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Encyclopedia > Arguments for the existence of God
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Existence of God. (Discuss)

Many arguments for the existence of God have been made over the years. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. ...

Contents


Arguments for the necessity of God

These arguments can be classified under two headings. First are the strictly logical or metaphysical arguments; these arguments seek to prove that the existence of a being with at least one attribute that only God could have is logically necessary. Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being ascribed by monotheistic religions to be the creator, ruler and/or the sum total of, existence. ...


Metaphysical arguments

The chief such arguments are:

The cosmological argument is an argument for the existence of God. ... The Absolute Infinite is Georg Cantors concept of an infinity that transcended the transfinite numbers. ... In theology and the philosophy of religion, an ontological argument for the existence of God is an argument that Gods existence can be proved a priori, that is, by intuition and reason alone. ... Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God; God-in-all) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) world + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the universe in its totality and by extension mans place in it. ...

Empirical arguments

Other arguments avail themselves of data beyond definitions and axioms. Some of these arguments require only that one assume that a non-random universe able to support life exists. Others are more strongly tied to the testimony of certain witnesses or the propositions of a specific revealed religion. These arguments include: For information on the last book of the New Testament see the Book of Revelation. ...

  • The Teleological argument, which argues that since the universe is (superficially) non-random, it must have been designed by an intelligent designer, i.e. God.
  • The Anthropic argument focuses on basic facts, such as our existence, to prove God.
  • Witness argument gives credibility to personal witnesses, contemporary and throughout the ages.
  • The religious or Christological argument is specific to religions such as Christianity. An example would be the assertion that the life of Jesus as written in the New Testament establishes his credibility, so we can believe the truth of his statements about God.
  • The Majority argument: people in all times and in different places have believed in God, so it is unlikely that he does not exist.
  • The Moral argument argues that morality cannot exist without God.
  • The Anthropological argument, which argues that our conception of perfection can only be possible if such perfection exists.
  • The Transcendental argument, which argues that logic, science, ethics, and other good things don't make sense if there is no God. Therefore, arguments against the existence of God must ultimately refute themselves if pressed with rigorous consistency.

The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... Intelligent design (ID) is the concept that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. ... In cosmology, the anthropic principle in its most basic form states the truism that any valid theory of the universe must be consistent with our existence as carbon-based human beings at this particular time and place in the universe. ... This page has been linked from the Arguments for the existence of God page. ... The Christological argument for the existence of God is a relatively modern argument. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene, is the central figure of Christianity, in which context he is known as Jesus Christ (from Greek Ιησούς Χριστός) with Christ being a title meaning Anointed One or Messiah. Christian viewpoints on Jesus (known as Christology) are both diverse and complex. ... // What is the New Testament? The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... The Argument from consensus or argument from common consent can be summarized as follows. ... The argument from morality is one of several arguments for the existence of God. ... Transcendental reasoning is an inference pattern based upon the prerequisite conditions for the possibility of a given fact. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Ethics (from Greek ethikos) is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. ...

Arguments for the belief in God

There are innumerable informal arguments for belief in God. Some, for example, claim to have had personal experiences with God, or revelations. Some attribute to God miraculous healings, and striking insights gained in response to prayer, worship, or other spiritual circumstances. And some attribute the manner in which events in their lives have unfolded, or fortuitous circumstances in their lives, to the influence of God. For information on the last book of the New Testament see the Book of Revelation. ... According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the operations of the ordinary course of Nature are overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Healing is the process where the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area. ... Insight is: Look up insight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Prayer is an effort to communicate with God, or to some deity or deities, or another form of spiritual entity, or otherwise, either to offer praise, to make a request, or simply to express ones thoughts and emotions. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... See: Spirituality Spiritual music Spiritual dance The Age of Spiritual Machines Spiritual possession This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


There are also formal arguments for the belief in God. Perhaps the most famous is Pascal's Wager: Rather than arguing that God exists, Pascal seeks to show that belief in God is the best and safest "bet". Blaise Pascal argued that it is a better bet to believe in God than not to do so. ...

  • The Argument from a Proper Basis argues that belief in God is "properly basic"--that is, similar to statements such as "I see a chair" or "I feel pain." Such beliefs are non-falsifiable and, thus, neither able to be proved nor disproved; they concern perceptual beliefs or indisputable mental states.

The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...

The theological status of the arguments

The theological standing of arguments for the existence of God is also subject to some debate among believers. Within the Christian tradition there are two sharply opposed viewpoints. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, following the Thomist tradition of St Thomas Aquinas, affirms that it is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that God's existence can in fact be rationally demonstrated. Other Christians in different denominations hold similar views. Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of St. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, (also known as the Catholic Church), is the ancient Christian Church led by the Bishop of Rome (commonly called the Pope). ...


On the other hand, some believers hold a contrary position. These believers note that the Protestant Christian faith teaches salvation is by faith (as opposed to by grace, as taught by the Roman Catholic Church), and that faith is reliance upon the faithfulness of God, which has little to do with the believer's ability to comprehend that in which he trusts. In other words, if Christian theology is true, then God's existence can never be demonstrated, either by empirical means or by philosophical argument. The most extreme example of this position is called fideism, which holds that faith is simply the will to believe, and argues that if God's existence were rationally demonstrable, faith in His existence would become superfluous. In The Justification of Knowledge, the Calvinist theologian Robert S. Reymond argues that believers should not attempt to prove the existence of God. Since he believes all such proofs are fundamentally unsound, believers should not place their confidence in them, but rather accept the content of revelation by faith. Salvation refers to deliverance from an undesirable state or condition. ... The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... Divine grace is believed by Christians to be the sovereign favor of God exercised in the bestowment of blessings upon those who have no merit in them. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... In Christian theology, fideism is any of a number of positions. ... Calvinism is a general approach to Christian theology advanced by a group of sixteenth-century reformers, the most famous of whom was John Calvin. ...


There are also several arguments against the existence of God. The most common one is the problem of evil (see theodicy). Many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. ... In the philosophy of religion, “the problem of evil” is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent god. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


See also

Many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed over time. ... Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ...

External links

  • Dr. William Lane Craig, Talbot School of Theology. Arguments from a current theologian.
  • Zeteo Eurisko, Agnostic Thinker. Examination of the Bible's existence proofs.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arguments for the Existence of God (555 words)
Apologists rely on a variety of arguments to substantiate the existence of a God, or to support the claims of divinity by a particular denomination's founder(s) or for its sacred texts.
Arguments for atheism or the nonexistence of a God can be found in the Arguments for Atheism section.
The occurrence of miracles is frequently purported to be evidence of the supernatural, and therefore of the existence of a God.
Existence of God - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3897 words)
The existence of God is said to be one of the latter.
The problem of evil (or theodicy) in general, and the logical and evidential arguments from evil in particular contest the existence of a god who is both omnipotent and omnibenevolent by arguing that such a god would not permit the existence of perceivable evil or suffering, which can easily be shown to exist.
Arguments for the Existence of God from the Christian Cadre.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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