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Encyclopedia > Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Coconut Palm Cocos nucifera
Coconut Palm Cocos nucifera
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Schultz-Schultzenstein
Genera

Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Download high resolution version (454x765, 178 KB)Coconut Palm on Martinique. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... Family Arecaceae Arecales is the botanical order which includes only the palm family, Arecaceae. ... This is a list of all the genera in the botanical family Arecaceae, the palm tree family, arranged by tribes within the family. ...

Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid[1]), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants belonging to the monocot order, Arecales. There are roughly 202 currently known genera with around 2600 species, most of which are restricted to tropical, subtropical, and possibly warm temperate climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreen leaves arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, many palms are exceptions to this statement, and palms in fact exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics. As well as being morphologically diverse, palms also inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... This article is about plant types. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


Palms are one of the most well-known and extensively cultivated plant families. They have had an important role to humans throughout much of history. Many common products and foods are derived from palms, and palms are also widely used in landscaping for their exotic appearance making them one of the most economically important plants. In many historical cultures, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory, peace, and fertility. Today, palms remain a popular symbol for the tropics and vacations. [2] For other uses, see Vacation (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Morphology

This grove of the native species Washingtonia filifera in Palm Canyon, California is growing alongside a stream running through the desert.
This grove of the native species Washingtonia filifera in Palm Canyon, California is growing alongside a stream running through the desert.

Whether shrubs, trees or vines palms are limited to two methods of growth. The common representation is that of a solitary shoot ending in a crown of leaves. This monopodial behavior may be exhibited in prostrate, trunkless and trunk forming members. Some of the common palm trees restricted to solitary growth include Washingtonia and Roystonea. Palms may instead grow in sparse to dense clusters. The trunk will develop an axillary bud at a leaf node, usually near the base, from which a new shoot emerges. The new shoot, in turn, produces an axillary bud and a clustering habit results. Exclusively sympodial genera include many of the rattans, Guihaia, and Rhapis. Several palm genera have both solitary and clustering members. Occasionally, a plant is very often clustering with the occasional solitary member or the converse. These aberrations suggest the habit operates on a single gene.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 632 KB) Photo of Washingtonia filifera (California fan palm) grove in Palm Canyon, California, taken March 2005 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Arecaceae User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Plants M-Z ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 632 KB) Photo of Washingtonia filifera (California fan palm) grove in Palm Canyon, California, taken March 2005 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Arecaceae User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Plants M-Z ... Binomial name Washingtonia filifera (Lindl. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Orchids with monopodial growth habits grow upward from a single point. ... Species Washingtonia filifera Washingtonia robusta Washingtonia (named for George Washington, 1st U.S. President) is a genus of palms, native to the southwestern United States (in southern California, southwest Arizona) and northwest Mexico (in northern Baja California and Sonora). ... Species See text Royal Palm may also refer to the Royal Palm (Passenger Train) of the Southern Railway (US). ... Orchids with sympodial growth have a specialized lateral growth pattern in which the terminal bud dies. ... Genera Calamus Calospatha Ceratolobus Daemonorops Eremospatha Eugeissonia Korthalsia Laccosperma Metroxylon Myrialepis Oncocalamus Pigafetta Plectocomia Plectomiopsis Raphia Zalacca Zalacella Rattan (from the Malay rotan), is the name for the roughly six hundred species of palms in the tribe Calameae, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australasia. ... Rhapis is a genus of about 10 species of small palms native to southern China and Southeast Asia. ...


They have large evergreen leaves that are either palmately ('fan-leaved') or pinnately ('feather-leaved') compound and spirally arranged at the top of the stem. The leaves have a tubular sheath at the base that usually splits open on one side at maturity [4]. The inflorescence is a panicle or spike surrounded by one or more bracts or spathes that become woody at maturity. The flowers are generally small and white, radially symmetric, and can be either uni- or bisexual. The sepals and petals usually number three each and may be distinct or joined at the base. The stamens generally number six, with filaments that may be separate, attached to each other, or attached to the pistil at the base. The fruit is usually a single-seeded drupe [5], but some genera (e.g. Salacca) may contain two or more seeds in each fruit. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ... This inflorescence of the terrestrial orchid Spathoglottis plicata is a typical raceme. ... Toothed bracts on Rhinanthus minor In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, from the axil of which a flower or flower stalk arises; or a bract may be any leaf associated with an inflorescence. ... Elephant ear or ape flower (Xanthosoma roseum) with a white spadix partially surrounded by a green-, rose-, and cream-colored spathe In botany, a spadix (pl. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... Binomial name Salacca edulis Reinw. ...

