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Encyclopedia > Argentia, Newfoundland and Labrador
Argentia, Newfoundland This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...
Argentia, Newfoundland This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Enlarge
Argentia, Newfoundland
Avalon peninsula, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada I used this online map creation tool to create this map. ...
Avalon peninsula, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada I used this online map creation tool to create this map. ... Enlarge
Argentia on the Avalon Peninsula

Argentia is a community on the island of This is about the island in Canada. ...Newfoundland in the Canada is an independent sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ...Canadian province of Motto: Quaerite Primum Regnum Dei (Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital St. ...Newfoundland and Labrador. It is situated on a flat headland located along the southwest coast of the The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula (9,270 km²) that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland. ...Avalon Peninsula on Placentia Bay is a body of water on the southeast coast of Newfoundland, Canada. ...Placentia Bay.

Fishermen in Argentia, circa 1901 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...
Fishermen in Argentia, circa 1901 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Enlarge
Fishermen in Argentia, circa 1901

Originally a small fishing village called Little Placentia, the community adopted its present name in 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1904 after a silver deposit was located nearby.


The first This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ...church and school, see School (disambiguation). ...school were established in the village in 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...1831 and Events February 12 - Ecuador annexes the Galapagos Islands February 12 – serious cholera epidemic begins in London from the East London. ...1832 by Father Pelagius Nowlan, an Irish priest; the Events January - Book by Maria Monk claims that she was sexually exploited in a Canadian convent February 3 - United States Whig Party holds its first convention in Albany, New York. ...1836 population was 484 people in 76 Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England For other meanings of the word house, see House (disambiguation). ...houses. The community's 2001 population was 450.

Contents

Railway comes to town

Construction started on a branch line to nearby Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada Town on the Avalon Peninsula consisting of the amalgamated communities of Jersey Side, Freshwater, Dunville and Placentia. ...Placentia from the Harbour Grace Railway mainline near Whitbourne is a town on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada in Division No. ...Whitbourne (what would later become part of the Newfoundland Railway logo or herald (used 1926-1949) The Newfoundland Railway was a historic railway that operated on the island of Newfoundland and was the longest narrow gauge railway system in North America. ...Newfoundland Railway) on October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years). ...October 14, 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) Events January 18 _ Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...1886 and the 26 miles of track were completed by October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...October 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ...1888. This became known as the "Placentia Branch" and it served as a key route to Placentia and the nearby port and anchorage of Little Placentia where coastal ferries would run to An outport is the term given for a small isolated coastal community in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...outports along the south coast of the island.


The Newfoundland Railway chose Channel-Port aux Basques (also Port aux Basques) is a town at the extreme southwestern tip of the island of Newfoundland fronting on the western end of the Cabot Strait. ...Port aux Basques to be its western terminus in 1893 and a new ferry intended for service to North Sydney, Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra A. Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,284 km² (12th)  - Land 53,338 km²  - Water 1,946 km² (3. ...Nova Scotia was built in Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ...Scotland. In October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...October, Events January 1 - Brooklyn, New York merges with New York City. ...1897 the new vessel named the Bruce arrived but the docks at Port aux Basques had not been completed. As a result, from October until June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ...June, 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...1898 (when it reverted to Port aux Basques), the Bruce operated from Little Placentia to North Sydney.


The name Argentia was coined in 1904 by local parish priest Father John St. John. The silver mine operated until the early 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...1920s but was never profitable. Through most of the 1800s, the A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ...fishery was the lifeblood of the community; a Lake Huron herring A herring is a type of small oily fish found in the temperate, shallow waters of the North Atlantic. ...herring A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ...factory was built in 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1936.


Death of a village

War between The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. ...Britain and Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...Nazi Germany was declared on September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ...September 3, 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...1939 in the aftermath of Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...Hitler's invasion of The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and...Poland.


Argentia was selected in 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1940 to be the location of a The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...United States Navy base being built under the U.S.-British The Lend-lease Act of March 11, 1941 permitted the President of the United States to sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government [whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States] any defense article. It thus extended...lend-lease program which saw American warships loaned to Britain in exchange for selected British military bases (or land for new bases) in the The Western Hemisphere contains The Americas and nearby islands. ...Western Hemisphere. The reason for preferring the Argentia site was due to the secure deepwater anchorage offered by the adjoining Ship Harbour and Fox Harbour, as well as the local topography for an airfield and an existing railway line.


The base was urgently needed as part of the trans- The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...Atlantic supply line which joined World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and in population after Eurasia and Africa. ...North America to Britain, in order to provide Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ...anti-submarine patrols to protect shipping from the German U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...U-boat fleet.


