration under Galerius, and 36 years before Constantine was baptised. Image File history File links Stgregoryilluminator. ... Image File history File links Stgregoryilluminator. ... Saint Gregory the Illuminator or Saint Gregory the Enlightener (Armenian: Ô³Ö€Õ«Õ£Õ¸Ö€ Ô¼Õ¸Ö‚Õ½Õ¡Ö‚Õ¸Ö€Õ«Õ¹ translit. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... Events September 3 - The republic of San Marino is established (traditional date). ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Heathen redirects here. ... Tiridates III was a King of Armenia (286-344), also known as Tiridates the Great. ... Galerius Maximianus ( 250–5 May 311), formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. ... Constantine. ...


After the fall of the Armenian kingdom in 428 CE, most of Armenia was incorporated as a marzpanate within the Sassanid Empire, ruled by a marzpan. Following an Armenian rebellion in 451 CE, Christian Armenians maintained their religious freedom, while Armenia gained autonomy and the right to be ruled by an Armenian marzpan, whereas other imperial territories were ruled exclusively by Persians. The Marzpanate of Armenia lasted until the 630s, when Sassanid Persia was destroyed by the Arab Caliphate. Motto: none Anthem: Mer Hayrenik Capital Yerevan Largest city Yerevan Official language(s) Armenian Government President Prime Minister Republic Robert Kocharian Andranik Markaryan Independence  - Declared  - Established From the Soviet Union August 23, 1990 September 21, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   29,800 km² (139th 1) 4. ... Marzpanate period is the time in Armenian history after the fall of the Arshakuni Dynasty of Armenia in 428, when most of Armenia was governed by Marzbans (Governors-general of the boundaries), nominated by the Sassanid Persian King. ... The word Marzban consists of two sections: Marz (border or boundary in Persian) and the suffix -ban (guardian in Persian). ... Combatants Sassanid Empire Armenian rebels Commanders Yazdegerd II Vartan Mamikonian Strength 180,000 to 220,000(According to Armenian sources) 60,000 Casualties Unknown Heavy Battle of Vartanantz (May 26, 451) is remembered by Armenians as probably the greatest battle in their history. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ...


Medieval Armenia

After the Marzpanate period (428-636), Armenia emerged as an autonomous principality within the Arabic Empire, reuniting Armenian lands previously taken by the Byzantine Empire as well. The principality was ruled by the Prince of Armenia, recognised by the Caliph and the Byzantine Emperor. It was part of the administrative division/emirate Arminiyya created by the Arabs, which also included parts of Georgia and Caucasian Albania, and had its center in the Armenian city Dvin. The Principality of Armenia lasted till 884, when it regained its independence from the weakened Arabic Empire. Marzpanate period is the time in Armenian history after the fall of the Arshakuni Dynasty of Armenia in 428, when most of Armenia was governed by Marzbans (Governors-general of the boundaries), nominated by the Sassanid Persian King. ... Dvin (Armenian: ; Greek: ) — was a large commercial city, the capital of medieval Armenia, the ruins of which are located in the province of Ararat nearby a town by the same name. ... Events May 15 - Pope Marinus I dies. ...

The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375.
The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375.

The reemergent Armenian kingdom was ruled by the Bagratuni dynasty, and lasted till 1045. In time, several areas of the Bagratid Armenia separated as independent kingdoms and principalities such as the Kingdom of Vaspurakan ruled by the House of Artsruni, while still recognizing the supremacy of the Bagratid kings. Image File history File links Armenianmediterian. ... Image File history File links Armenianmediterian. ... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... Events Emperor Go-Reizei ascends the throne of Japan. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Artsruni (also transliterated as Ardzruni or Ardzrouni) was a region and also a ruling family in old Armenia c. ...


In 1045, the Byzantine Empire conquered Bagratid Armenia. Soon, the other Armenian states fell under Byzantine control as well. The Byzantine rule was short lived, as in 1071 Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines and conquered Armenia at the Battle of Manzikert, establishing the Seljuk Empire. To escape death or servitude at the hands of those who had assassinated his relative, Gagik II, King of Ani, an Armenian named Roupen with some of his countrymen went into the gorges of the Taurus Mountains and then into Tarsus of Cilicia. The Byzantine governor of the palace gave them shelter where the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was eventually established. Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 40,000 [1] ~ 15,000 [2] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkish forces led by Alp... Seal of Gagik II as Duke of the thema of Charsianon Gagik II of Ani (Armenian: Ô³Õ¡Õ£Õ«Õ¯ Ô²) was the last Bagratuni King of Ani from 1042 to 1045. ... The picture shows the townwalls of Ani. ... Ruben I of Armenia (also Rhupen or Roupen) (1025–1095) was the Lord of Gobidar and Goromosol, and was the first to declare Cilician Armenia to be an independent nation. ... Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros DaÄŸları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ... Tarsus is a city in present day Turkey, located on the mouth of the Tarsus Cay (Cydnus) which empties into the Mediterranean. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ...


The Seljuk Empire soon started to collapse. In the early 1100s, Armenian princes of the Zakarid noble family established a semi-independent Armenian principality in Northern and Eastern Armenia, known as Zakarid Armenia. The noble family of Orbelians shared control with the Zakarids in various parts of the country, especially in Vayots Dzor and Syunik. ... Zakarid Armenia Ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vayots Dzor is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ...


Foreign rule

During the 1230s, the Mongol Ilkhanate conquered the Zakaryan Principality, as well as the rest of Armenia. The Mongolian invasions were soon followed by those of other Central Asian tribes, which continued from the 1200s until the 1400s. After incessant invasions, each bringing destruction to the country, Armenia in time became weakened. During the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia divided Armenia among themselves. The Russian Empire later incorporated Eastern Armenia (consisting of the Erivan and Karabakh khanates within Persia) in 1813 and 1828. Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 April, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Eastern Armenia or Russian Armenia is the portion of Ottoman Armenia that was ceded to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... Erivan (Yerevan), Erwan (آرون) Khanate was a Muslim principality under the dominion of Persia that existed on the territory of modern Armenia and parts of Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1828. ... The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ...