Fruits of Palmyra at Guntur, India
Fruits of Palmyra at Guntur, India

Arecaceae is notable for having the individual trees with the largest seed, largest leaf, largest inflorescence, as well as the tallest individual monocot. The coco de mer (Lodoicea maldivica) has the largest seeds of any plant, 40-50 centimeters in diameter and weighing 15-30 kilograms each. Raffia palms (Raphia spp.), with leaves up to 25 meters long and 3 meters wide, have the largest leaves of any plant. The Corypha species have the largest inflorescence of any plant, up to 7.5 meters tall and containing millions of small flowers. Ceroxylon quindiuense, Colombia's national tree, is the tallest monocot in the world, reaching heights of 60 meters [6]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about a city in India. ... Species Lodoicea maldivica Ref. ... Species About 25-30 species, including: Raphia australis Raphia farinifera Raphia hookeri Raphia regalis Raphia taedigera Raphia vinifera The Raffia palm (Raphia) is a genus of tropical palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Madagascar, Central America and South America. ... Species Eight species, including: Corypha elata Corypha gebang Corypha taliera Corypha umbraculifera Corypha utan Corypha (Gebang Palm, Buri Palm or Talipot Palm) is a genus of eight species of large leaved palms (family Arecaceae), native to India, Malaysia, Indonesia, and northern Australia. ... Panoramic of Cocora valley with wax palms Binomial name (Karsten) Ceroxylon quindiuense (Palma de cera del quindio, (Wax palm tree), is a palm native to the Andean high altitude valley of Cocora in the department of Quindío, northwest Colombia. ...


Range and habitat

Coconut palm trees in Mumbai, India
Coconut palm trees in Mumbai, India

The vast majority of palms exist in the tropics. Palms are abundant throughout the tropical regions around the world, and are present in almost every type of habitat in the tropics. Diversity is highest in wet, lowland tropical forests, especially in ecological "hotspots" such as Madagascar, which has more endemic palms than the entire continental Africa. Colombia may have the highest number of palm species in one country. [7] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sunset Over Bandstand, Mumbai Author: Zia Gheewalla, Flickr user zia21g http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 534 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sunset Over Bandstand, Mumbai Author: Zia Gheewalla, Flickr user zia21g http://www. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


It is estimated that only 130 palm species grow naturally beyond the tropics, most of which grow in the subtropics. The northernmost native palm is Chamaerops humilis, which reaches 44°N latitude in southern France, where the local Mediterranean climate is milder than other places as far north. The southernmost palm is the Rhopalostylis sapida, which reaches 44°S on the Chatham Islands where an oceanic climate has a similar warming effect [8]. Palms have been known to grow as far north as Ireland. The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ... Binomial name Chamaerops humilis L. Chamaerops humilis, the European Fan Palm, is the sole species in the genus Chamaerops in the palm family Arecaceae. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... Binomial name Rhopalostylis sapida H.Wendl. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ...


Palms inhabit a variety of habitats. Over two-thirds of palms live in tropical forests, where some species grow tall enough to form part of the canopy and other shorter palms adapted to shade form part of the understory [9]. Some species form pure stands in areas with poor drainage or regular flooding, including Raphia hookeri which is common in coastal freshwater swamps in West Africa. Other palms live in tropical mountain habitats above 1000 meters, such as those in the genus Ceroxylon native to the Andes. Palms may also live in grasslands and scrublands, usually associated with a water source, and in desert oases such as the Date Palm. A few palms are adapted to extremely basic lime soils, while others are similarly adapted to very acidic serpentine soils [8]. Look up Canopy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Understory (or understorey) is the term for the area of a forest which grows in the shade of the overstory or canopy. ... Ceroxylon is a genus of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Serpentine (disambiguation). ...