The land beneath the village was traded to the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ...United States for construction of the base under the The Lend-lease Act of March 11, 1941 permitted the President of the United States to sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government [whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States] any defense article. It thus extended...lend-lease programme and the residents of Argentia and Marquise received the following notices:

Homes in Argentia were photographed by US government personnel before their demolition in 1940-41 to make way for a key WWII naval and air base File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...
Homes in Argentia were photographed by US government personnel before their demolition in 1940-41 to make way for a key WWII naval and air base File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Enlarge
Homes were destroyed to make way for a vital WWII military base

In exercise of the powers conferred upon me by the Defense (requisition of land) Regulations, made under the Emergency Powers Defence Act 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1940, on the 28th day of December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...December AD 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1940, I do authorize all persons who shall be engaged by the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ...United States A government is an organization that has the power to make and enforce laws for a certain territory. ...Government or its agents and contractors on the construction for that government of any naval, military or air works at Argentia to do any work on any land or place any thing in, on, or over any land upon the Argentia Peninsula, in so far as it shall be necessary for any such person so to do for the carrying out of any such work of construction including any preliminary work in relation thereto.


Provided, however, that this present authority shall not be valid to authorize the demolition, pulling down or destruction of any building or erection upon any such land, or the doing of any act which renders any such building or erection intangible.


Signed, Wilfrid Woods, Commissioner for Public Utilities


and then:


"The Defence (requisition of land) Regulations made under the Emergency Powers Defense Act 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1940 on the 28th day of December, A.D., 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1940.


I have to notify you that the lands and buildings lately belonging to and occupied by you at Argentia, for which said lands and buildings payment has been awarded, are required for occupation by the Government of Newfoundland not later than ________. Take notice, therefore, that the said premesis must be completely vacated by you and peaceably yielded up to the Government of Newfoundland, its servants, agents, on or before the date mentioned.


Signed: WW Woods, Commissioner for Public Utilities"


Most relocated to the nearby villages of Freshwater or Placentia, however what little had been paid as compensation (usually no more than a few thousand dollars for homeowners in Argentia) proved woefully inadequate for building equivalent new homes due to severe wartime shortages of labour and materials.


Those buried in the three local graveyards were exhumed and reburied in a new Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ...cemetery constructed by the US forces at the insistence of the local parish priest, Father A.J. Dee, who had also raised serious objections to the wartime delays in finding new housing for Argentia's living residents who were being forced to leave the village.


The abandoned homes were then burned to the ground or (later) levelled by the use of bulldozers.


The American French Tricolore flag A flag is a piece of cloth flown from a pole or mast, usually intended for signaling or identification. ...flag was raised in Argentia on February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...February 13, 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1941.


U.S. military presence

Throughout 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1940- 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1941 the U.S. Navy constructed an airfield and navy base and built an extension to the Newfoundland Railway logo or herald (used 1926-1949) The Newfoundland Railway was a historic railway that operated on the island of Newfoundland and was the longest narrow gauge railway system in North America. ...Newfoundland Railway to service their facilities, owing to the condition of local roads. The navy base construction in particular was a priority with Navy Operating Base Argentia being officially commissioned on July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ...July 15, 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1941.


The reason for the rush was made clear on August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ...August 7, 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1941 when the heavy cruiser The fourth USS Augusta (CA-31) (originally CL-31) was a Northampton-class heavy cruiser of the United States Navy, notable for service in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during World War II. Unlike the previous Augustas, the ship was named for Augusta, Maine. ...USS Augusta carrying U.S. President . Franklin Delano Roosevelt ( January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd ( 1933– 1945) President of the United States. ...Franklin D. Roosevelt arrived in the Ship Harbour anchorage. Roosevelt inspected the base construction progress and did some fishing from Augusta over the next few days. Augusta was joined by the British warship HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at Birkenhead, England. ...HMS Prince of Wales carrying British Prime Minister The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG, OM, CH, FRS ( November 30, 1874 – January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded as one...Winston Churchill on August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...August 10, 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1941. While in the Argentia anchorage from August 10-12, the two leaders and their delegations managed to negotiate what was called the " Atlantic Charter - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...Atlantic Charter" which established the basis for UK-US military cooperation and objectives. This history-altering agreement was signed on August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...August 12 whereby both vessels departed for their home territories at high speed. The "Atlantic Charter" was publicly announced in a declaration on August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ...August 14, presumably after Prince of Wales had returned to UK waters.

