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Encyclopedia > Arkhangelsk
Coat of Arms

Arkhangelsk (Russian: Арха́нгельск), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It lies on the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea in the far north of European Russia, at 64°32′N 40°32′E. Arkhangelsk was the chief sea port of medieval Russia. Population: 356,051 (2002 Census). A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Image File history File links G530_arkhangelsk_city. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arkhangelsk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... The Northern Dvina (Се́верная Двина́) is a river in Northern Russia flowing through the Vologda Oblast and Arkhangelsk Oblast into the Dvina Bay of the White Sea. ... Barents Sea, the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ...

Contents


History

The area where Arkhangelsk is situated was known to the Vikings as Bjarmaland. In the 12th century, the Novgorodians established the Archangel Michael Monastery in the estuary of the Northern Dvina. In 1478 the area passed to Muscovy with the rest of Novgorod Republic. The main trade centre of the area at that time was Kholmogory, located slightly upstream. The name Viking is a loanword from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Bjarmaland (a. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Но́вгород) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the highway (and railway) connecting Moscow and St Petersburg. ... The Northern Dvina (Се́верная Двина́) is a river in Northern Russia flowing through the Vologda Oblast and Arkhangelsk Oblast into the Dvina Bay of the White Sea. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика in Russian, or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Kholmogory (Russian: ) is a historic village and center of the Kholmogorsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ...


In 1555, Ivan the Terrible granted trade privileges to English merchants who founded the Company of Merchant Adventurers and began sending ships annually into the estuary of the Northern Dvina. Dutch merchants also began bringing their ships into the White Sea. In 1584 Ivan ordered the founding of New Kholmogory (which would later be renamed after the nearby Archangel Monastery). Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Polish Kompania Moskiewska, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Plan of New Dvina Fort in Arkhangelsk
Plan of New Dvina Fort in Arkhangelsk

At the time access to the Baltic Sea was still controlled by Sweden, so while Arkhangelsk was icebound in winter, it remained Moscow's only link to the sea. Local inhabitants, called pomors, were the first to explore trade routes to Northern Siberia as far as trans-Ural city of Mangazeya and beyond. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x625, 100 KB)Plan of New Dvina Fort in Arkhangelsk, as represented in a 1799 album. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x625, 100 KB)Plan of New Dvina Fort in Arkhangelsk, as represented in a 1799 album. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Pomors (помо́ры) are settlers of the White Sea coasts. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Mangazeya was a Northwest Siberian trans-Ural trade colony and later city in the 16-17th centuries. ...


In 1683, Peter I took power at the age of ten, and in 1693 he ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangelsk. A year later the ships Svyatoye Prorochestvo (Holy Prophesy), Apostol Pavel (Apostle Paul) and the yacht Svyatoy Pyotr (Saint Peter) were sailing in the White Sea. However he also realized that Arkhangelsk would always be limited as a port due to the five months of ice cover, and after a successful campaign against Swedish armies in the Baltic area, he founded Saint Petersburg in 1704. Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич or Pyotr I Alexeyevich)(Peter Alexeyevich Romanov) (10 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725 O.S.] ) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ... The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one side and Sweden on the other side from 1700 to 1721. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ...


Arkhangelsk city declined in the 18th century as the Baltic trade became ever more important, but its economy revived at the end of the 19th century when a railroad to Moscow was completed and timber became a major export. During World War I and World War II Arkhangelsk was a major port of entry for Allied aid. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lumber. ... Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties 5 million military, 3 million civilian (full list) 3 million military, 3 million civilian (full list) World War I, also known as the First World... Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France/Free France, • Soviet Union, • USA, • China, ...and others• Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, • ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of...


The city resisted Bolshevik rule during 1918 to 1920 and was a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, supported by the military intervention of Entente forces. Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... European military alliances in 1915. ...


During the World War II Archangel was the destination of the Arctic Convoys bringing supplies to assist the Russians who were cut off from their normal supply lines. Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France/Free France, • Soviet Union, • USA, • China, ...and others• Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, • ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the USA and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the USSR - Archangel and Murmansk. ...