Under Ottoman rule, the Armenians were granted considerable autonomy within their own enclaves and lived in relative harmony with other groups in the empire (including the ruling Turks). However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social system, Armenians faced pervasive discrimination. When they began pushing for more rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan ‘Abdu’l-Hamid II, in response, organised state-sponsored massacres against the Armenians between 1894 and 1896, resulting in an estimated death toll of 80,000 to 300,000 people. The Hamidian massacres, as they came to be known, gave Hamid international infamy as the "Red Sultan" or "Bloody Sultan." Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ...


World War I and the Armenian Genocide

The United States contributed a significant amount of aid to the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide. Shown here is a poster for the American Committee for Relief in the Near East vowing that they (the Armenians among others) "shall not perish."
The United States contributed a significant amount of aid to the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide. Shown here is a poster for the American Committee for Relief in the Near East vowing that they (the Armenians among others) "shall not perish."
Main article: Armenian Genocide

As the Ottoman Empire began to collapse, the Young Turks overthrew the government of Sultan Hamid. Armenians living in the empire hoped that the Young Turk revolution would change their second-class status. However, with onslaught of World War I and the Ottoman Empire's assault on the Russian Empire, the new government began to look on the Armenians with distrust and suspicion. This was due to the fact that the Russian army contained a contingent of Armenian volunteers. On April 24, 1915, Armenian intellectuals were arrested by Ottoman authorities, and with the Tehcir Law, eventually a large proportion of Armenians living in Anatolia perished in what has become known as the Armenian Genocide. There was local Armenian resistance in the region, developed against the activities of the Ottoman Empire. The events of 1915 to 1917 are regarded by Armenians and the vast majority of Western historians to have been state-sponsored mass killings, or genocide. Despite overwhelming evidence of genocidal intent, Turkish authorities maintain that the deaths were the result of a civil war coupled with disease and famine, with casualties incurred by both sides. Most estimates for the number of Armenians killed range from 650,000 to 1.5 million. Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have been campaigning for official recognition of the events as genocide for over 30 years. These events are traditionally commemorated yearly on April 24, the Armenian Martyr Day, or the Day of the Armenian Genocide. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x833, 888 KB) Near East Relief Poster, uploaded by w:Clevelander File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Armenian Genocide User:Clevelander Wikipedia:WikiProject Armenia Template:ArmWiki... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (550x833, 888 KB) Near East Relief Poster, uploaded by w:Clevelander File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Armenia Armenian Genocide User:Clevelander Wikipedia:WikiProject Armenia Template:ArmWiki... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... The Young Turks (Turkish Jön Türkler (plural), from French Jeunes Turcs, Turkish: Genç Türkler) was a coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 April, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Tehcir Law The Tehcir Law was a law of the Ottoman Empire setting the rules and conditions of the tehcir (forced relocations)[1][2]. The law was passed by the parliament on May 27, 1915 and came into force on June 1, 1915, with publication in Takvim-i Vekayi... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian Militia of Armenakans (Ramkavars), Hnchakians (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party), and Dashnaktsutiun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation) Armenian resistance is the military and political activities of the Armenian militia or (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, Armenakan, Armenian Revolutionary Federation) against the Ottoman Empire during the World War One. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The number of Ottoman Armenian deaths between 1914 to 1923 during the Armenian Genocide and what followed during the Turkish War of Independence is a subject of controversy. ...


Although the Russian army succeeded in gaining most of Ottoman Armenia during World War I, their gains were lost with the Russian Revolution of 1917. At the time, Russian-controlled Eastern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan attempted to bound together in the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. This federation, however, only lasted from February to May 1918, when all three parties decided to dissolve it. As a result, Eastern Armenia became independent as the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) on May 28. Unfortunately, the DRA's short-lived independence was fraught with war, territorial disputes, a mass influx of refugees from Ottoman Armenia, spreading disease, and starvation. Still, the Entente Powers, appalled by the actions of the Ottoman government, sought to help the newly-found Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Eastern Armenia or Russian Armenia is the portion of Ottoman Armenia that was ceded to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ...


At the end of the war, the victorious Entente powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. Signed between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ottoman Empire at Sèvres on August 10, 1920, the Treaty of Sèvres promised to maintain the existence of the DRA and to attach the former territories of Ottoman Armenia to it. Because the new borders of Armenia were to be drawn by United States President Woodrow Wilson, Ottoman Armenia is also referred to as "Wilsonian Armenia." There was even consideration of possibly making Armenia a mandate under the protection of the United States. The treaty, however, was rejected by the Turkish National Movement, and never came into effect. The movement, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, used the treaty as the occasion to declare itself the rightful government of Turkey, replacing the monarchy based in Istanbul with a republic based in Ankara. Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Road to Sèvres, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, 1855-1865. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... Foundation: May 1915 - Dec 1917 Head: Aram Manougian Armenian provisional government, First Armenian Republic or sometimes refered as Free Vaspurakan was set up in the city of Van and its provinces during the WWI [1] which had a setback during Battle of Van and reasteblished in June 1916 as Administration... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


Soviet Armenia

The coat of arms of Soviet Armenia.
The coat of arms of Soviet Armenia.
Main article: Armenian SSR

In 1920, Armenia and Turkey engaged in the Turkish-Armenian War, a violent conflict that ended with the Treaty of Alexandropol. Signed on December 2, the Alexandropol treaty forced Armenia to disarm most of its military forces, cede more than 50% of its pre-war territory, and to give up all the territories granted to it at the Sèvres treaty. Simultaneously, the Soviet Eleventh Army under the command of Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze, invaded Armenia at Karavansarai (present-day Ijevan) on November 29. By December 4, Ordzhonikidze's forces entered Yerevan and the short-lived Armenian republic collapsed. It was annexed by Bolshevist Russia and in 1922 was incorporated into the Soviet Union as part of the Transcaucasian SFSR along with Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Treaty of Alexandropol was then superseded by the Treaty of Kars, between Turkey and the Soviet Union. In it, Turkey allowed the Soviet Union to assume control over Ajara with the port city of Batumi in return for sovereignty over the cities of Kars, Ardahan, and Iğdır, all of which were part of Russian Armenia. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Kazim Karabekir, Albay Halit Bey Beginning on 24 July 1920, the Turkish-Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... The Treaty of Alexandropol was a peace treaty between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and TBMM ending the Turkish-Armenian War, before decleration of the Republic of Turkey on December 2, 1920. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 11th Army of the Workers and Peasants Red Army (RKKA) was a unit of the then newly created Russian Red Army. ... Grigoriy Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (Russian:Григорий Константинович Орджоникидзе), generally known as Sergo Ordzhonikidze (Серго) (October 12, 1886 - February 18, 1937) was a member of the Politburo, and close friend to Stalin. ... Ijevan (Armenian: ) - city (village until 1961) in Armenia, the capital of Tavush region. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars AntlaÅŸması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi Chairman of Interim Council Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Kars (Armenian: Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ½) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Ardahan ( Ardı han in old Turkish, Ô±Ö€Õ¤Õ¡Õ°Õ¡Õ¶ in Armenian) is the capital of Ardahan Province in north-eastern Turkey. ... IÄŸdır (Ô»Õ£Õ¤Õ«Ö€ in Armenian) is a city in eastern Turkey, close to the border with Armenia. ...

