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Encyclopedia > Arena (colosseum)

Arena is the venetian name for the amphitheatre located in Pula, Croatia. The Arena is the sole remaining Roman amphitheater with all the three orders entirely preserved, as well the only having four side towers. A business sign in Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over two million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... Pula (Italian Pola) is the largest city in Istria, Croatia, at the southern tip of that peninsula. ...


Arena was built in the 1st century CE, as the city of Pula became a regional center of Roman rule, called Pietas Julia. The name derives from the sand that, since the antiquity times, covered the inner space. The amphitheatre was first built as a wooden one during the reign of Augustus (2-14 CE). The construction of the stone version began probably under the reign of Claudius, to be finished under Titus (up to 81 CE): this hypotesis has been confirmed by the finding of a Vespasian coin in the malting. For the exterior wall limestone was used. The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Gaius Caesar meets with the king of Parthia on the Euphrates. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Events Domitian succeeds his brother Titus Flavius as emperor of the Roman Empire. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 17, 9–June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ...


The amphiteater axes are respectively 132.45 and 105.10 meters long, while the walls stand 32.45 m high. It could house a total of 25,000 spectators in the cavea, which had forty steps divided into two meniani. The field for the games, the proper arena, measured 67.95 × 41.65 meters. The arena had a total of 15 gates. Under the construction there were subterraneans from which animals, ludi scenes and fighters were lifted up through elevators; under the step stores and shops were housed. Each tower had two cisterns which fed a fountain with perfumed water. In Roman times the cavea were the subterranean cells in which wild animals were confined before the combats in the Roman arena or amphitheatre. ...


St. Germanus was martyrized here in the year 284. The amphiteater remained in use until the 5th century, when emperor Honorius prohibited bloody games and the gladiatorial combats. The fights against wild animals, however, was forbidden only in 681: until that date, it could be performed by falsaries or other condemned to death. Anyway, from the 5th century onwards the amphiteater began to be dismantled and its stones used by private citizens for uses of their own. Well into the 13th century, the patriarch of Aquileia forbade any removal of stones from the Arena. It is probable the construction remained rather intact until the following century. For other uses, see number 284. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... See: Flavius Augustus Honorius, western Roman emperor 395-423 Saint Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury 627-655 Pope Honorius I, pope 625-638 Pope Honorius II, pope 1124-1130 Pope Honorius III, pope 1216-1227 Pope Honorius IV, pope 1285-1287 Antipope Honorius II, 1061-1064 This is a disambiguation page... Pollice Verso (With a Turned Thumb), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painters researched conception of a gladiatorial combat. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ...


In the Middle Ages the interior of the Arena was used for fairs and tournament by the Knights of Malta, but also for grazing. In 1583 the Venetian Senate proposed to dismount piecemeal the Arena to remount it exactly within Venice, but this eventually was not accepted: a headstone celebrating the Venetian senator Gabriele Emo for this accomplishment is currently visible on the second tower. The last excision from the Arena happened in 1709, for the foundations of the belfy of the city's Cathedral. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ...


In 1816 the Arena was restored by the Ticinese architect Pietro Nobile, commissioned by the emperor Francis I of Austria. In 1932 it was adapted for lyrics spectacles, military ceremonies and popular preassemblies. 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Canton Ticino or Ticino (German: (help· info)) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ...


External links

  • Roman Pula
  • Archaeological Museum of Istria
  • A Cravat around an Arena

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The arena, filled with thousands of excited spectators, was centre stage for the cruel and deadly fights between man and man, man and beast, and beast against beast.
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The unfortunate men were then dragged out of the arena by hooks and were flung in the carnaria, trenches that were established specially to rid the bodies.
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