Download high resolution version (955x480, 82 KB)Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador as viewed from the site of a former fortress, now a national historic site This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...
Download high resolution version (955x480, 82 KB)Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador as viewed from the site of a former fortress, now a national historic site This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Enlarge
When Argentia village was demolished during WWII, its people were moved mostly to nearby Placentia

On August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ...August 28, 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1941 Naval Air Station Argentia was officially commissioned by the US Navy. Argentia would prove to be a very important base in the US war effort; by 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...1943 with the U.S. fully involved in the Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. ...Second World War, Argentia saw upwards of 10,000 U.S. personnel passing through on the way to the European Theatre. An adjoining The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land_based military operations. ...United States Army base was established as Fort McAndrew to provide anti-aircraft artillery protection for the navy base and naval air station. In 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...1946 Fort McAndrew became part of the Seal of the Air Force. ...United States Air Force and was renamed McAndrew Air Force Base in 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...1948. With VE in 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1945, Argentia saw a drop in personnel but by the start of the cold war in 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1947_ 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...1948, personnel numbers rose to 7,000. By the end of the The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ...Korean War in 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1953, Argentia saw a total of 8,500 personnel posted in the area.


In 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...1955 McAndrew AFB was deactivated and turned over to the US Navy as the US Air Force moved its personnel to more remote and northern locations along the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador to build radar stations which would become part of the A rough map of the three warning lines The Pinetree Line was a series of radar stations located across southern Canada at about the 50th parallel, along with a number of other stations located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. ...Pinetree Line and A rough map of the three warning lines The Distant Early Warning Line, also known as the DEW Line or Early Warning Line, was a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada, with additional stations along the North Coast and Aleutian Islands of Alaska, in...DEW Line systems. In the Centuries: 19th century _ 20th century _ 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s _ 1960s _ 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ...1960s Naval Station Argentia became a key "node" in the U.S. Navy's SOSUS, an acronym for SOund SUrveillance System, was a chain of underwater listening posts located for the most part across the northern Atlantic Ocean near Greenland, Iceland and the United Kingdom __ the so_called GIUK gap. ...SOSUS underwater A hydrophone is a sound_to_electricity transducer for use in water or other liquids, analogous to a microphone for air. ...hydrophone system. As such, the base was the target for several Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ...espionage attempts by the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР)  listen?; tr. ...Soviet Union. By 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...1969 the total U.S. Navy and United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...U.S. Marine contingents had dropped to 3,000 and to 1,000 by 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ...1971.


As facilities and structures closed, assets were transferred to the Government of Canada under the terms of the U.S._Britain lend_lease program; Newfoundland having become a Canadian province in 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...1949. In 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ...1973 Naval Air Station Argentia was closed and by 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...1975 the entire north side of the base was out of U.S. hands. In 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...1994 Naval Operating Base Argentia, one of the US Navy's most modern facilities, was officially decommissioned and the entire site was transferred to the Government of Canada, and in turn to private sector and the provincial government.


Ferry terminal

By the mid_ Centuries: 19th century _ 20th century _ 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s _ 1960s _ 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ...1960s roads were upgraded between Argentia and the newly_opened Example of Trans_Canada Highway marker shield. ...Trans_Canada Highway at Whitbourne. In 1967 _ Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...1967 a new The Pride of Burgundy, a P&O Ferries car ferry on the Dover_Calais route A ferry is a boat or a ship carrying passengers, and possibly their vehicles, on a relatively short_distance, regularly_scheduled service. ...ferry terminal was opened by Canadian National Railways logo or herald (used pre_1960) Network Map of Canadian National Railway The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS), known as Canadian National Railways (CNR) between 1918 and 1960, and Canadian National/Canadien National (CN) from 1960 to present, is a Canadian Class...Canadian National Railway and the Ambrose Shea became the first seasonal ferry to call at the port, largely carrying tourists bound for the Avalon Peninsula (19 hours crossing time) from North Sydney, Nova Scotia North Sydney is a town on the Eastern Coast of Cape Breton Island, is part of the Cape Breton Regional Municipality (Since amalgamation in 1995). ...North Sydney, Nova Scotia. In the Millennia: 1st millennium _ 2nd millennium _ 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology Bulletin board system popularity Popularization of personal computers, Walkmans, VHS videocassette recorders, and compact disc (CD) players Introduction of the IBM PC Home video games become enormously popular, most notably Atari until the market crashes in 1983; the rise...1980s the terminal was upgraded by CN Marine was a Canadian ferry company headquartered in Moncton, New Brunswick. ...CN Marine and in 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1989 the company's successor, Marine Atlantic logo or herald Marine Atlantic Inc. ...Marine Atlantic, welcomed the Joseph and Clara Smallwood superferry (14 hours crossing time) on the Argentia summer run.


Its military base now closed, Argentia has all but become a A street corner in the ghost town of Bodie, California. ...ghost town. Not one of the original pre_war buildings remain (as they were demolished to construct the base) but some empty military buildings are being reused as the beginning of what is hoped to become an An industrial park is an area of land set aside for industrial development. ...industrial park in Argentia.


The For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ...airfield lies abandoned; it may still be usable in case of emergency but 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...as of 2002 its condition continues to deteriorate.


Related links

See also: ISBN 1_895387_19_1 "Uprooted! The Argentia Story" by Eileen Houlihan (1992, Creative Publishers, St John's)


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