Victims of the 1988 Spitak earthquake.
Victims of the 1988 Spitak earthquake.

The TSFR existed from 1922 to 1936, when it was divided up into three separate entities (Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, and Georgian SSR). Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow, and communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire. The situation was difficult for the church, which struggled under Soviet rule. After the death of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin took the reins of power and began an era of renewed fear and terror for Armenians. As with various other ethnic minorities who lived in the Soviet Union during Stalin's Great Purge, tens of thousands of Armenians were either executed or deported. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 474 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1696 × 2144 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 474 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1696 × 2144 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Saint Saviour Church in Gyumri after the earthquake The Spitak Earthquake also called Leninakan Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... Lenin redirects here. ... “Stalin” redirects here. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ...


Fears decreased when Stalin died in 1953 and Nikita Khruschev emerged as the Soviet Union's new leader. Soon, life in Soviet Armenia began to seen rapid improvement. The church which suffered greatly under Stalin was revived when Catholicos Vazgen I assumed the duties of his office in 1955. In 1967, a memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide was built at the Tsitsernakaberd hill above the Hrazdan gorge in Yerevan after mass demonstrations took place the tragic event's fiftieth anniversary in 1965. During the Gorbachev era of the 1980s with the reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika, Armenians began to demand better environmental care for their country, opposing the pollution that Soviet-built factories brought. Tensions also developed between the Armenian and Azerbaijani republics over the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. At the same time, Soviet Armenia suffered the devastating 1988 Spitak earthquake. Gorbachev's inability to solve Armenia's problems (especially Karabakh) led many Armenians to become disillusioned with the Soviet leader. Instead, it created a growing hunger for independence. 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union... Vazgen I , originally Levon Garabed Baljian, Catholicos Vazgen (1908 - 1994), was an Armenian (Romanian-born) prelate. ... Genocide memorial at Tsitsernakaberd, Yerevan Tsitsernakaberd (Armenian: ) is a memorial dedicated to the the victims of the Armenian Genocide located on a hill overlooking Yerevan, Armenia. ... Hrazdan is the capital of the Kotayk province of Armenia. ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,088,000   5196. ... The 1965 Yerevan Demonstrations were a 24 hour mass protest in Yerevan, Armenian SSR (today Armenia), to demand recognition of the Armenian Genocide. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: , Michail Sergeevič Gorbačëv), IPA: , surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... The Saint Saviour Church in Gyumri after the earthquake The Spitak Earthquake also called Leninakan Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7. ...


Independence

In 1991, the Soviet Union broke apart and Armenia re-established its independence. The initial post-Soviet years were marred by the continued confrontation with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh. A Russian-brokered cease-fire was put in place in 1994. Since then, Armenia and her neighbor have held peace talks, mediated by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). The status over Karabakh has yet to be determined and the economies of both countries have been hurt in the absence of a complete resolution. 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


As it enters the twenty-first century, Armenia faces many hardships. Still, despite high unemployment, it has managed to make some economic improvements. It has made a full switch to a market economy and as of 2007, remains the 32nd most economically free nation in the world. Its relations with Europe, the Middle East, and the Commonwealth of Independent States have allowed Armenia to increase trade. Gas, oil, and other supplies come through two vital routes: Iran and Georgia. Armenia maintains cordial relations with both countries. A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ...


Politics

The façade of the National Assembly of Armenia in downtown Yerevan.
The façade of the National Assembly of Armenia in downtown Yerevan.
Main article: Politics of Armenia

Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic. According to the Constitution of Armenia, the President is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The unicameral parliament (also called the Azgayin Zhoghov or National Assembly) is controlled by a coalition of three political parties: the conservative Republican party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, and the Country of Law party. The main opposition is composed of several smaller parties joined in the Justice Bloc. Robert Kocharian is the republic's current president. Image File history File linksMetadata Armparlbuilding. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Armparlbuilding. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... The external link and official web site of Parliament of Armenia is: http://www. ... Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where the executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separate from the legislature, to which it is not accountable, and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... -1... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... National Assembly building in Yerevan The Azgayin Zhoghov of Armenia (Armenian: ; English: National Assembly) is the official name of the legislative branch of the government of Armenia. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. ... Rule of Law is a political party in Armenia, led by Artur Bagdasarian. ... Justice (Armenian: Ardartyun) is a political party in Armenia. ... Robert Sedraki Kocharian (IPA: , Armenian: ) (born August 31, 1954) is the second president of the third republic of Armenia. ...


The Armenian government's stated aim is to build a Western-style parliamentary democracy as the basis of its form of government. However, international observers of Council of Europe and U.S. Department of State have questioned the fairness of Armenia's parliamentary and presidential elections and constitutional referendum since 1995, citing polling deficiencies, lack of cooperation by the Electoral Commission, and poor maintenance of electoral lists and polling places. Freedom House ranked Armenia as "partly free" in its 2007 report, though it did not categorize Armenia as an "electoral democracy", indicating an absence of relatively free and competitive elections.[11] It has universal suffrage above the age of eighteen. A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community. ... European flag of the Council of Europe which is also adopted by the European Union. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Electorial Commission is an independent body with powers in the United Kingdom, which was created by an Act of Parliament, the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... Map reflecting the findings of Freedom Houses 2007 survey, concerning the state of world freedom in 2006, which is widely used by researchers and correlates highly with other measures of democracy[1]. Free  Partly Free  Not Free Countries highlighted in blue are designated Electoral Democracies in Freedom Houses... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or economic or social status. ...