A 19th-century view of Arkhangelsk port
A 19th-century view of Arkhangelsk port

On 16 March 2004, 58 people were killed in an explosion at an apartment block in the city. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (951x697, 167 KB) 19th-century vintage postcard of Arkhangelsk commercial port. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (951x697, 167 KB) 19th-century vintage postcard of Arkhangelsk commercial port. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in Leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The modern city

Mikhail Lomonosov came from a Pomor village near Kholmogory. A monument to him was installed to a design by Ivan Martos in 1829. A monument to Peter I was designed by Mark Antokolsky in 1872 and installed in 1914. Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... Pomors (помо́ры) are Russian settlers of the White Sea coasts. ... Kholmogory (Russian: ) is a historic village and center of the Kholmogorsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Ivan Petrovich Martos (Russian Иван Петрович Мартос; 1754-1835) - Russian sculptor, monumentalist, representative of the classicism. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mark M. Antokolsky Antokolskys statue of Peter I graces one of the streets of Arkhangelsk. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


A maritime school, technical university, and a regional museum are located in the city. The city's main historic landmarks are the fort-like Merchant Yards (1668-84) and the New Dvina Fortress (1701-05).


Today Arkhangelsk remains a major seaport, now open year-round due to improvements in icebreakers. The city is primarily a timber and fishing center. US Coast Guard icebreakers near McMurdo Station, February 2002 Icebreaker Polarstern An icebreaker is a special purpose ship designed to move and navigate through ice-covered marine environments. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ...


Miscellaneous

The James Bond movie GoldenEye begins at a dam by a chemical facility near Arkhangelsk, although the scenes themselves were actually shot at the Verzasca dam in Switzerland - tall mountains as seen in the background cannot be found in the entire Arkhangelsk region. The James Bond 007 gun logo James Bond, also known as 007 (pronounced double-oh seven), is a fictional British spy created by writer Ian Fleming in 1953. ... GoldenEye is the seventeenth James Bond film and the first to star Pierce Brosnan as Ian Flemings British secret service agent, James Bond. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ...


British author Robert Harris's novel Archangel centres on a plot to restore Communism in Russia through a son of Stalin, who is taken to the wilderness and hidden near the town as a young boy by the KGB. In 2005 it was made into a two-part television drama by the BBC. Robert Harris is an English TV reporter and author, born in 1957 in the city of Nottingham. ... Daniel Craig as Fluke Kelso in the BBC adaptation of Archangel, on the cover of the March 19—March 25 2005 edition of the British television listings magazine Radio Times. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for State Security Committee, (Russian: (help· info); Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Corporate logo of the British Broadcasting Corporation. ...


Canadian filmmaker Guy Maddin's 1990 surrealist film Archangel is set during the battle for Arkhangelsk during World War I. Guy Maddin (born February 28, 1956) is a Winnipeg writer and director of both features and short films. ...

Arkhangelsk's monument to Peter the Great is represented on the 500-rouble banknote.
Arkhangelsk's monument to Peter the Great is represented on the 500-rouble banknote.

Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

See also

The Polar Bear Expedition (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition, the American North Russia Expeditionary Force - ANREF or the American Expeditionary Force North Russia - AEFNR) was a contingent of about 5,000 U.S. troops who landed in Arkhangelsk, Russia and fought the Bolshevik forces in the surrounding region...

External links

  • Satellite image of Arkhangelsk (Google Maps)
  • ((Russian)) Official web site of Arkhangelsk City Administration
  • ((Russian)) Pomor State University
  • ((Russian)) Arkhangelsk State Technical University
  • ((Russian)) Northern State Medical University
  • ((English)) ((Russian)) Arkhangelsk regional museum of local lore, history and economy
  • ((Russian)) Arkhangelsk Oblast Museum of Fine Arts
  • Arkhangelsk community at LiveJournal
  • ((English)) ((Russian)) Timme St. - Information about Arkhangelsk (with forum) for tourists
  • ((English)) ((Russian)) Tourist information about Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk region for travelers


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arkhangelsk Region - Kommersant Moscow (2681 words)
Arkhangelsk Region is located in northern European Russia and borders on the Republic of Karelia and Vologda and Murmansk regions.
Arkhangelsk Region is a major commercial and industrial center of Russia with 3000 km of coastline on three Arctic seas (Barents, Kara and White seas), which help strengthen economic ties with many countries around the world.
Arkhangelsk stretches for nearly 40 km on both banks of the Severnaya Dvina River and on the islands of the delta where the river flows into the White Sea.
Arkhangelsk - definition of Arkhangelsk in Encyclopedia (387 words)
It is the capital of the Arkhangelsk Oblast.
However he also realized that Arkhangelsk would always be limited as a port due to the five months of ice cover, and after a successful campaign against Swedish armies in the Baltic area, he founded Saint Petersburg in 1704.
Arkhangelsk city declined in the 18th century as the Baltic became more important, but trade revived at the end of the 19th century when a railroad to Moscow was completed and timber became a major export.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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