See also: Elections in Armenia, Foreign relations of Armenia, and Human rights in Armenia

Elections in Armenia gives information on election and election results in Armenia. ... Armenias foreign relationships vary from strong (with countries like Russia or Lebanon) to bitter (with countries like Turkey and Azerbaijan). ... Although human rights in Armenia are better than in some former Soviet republics and have drawn closer to acceptable standards, especially economically, there are still several considerable problems. ...

Foreign relations

Since its independence in 1991, Armenia has had trouble in relations with two of its immediate neighbors, Turkey and Azerbaijan. Tensions were running high between Armenians and Azerbaijanis during the last years of the Soviet Union. The Nagorno-Karabakh war dominated the region's politics throughout the 1990s.[12] The border between the two rival countries remains closed up to this day, and a permanent solution for the conflict has not been reached despite the mediation provided by organizations such as the OSCE. Armenias foreign relationships vary from strong (with countries like Russia or Lebanon) to bitter (with countries like Turkey and Azerbaijan). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


Turkey also has a large role to play in the conflict. It has a long history of poor relations with Armenia over its refusal to apologize for the Armenian genocide of 1915. The war became an excuse for Turkey to close its border with Armenia in 1993. It has not lifted its blockade despite pressure from the powerful Turkish business lobby interested in Armenian markets.[13] Armenian Genocide photo. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


Military

The Armed Forces of Armenia.
The Armed Forces of Armenia.

The Armenian Army, Air Force, Air Defense, and Border Guard comprise the four branches of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia. The Armenian military was formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and with the establishment of the Ministry of Defense in 1992. The Commander-in-Chief of the military is the President of Armenia, Robert Kocharian. The Ministry of Defense is in charge of political leadership, currently headed by Serzh Sargsyan, while military command remains in the hands of the General Staff, headed by the Chief of Staff, who is currently Colonel-General Mikael Harutiunian.[citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia represents the Army, Air Force, Air Defense, and Border Guard. ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... 1 helicopter 2 fucked plane and sheeted aeroplane ... An S-300 surface-to-air missile being launched An anti-aircraft model 9K33 Osa on parade on September 21, 2006. ... The Armenian Border Guard is the branch of the Armed Forces of Armenia that is responsible in guarding Armenias borders. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... There have been two Presidents of Armenia since independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. ... Robert Sedraki Kocharian (IPA: , Armenian: ) (born August 31, 1954) is the second president of the third republic of Armenia. ... Serzh (Azati) Sargsyan (Armenian Սերժ Ազատի Սարգսյան, born on June 30, 1954 in Stepanakert, then part of the Azerbaijan SSR, today in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic) is the Defense Minister of Armenia. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Colonel General is a senior military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries. ...


Active forces now number about 60,000 soldiers, with an additional reserve of 32,000, and a "reserve of the reserve" of 350,000 troops. Armenian border guards are in charge of patrolling the country's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian troops continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey. In the case of an eventual attack, Armenia is prepared to mobilise every able-bodied man between the age of 15 and 59, with military preparedness.[citation needed] A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... The Military Reserves are an organization that is associated with the military but is not in active duty. ...


The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of military equipment, was ratified by the Armenian parliament in July 1992. In March 1993, Armenia signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention, which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons. Armenia acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear weapons state in July 1993. Armenia is member of Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) along with Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PiP) program and is in a NATO organization called Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Armenia has engaged in peacekeeping mission in Kosovo as part of non-NATO KFOR troops under Greek command.[14] Its 46 troops are also part of Coalition Forces in Iraq War.[15] The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) from 1989 to 1992 established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. ... 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or alliance consisting of 12 former Soviet Republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) is a NATO organization, a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... Pocket badge of the KFOR The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international force responsible for establishing and maintaining security in Kosovo. ... Coalition of the willing is a phrase which has been used since the 1980s to refer to groups of nations acting collectively and often militarily outside of United States position in the Iraq disarmament crisis and later the March 2003 invasion of Iraq (see Occupation of Iraq, 2003_2004). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Administrative divisions

Map of the administrative divisions of Armenia.
Map of the administrative divisions of Armenia.

Armenia is divided into ten marzes (regions, singular marz), with the city of Yerevan (Երևան) having special administrative status as the country's capital. The chief executive in each of then ten marzes is the marzpet (marz governor), appointed by the government of Armenia. In Yerevan, the chief executive is the mayor, appointed by the president. Image File history File links Armenia_map_numbered. ... Image File history File links Armenia_map_numbered. ... Armenia is subdivided into eleven administrative divisions. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,088,000   5196. ...

  1. Aragatsotn (Արագածոտն)
  2. Ararat (Արարատ)
  3. Armavir (Արմավիր)
  4. Gegharkunik (Գեղարքունիք)
  5. Kotayk (Կոտայք)
  6. Lori (Լոռի)
  7. Shirak (Շիրակ)
  8. Syunik (Սյունիք)
  9. Tavush (Տավուշ)
  10. Vayots Dzor (Վայոց Ձոր)
  11. Yerevan (Երևան; special administrative status)

Aragatsotn is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Ararat (Armenian: ) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia with capital in Artashat. ... Armavir (Armenian: ) is a province (marz) of Armenia with capital in Armavir. ... Armenian province Gegharkunik Gegharkunik (Ô³Õ¥Õ²Õ¡Ö€Ö„Õ¸Ö‚Õ¶Õ«Ö„) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Kotayk is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia . ... Lorri is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Shirak is one of the provinces of Armenia. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Armenia ... Vayots Dzor is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,088,000   5196. ...

Geography

A satellite image of the Republic of Armenia (photo NASA)
A satellite image of the Republic of Armenia (photo NASA)
Main article: Geography of Armenia

Armenia is a landlocked country in the southern Caucasus. Located between the Black and Caspian Seas, the country is bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan, and on the south and west by Iran and Turkey. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1101x1123, 240 KB) A cropped satellite image showing Armenia in May 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1101x1123, 240 KB) A cropped satellite image showing Armenia in May 2003. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States Government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Armenia is a landlocked country in Asia Minor, between the Black and Caspian Seas, bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan and on the south and west by Iran and Turkey. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... The Transcaucasus is a region covering the majority of Caucasus mountain range. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18,761 cu mi). ...


Topography

The Republic of Armenia, covering an area of 30 000 square kilometres (11,600 sq. mi), is located in the north-east of the Armenian Highland (covering 400 000 km² or 154,000 sq. mi), otherwise known as historic Armenia and considered as the original homeland of Armenians. The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers and few forests. The climate is highland continental, which means that the country is subjected to hot summers and cold winters. The land rises to 4095 metres (13,435 ft) above sea-level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 400 meters (1,312 ft) above sea level. Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Armenian Highland (Armenian Upland) is part of the Transcaucasian Highland and constitutes the continuation of the Caucasus mountains. ... Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Río Peralonso - El Zulia (Norte de Santander), Colombia River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Nevėžis River in Lithuania A river is a natural waterway usually formed by water derived from either precipitation or glacial meltwater, and flows from higher ground to lower ground. ... This article is about forests as a massing of trees. ... A continental climate is the climate typical of the middle-latitude interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere in the zone of westerly winds; similar climates exist along the east coasts and southwest coasts of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... Mount Aragats (Ô±Ö€Õ¡Õ£Õ¡Õ® in Armenian) is the highest point in Armenia, and one of the highest mountains in the world. ...


Mount Ararat, which was historically part of Armenia, is the highest mountain in the region. Now located in Turkey, but clearly viewable in Armenia, it is regarded by the Armenians as a symbol of their land up to a point that it is pictured in the Armenian national emblem today. The mountain was conquered several times and eventually fell into the hands of the Russian Empire in the aftermath of the last Russo-Persian War. After achieving independence from the Russian Empire and the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, the Democratic Republic of Armenia gained control of the mountain. However, after the republic's conquest by Bolshevik forces, it was ceded to Turkey as part of the Turkish-Soviet friendship agreement, the Treaty of Kars. Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: ‎, Russian: , Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 April, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... The Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire. ... Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars AntlaÅŸması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on...


Environmental problems

Armenia is trying to address its environmental problems. It has established a Ministry of Nature Protection and introduced taxes for air and water pollution and solid waste disposal, whose revenues are used for environmental protection activities. Armenia is interested in cooperating with other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, a group of eleven former Soviet republics) and with members of the international community on environmental issues. The Armenian Government is working toward closing its Nuclear Power Plant at Medzamor near Yerevan as soon as alternative energy sources are identified. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Medzamor Nuclear Power Plant The Medzamor Nuclear Power Plant (Armenian: ) was built during the seventies, about thirty kilometres west of the Armenian capital of Yerevan. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,088,000   5196. ...


Climate

The climate in Armenia is markedly continental. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The temperature fluctuates between 22° and 36°C. However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Springs are short, while falls are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colorful foliage. Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging between -5° and -10°C. Winter sports enthusiasts enjoy skiing down the hills of Tsakhkadzor, located thirty minutes outside Yerevan. Lake Sevan nestled up in the Armenian highlands, is the second largest lake in the world relative to its altitude, 1,900 meters above sea level. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Tsakhkadzor (Armenian: , Tsaghkadzor) is a city and a popular health resort in Kotayk, Armenia. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Armenia

Before independence, Armenia's economy was largely industry-based – chemicals, electronics, machinery, processed food, synthetic rubber, and textile – and highly dependent on outside resources. Agriculture contributed only 20% of net material product and 10% of employment before the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The republic had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy.[16] Armenia is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet republics. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... // Electronics is the study of electron mechanics. ... Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. ... Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. ...

Downtown Yerevan in 2005. An ongoing construction boom has kept Armenia’s economic growth in double digits.
Downtown Yerevan in 2005. An ongoing construction boom has kept Armenia’s economic growth in double digits.

Armenian mines produce copper, zinc, gold, and lead. The vast majority of energy is produced with fuel imported from Russia, including gas and nuclear fuel (for its one nuclear power plant); the main domestic energy source is hydroelectric. Small amounts of coal, gas, and petroleum have not yet been developed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1409 KB) Summary Construction in downtown Yerevan, Armenia, view from Abovian street. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1409 KB) Summary Construction in downtown Yerevan, Armenia, view from Abovian street. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see Pb. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A nuclear power station. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


Like other newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, Armenia's economy suffers from the legacy of a centrally planned economy and the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns. Soviet investment in and support of Armenian industry has virtually disappeared, so that few major enterprises are still able to function. In addition, the effects of the 1988 Spitak Earthquake, which killed more than 25,000 people and made 500,000 homeless, are still being felt. The conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved. The closure of Azerbaijani and Turkish borders has devastated the economy, because Armenia depends on outside supplies of energy and most raw materials. Land routes through Georgia and Iran are inadequate or unreliable. GDP fell nearly 60% from 1989 until 19921993. The national currency, the dram, suffered hyperinflation for the first years after its introduction in 1993. A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... The Spitak Earthquake was a tremor, measuring 6. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


Nevertheless, the government was able to make wide-ranging economic reforms that paid off in dramatically lower inflation and steady growth. The 1994 cease-fire in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has also helped the economy. Armenia has had strong economic growth since 1995, building on the turnaround that began the previous year, and inflation has been negligible for the past several years. New sectors, such as precious stone processing and jewelry making, information and communication technology, and even tourism are beginning to supplement more traditional sectors in the economy, such as agriculture. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A gemstone is a mineral, rock (as in lapis lazuli) or petrified material that when cut or faceted and polished is collectible or can be used in jewellery. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA)is: the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... Tourists on Oʻahu, Hawaii Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ...


This steady economic progress has earned Armenia increasing support from international institutions. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other international financial institutions (IFIs) and foreign countries are extending considerable grants and loans. Loans to Armenia since 1993 exceed $1.1 billion. These loans are targeted at reducing the budget deficit, stabilizing the currency; developing private businesses; energy; the agriculture, food processing, transportation, and health and education sectors; and ongoing rehabilitation in the earthquake zone. The government joined the World Trade Organization on February 5, 2003. But one of the main sources of foreign direct investments remains the Armenian diaspora, which finances major parts of the reconstruction of infrastructure and other public projects. Being a growing democratic state, Armenia also hopes to get more financial aid from the Western World. [[Image:Example. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A liberal foreign investment law was approved in June 1994, and a Law on Privatization was adopted in 1997, as well as a program on state property privatization. Continued progress will depend on the ability of the government to strengthen its macroeconomic management, including increasing revenue collection, improving the investment climate, and making strides against corruption. However unemployment still remains a major problem due to the influx of thousands of refugees from the Karabakh conflict, which currently stands at around 30%. 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 2006 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), Armenia ranked 93rd of 163 countries. According to this poll, corruption in Armenia has increased only slightly since it was first ranked in the 2003 report.[17][18] Armenia ranked 80th on the 2006 UNDP Human Development Index, the highest among the Transcaucasian republics.[19] In the 2007 Index of Economic Freedom, Armenia ranked 32nd, ahead of countries like Portugal and Italy.[20] Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ...


Demographics

Armenian children at the UN Cup Chess Tournament in 2005.
Armenian children at the UN Cup Chess Tournament in 2005.

Armenia has a population of 3,215,800 (April 2006 est.) and is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet republics. There has been a problem of population decline due to elevated levels of emigration after the break-up of the USSR. The rates of emigration and population decline, however, have decreased drastically in the recent years, and a moderate influx of Armenians returning to Armenia have been the main reasons for the trend, which is expected to continue. In fact Armenia is expected to resume its positive population growth by 2010. Image File history File links Armenian-children. ... Image File history File links Armenian-children. ... Ethnic groups of Armenia and the South Caucasus in 1995. ... Baptism of Tiridates III. The majority of Armenians follow Christianity, which has existed in Armenia for thousands of years. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act of nolan muir the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Ethnic Armenians make up 97.9% of the population. Yazidis make up 1.3%, and Russians 0.5%. Other minorities include Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks, and Kurds as well as smaller communities of Poles, Caucasus Germans, Udis and Tats. Most Azerbaijanis who lived in Armenia left the country for Azerbaijan at the beginning of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. During the same period, a large number of Armenians fled from Azerbaijan to Armenia. The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî)(Arabic,يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of a Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Church of the Saviour – a German Kirche in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... The Udins are an ethnic group who live mostly in Azerbaijan,Georgia and Russia (3,700 in 2002). ... The Tat are an Iranian ethnic group from the Caucasus. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...


Armenia has a relatively large diaspora (8 million by some estimates, greatly exceeding the 3 million population of Armenia itself), with communities existing across the globe. The largest Armenian communities outside of Armenia can be found in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Argentina, and Ukraine. 40,000 to 70,000 still live in Turkey (mostly in and around Istanbul).[21] Approximately 130,000 Armenians now live in the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region.[22] Map of the Armenian diaspora. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity. The roots of the Armenian Church go back to the first century. According to tradition, the Armenian Church was founded by two of Jesus' twelve apostles -- Thaddaeus and Bartholomew -- who preached Christianity in Armenia between 40-60 AD. Because of these two founding apostles, the official name of the Armenian Church is Armenian Apostolic Church. Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, in 301. Over 93% of Armenian Christians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a form of Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodoxy, which is a very ritualistic, conservative church, roughly comparable to the Coptic and Syriac churches. Armenia also has a population of Catholics (both Roman and Mekhitarist - Armenian Uniate (180,000)), evangelical Protestants and followers of the Armenian traditional religion. The Yazidi Kurds, who live in the western part of the country, practice Yazidism. The Armenian Catholic Church is headquartered in Bzoummar, Lebanon. The non-Yazidi Kurds practice Sunni Islam. The Jewish community in Armenia has diminished from 5,000 to 750 persons since independence due to Armenia's economic difficulties, with most emigrants leaving for Israel. There are currently two synagogues operating in Armenia - in the capital, Yerevan, and in the city of Sevan located near Lake Sevan. Intermarriage with Christian Armenians is frequent. Still, despite these difficulties, a lot of enthusiasm exists to help the community meet its needs. [23] Armenian Church can refer to: Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Apostolic Church External reference and links Jerusalem Photos Archive - Armenian Church in Jerusalem Pictures of Armenian Churches This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Armenian Church can refer to: Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Apostolic Church External reference and links Jerusalem Photos Archive - Armenian Church in Jerusalem Pictures of Armenian Churches This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Saint Jude (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bartholomew (disambiguation). ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... Armenian Church can refer to: Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Apostolic Church External reference and links Jerusalem Photos Archive - Armenian Church in Jerusalem Pictures of Armenian Churches This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... Events September 3 - The republic of San Marino is established (traditional date). ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... The Chalcedonian churches are those Christian churches who follow the Christological teachings of the Council of Chalcedon, in contradistinction to Nestorians, Monophysites and Monothelites. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... Bzoummar is one of the main cities in Lebanon. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... The History of the Jews in Armenia dates back almost 2,000 years. ... Location of Sevan Sevan city in Armenia as seen from road. ... View of the lake from space Lake Sevan (Սևանա Õ¬Õ«Õ³ in Armenian), named Gegham Sea (Ô³Õ¥Õ²Õ¡Õ´Õ¡ Õ®Õ¸Õ¾) in ancient times, is the largest lake in Armenia and one of the largest high altitude lakes in the world. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Armenia
See also: Music of Armenia, Armenian cuisine, and Sport in Armenia

Armenians have their own distinctive alphabet and language. The alphabet was invented in 405 AD by Saint Mesrob Mashtots and consists of thirty-eight letters, two of which were added during the Cilician period. 96% of the people in the country speak Armenian, while 75.8% of the population additionally speaks Russian although English is becoming increasingly popular. Over the years Armenia has developed a modern, unique and successful culture. ... Armenia is in the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyans well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music, due to Armenias status as the oldest Christian nation in the world. ... Armenian cuisine is as ancient as the history of Armenia, and a combination of different tastes and aromas. ... Many types of sports are played in Armenia, among the most popular being football, chess, boxing, basketball, hockey and volleyball [1]. Armenias mountainous terrain gives the opportunity for certain sports such as skiing and climbing to be practised. ... The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the 5th century. ... Saint Mesrop Mashtots (Armenian:Õ„Õ¥Õ½Ö€Õ¸Õº Մաշտոց) (360 - February 17, 440) was an Armenian monk, theologian and linguist. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Music and the arts

Armenian Folk Musicians
Armenian Folk Musicians

The National Art Gallery in Yerevan has more than 16,000 works that date back to the Middle Ages. The Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan Museum are only a few of the other noteworthy collections. Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening each year. They feature rotating exhibitions and sales. Armenian folk musicians. ... Armenian folk musicians. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Martiros Saryan (Armenian: ) (28 February [O.S. 16 February] 1880 — 5 May 1972) was a Russian-born Armenian painter. ...


The Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra performs at the refurbished city Opera House. In addition, several chamber ensembles are highly regarded for their musicianship, including the National Chamber Orchestra of Armenia and the Serenade Orchestra. Classical music can also be heard at one of several smaller venues, including the Yerevan Komitas State Conservatory and the Chamber Orchestra Hall. Jazz is popular, especially in the summer when live performances are a regular occurrence at one of the city’s many outdoor cafés. The Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra was formed over 75 years ago in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. ... The origin of the National Chamber Orchestra of Armenia (NCOA) dates back to a time when Armenia was a part of the former Soviet Union. ... Jazz is a style of music which originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States at around the start of the 20th century. ... Coffeehouse in Damascus A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ...


Yerevan’s Vernisage (arts and crafts market), close to Republic Square, bustles with hundreds of vendors selling a variety of crafts on weekends and Wednesdays (though the selection is much reduced mid-week). The market offers woodcarving, antiques, fine lace, and the hand-knotted wool carpets and kilims that are a Caucasus specialty. Obsidian, which is found locally, is crafted into assortment of jewelry and ornamental objects. Armenian gold smithery enjoys a long tradition, populating one corner of the market with a selection of gold items. Soviet relics and souvenirs of recent Russian manufacture—nesting dolls, watches, enamel boxes and so on, are also available at the Vernisage.


Across from the Opera House, a popular art market fills another city park on the weekends. Armenia’s long history as a crossroads of the ancient world has resulted in a landscape with innumerable fascinating archaeological sites to explore. Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age and even Stone Age sites are all within a few hours drive from the city. All but the most spectacular remain virtually undiscovered, allowing visitors to view churches and fortresses in their original settings. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ...


The American University of Armenia has graduate programs in Business and Law, among others. The institution owes its existence to the combined efforts of the Government of Armenia, the Armenian General Benevolent Union, U.S. Agency for International Development, and the University of California. The extension programs and the library at AUA form a new focal point for English-language intellectual life in the city. The American University of Armenia (AUA) offers Master’s level graduate programs that are intended to develop critical analysis and depth of knowledge through advanced coursework, independent study, and research. ... The Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU), established in 1906, is the world’s largest non-profit Armenian organization. ... USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ...


The members of the nu-metal band System of a Down are all of Armenian descent, although only bassist Shavo Odadjian is from the country. Nu metal, also called new metal, aggro metal or nü metal, is a musical genre that has origins in the mid 1990s. ... System of a Down (also referred to as SOAD or System) is a four-piece Grammy-award winning experimental rock band, formed in 1995 in Los Angeles, California. ... Shavo Odadjian (born April 22, 1974 in Yerevan, Armenian SSR (Now the Republic of Armenia) as Shavarsh Odadjian), is the bassist for the Los Angeles-based alternative metal band, System of a Down. ...


Hospitality and wedding ceremonies

Arax Armenian Dance Ensemble.
Arax Armenian Dance Ensemble.

Armenian hospitality is legendary and stems from ancient tradition. Social gatherings focused around sumptuous presentations of course after course of elaborately prepared and well-seasoned food. The hosts will often put morsels on a guest's plate whenever it is empty or fill his or her glass when it gets low. After a helping or two it is acceptable to refuse politely or, more simply, just leave a little uneaten food. Alcohol such as cognac, vodka, and red wine are usually served during meals and gatherings. It is considered rare and unusual for one to go inside an Armenian household and not be offered coffee, pastry, food, or even water. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The elaborate Armenian wedding process begins when the man and woman are "promised". The man's immediate family (parents, grandparents, and often uncles and aunts) go over to the woman's house to ask for permission from the woman's father for the relationship to continue and hopefully prosper. Once permission is granted by the father, the man gives the woman a "promise ring" to make it official. To celebrate the mutual family agreement, the woman's family opens a bottle of Armenian cognac. After being promised, most families elect to have a semi-large engagement party as well. The girl's family is the one who plans, organises and pays for the party. There is very little involvement by the man's family. At the party, a priest is summoned to pray for the soon-to-be husband and wife and give his blessings. Once the words of prayer have concluded, the couple slide wedding bands on each other's right hands (the ring is moved to the left hand once a formal marriage ceremony is conducted by the Armenian church). The customary time to wait for the marriage is about one year. Unlike in other cultures, the man and his family pay for the wedding. The planning and organization process is usually done by the bride and groom to be.


See also

Armenia Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... First international Armenia 0 - 0 Moldova (Yerevan, Armenia; 12 October 1992) Biggest win Armenia 3 - 0 Albania (Yerevan, Armenia; 6 September 1997) Biggest defeat Chile 7 - 0 Armenia (Viña del Mar, Chile; 4 January 1997) The Armenia national football team is the national football team of Armenia and is... Armenia is a landlocked country located in the Southern Caucasus. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Copyright examination has been requested for the material described below. ... The Armenian language (Armenian: , IPA: — hayeren lezu, conventional short form hayeren) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people in the Republic of Armenia, in Georgia (especially in Samtskhe-Javakheti), Mountainous Karabakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) and also used by the Armenian diaspora. ... Aghjkaghala Castle Amberd Fortress Artagers - 1st century B.C. Baghaberd Fortress Berdavan Castle Bjhni Fortress Boloraberd Fortress Dashtadem Fortress Erebuni Fortress - 782 B.C., also known as Yerevani Berd - impregnable during a siege in the 7th century A.D. Garni Berd - 1st millennium B.C. (ruined) Halidzor Fortress Kapuyt Berd... The Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia represents the Army, Air Force, Air Defense, and Border Guard. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 583,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: Yes Telephone system: Inadequate; 90% of system is privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion. ... // Armenian Elementary Schools AGBU Manoogian-Demirdjian School (Granada Hills, CA) Armenian Mesrobian School (Pico Rivera, CA) Armenian Sisters Academy (Montrose, CA) Armenian Sisters Academy (Radnor, PA) Chamlian Armenian School (Glendale, CA) Holy Martyrs Armenian Elementary and Ferrahian High School (North Hills, CA) Krouzian-Zekarian-Vasbouragan Armenian School (San Francisco, CA... Holidays in Armenia On the day of the Summer Solstice in June, a special celebration called Vardevar (Վարդևար) takes place, where anyone is free to soak others with water from spray guns, hoses or even buckets. ... Railways: total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 825 km 1. ...

References

  1. ^ Juergen-Zahorka, Hans. How Armenia Could Approach the European Union. LIBERTAS - Europaeisches Institut GmbH. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  2. ^ EUROPE AND ARMENIA. Inside Europe. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  3. ^ The Geographic Web Site World Atlas places Armenia in Europe, as do most European governments and sources, such as the BBC; conversely, the UN classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia as does the CIA World Factbook. The government of the United Kingdom classifies Armenia within Europe:[1]. Most importantly, the Armenian government and the general population self-identify as European and a part of Europe [2]. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia Vartan Oskanian reiterated recently that: "Armenia is [in] Europe. This is a fact, it's not a response to a question." [3]. Mr Torben Holtze, head of the European Commission's representation in Armenia and Georgia and Ambassador of the European Union with residence in Tbilisi, stated recently: "As a matter of principle, Armenia is a European country..." [4].
  4. ^ Rosenberg, Matt. Where is the border between Europe and Asia?. The New York Times Company. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  5. ^ The Ancient Kingdom of Urartu by David Frankel - 1979
  6. ^ Herodotus, History, 7.73.
  7. ^ T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European Languages, Scientific American, March 1990
  8. ^ David M. Lang, Armenia: Cradle of Civilization (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1970) 50-1, 58-59.; Hovick Nersessian, "Highlands of Armenia," Los Angeles, 1998, Mr. Nersessian is in the New York Academy of Sciences
  9. ^ (Armenian) Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1994). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume I. Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti, p.41. 
  10. ^ Vahan Kurkjian, "History of Armenia," Michigan, 1968, [5]; Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, v. 12, Yerevan 1987; Artak Movsisyan, "Sacred Highland: Armenia in the spiritual conception of the Near East," Yerevan, 2000; Martiros Kavoukjian, "The Genesis of Armenian People", Montreal, 1982
  11. ^ Freedom in the World 2007. Freedom House. Retrieved on 2007-02-20.
  12. ^ Nagorno-Karabakh: The Crisis in the Caucasus. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  13. ^ Nagorno-Karabakh: The Crisis in the Caucasus. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  14. ^ KFOR Contingent: Armenia. Official Web Site of the Kosovo Force (24 January 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  15. ^ "Armenian defense minister to visit Iraq as Armenia to extend small troop presence", The Associated Press, 13 November 2006. Retrieved on 2007-02-20.
  16. ^ CIA World Factbook: Armenia
  17. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006
  18. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2003
  19. ^ 2005 UN Human Development Report 2006 - Country Fact Sheets - Armenia
  20. ^ Index of Economic Freedom 2007
  21. ^ Turay, Anna. Tarihte Ermeniler. Bolsohays:Istanbul Armenians. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  22. ^ Nationmaster.com: Azerbaijan
  23. ^ Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, and Eurasia: Armenia and Jews

December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... Vartan Oskanian Vartan Oskanian (born February 7, 1955, Syria) is Armenia’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Tamaz (Thomas) V. Gamkrelidze (born October 23, 1929) is a distinguished Georgian linguist, orientalist and public benefactor, Academician (since 1974) and President (since February, 2005) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS), Director of the Tsereteli Institute of Oriental Studies of GAS (since 1973), Dr.Sci. ... Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov is a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Lake Urmia. ... David Marshall Lang (May 6, 1924 – March 20, 1991), was a Professor Emeritus of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Government

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  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia
  • Public Television of Armenia
  • National Statistical Service of Armenia
  • Ministry of Health of Armenia
  • Central Bank of Armenia
  • Constitutional Court of Armenia
  • Government of Armenia
  • Ministry of Nature Protection of Armenia
  • National Assembly of Armenia
  • Administration of the President of Armenia
Other

(In alphabetical order.)

  • Armenia-Diaspora official WEB site
  • Armenian Embassies, Consulates And Representations
  • Armeniapedia.org - Armenian wiki (primarily English)
  • Armeniainfo.am Information for tourists
  • CIA World Factbook entry on Armenia
  • Constitution of the Republic of Armenia.
  • Electronic Visa (eVisa) for tourists
Data
  • HyeTad - The Online Armenian Cause In English and Spanish
Within Armenia
Geographic locale
International membership

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_CIS.svg Flag of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ... The Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_La_Francophonie. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Motto Justice – Paix – Travail(French) Justice – Peace – Work Anthem Debout Congolais Capital (and largest city) Kinshasaa Official languages French Government Semi-Presidential Republic  -  President Joseph Kabila  -  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga Independence  -  from Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  -  Total 2,344,858 km² (12th) 905,351 sq mi   -  Water (%) 3. ... Motto Unité, Travail, Progrès(French) Unity, Work, Progress Anthem La Congolaise Capital (and largest city) Brazzaville Official languages French Kituba (national) Lingala (national) Government Republic  -  President Denis Sassou Nguesso  -  Prime Minister Isidore Mvouba Independence from France   -  Date 15 August 1960  Area  -  Total 342,000 km² (64th) 132,047 sq... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Lc redirects here. ... Motto: n/a Anthem: Independência total Capital (and largest city) São Tomé Portuguese Government Republic  - President Fradique de Menezes  - Prime Minister Tomé Vera Cruz Independence from Portugal   - Date 12 July 1975  Area  - Total 964 km² (183rd) 372 sq mi   - Water (%) 0 Population  - 2005 estimate 157,000 (188th)  - Density... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Armenia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4884 words)
Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստան, Hayastan, Հայք, Hayq), officially the Republic of Armenia, is a landlocked mountainous country in the Southern Caucasus (Transcaucasus), bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Nakhichevan exclave of Azerbaijan to the south.
Armenia is a landlocked country in the southern Caucasus.
The Republic of Armenia, covering an area of 30 000 square kilometres (11,600 sq. mi), is located in the north-east of the Armenian Highland (covering 400 000 km² or 154,000 sq. mi), otherwise known as historic Armenia and considered as the original homeland of Armenians.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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