Taxonomy

A coconut palm.
A coconut palm.
A coconut palm tree in Curaçao.
A coconut palm tree in Curaçao.

Palms are a monophyletic group of plants, meaning that the group consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants [9]. Extensive taxonomic research on palms began with botanist H.E. Moore, who organized palms into fifteen major groups based mostly on general morphological characteristics. The following classification, proposed by N.W. Uhl and J. Dransfield in 1987, is a revision of Moore's classification that organizes palms into six subfamilies [10]. A few general traits of each subfamily are listed. Download high resolution version (500x747, 122 KB)Manila dwarf coconut palm from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (500x747, 122 KB)Manila dwarf coconut palm from http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of an inferred common ancestor and all its descendants. ...


Coryphoideae is the most diverse subfamily and is a paraphyletic group, meaning that all members of the group share a common ancestor but the group does not include all the ancestor's descendants. Most palms in this subfamily have palmately lobed leaves and solitary flowers with three, sometimes four carpels. The fruit normally develops from only one carpel. Subfamily Calamoideae includes the climbing palms such as rattans. The leaves are usually pinnate; derived characters (synapomorphies) include spines on various organs, organs specialized for climbing, an extension of the main stem of the leaf bearing reflexed spines, and overlapping scales covering the fruit and ovary. Subfamily Nypoideae contains only one genus and one species, Nypa fruticans, which has large pinnate leaves. The fruit is unusual in that it floats, and the stem is dichotomously branched, also unusual in palms. Subfamily Ceroxyloideae has small to medium-sized flowers that spirally arranged, with a gynoecium of three joined carpels. Arecoideae is the largest subfamily with six diverse tribes containing over 100 genera. All tribes have pinnate or bipinnate leaves and flowers arranged in groups of three, with a central pistillate and two staminate flowers. Phytelephantoideae is a monoecious subfamily. Members of this group have distinct monopodial flower clusters. Other distinct features include a gynoecium with five to ten joined carpels, and flowers with more than three parts per whorl. Fruits are multiseeded and have multiple parts [11]. In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Shared characteristics that define a cladistic grouping. ... A gynoecium(gyne: woman) is the female reproductive part of a flower, the male part of a flower is called androecium. ... Plant sexuality deals with the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. ... Orchids with monopodial growth habits grow upward from a single point. ...


Currently, few extensive phylogenetic studies of Arecaceae exist. In 1997, Baker et al. explored subfamily and tribe relationships using chloroplast DNA from 60 genera from all subfamilies and tribes. The results strongly showed that Calamoideae is monophyletic, and that Ceroxyloideae and Coryphoideae are paraphyletic. The relationships of Arecoideae are uncertain but it is possibly related to Ceroxyloideae and Phytelephantoideae. However, hybridization has been observed among Orbignya and Phoenix species, and using chloroplast DNA in cladistic studies may produce inaccurate results due to maternal inheritance of the chloroplast DNA. Chemical and molecular data from non-organelle DNA, for example, could be more effective for studying palm phylogeny [11]. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of an inferred common ancestor and all its descendants. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ...


Selected genera

The orange fruit on a palm tree.
The orange fruit on a palm tree.

See list of Arecaceae genera arranged by taxonomic groups or by alphabetical order for a complete listing of genera. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2182 KB) Taken and uploaded by AndonicO. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2182 KB) Taken and uploaded by AndonicO. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Species (Betel nut palm) and about 50 more Areca is a genus of about 50 species of single-stemmed palms in the family Arecaceae, found in humid tropical forests from Malaysia to the Solomon Islands. ... Binomial name Areca catechu L. Areca catechu, known commonly as Betel palm or Betel nut tree is a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. ... Bactris is a genus of the palm family Arecaceae. ... Binomial name Bactris gasipaes Kunth Bactris gasipaes is a species of palm native to the tropical forests of the South and Central America. ... Species See text. ... Sugar palm is a common name for several species of palms used to produce sugar. ... Species 13; See text Caryota is a genus of palm trees. ... Species many, see text Calamus is a genus of the palm family Arecaceae. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Species See text Copernicia is a genus of 24 species of palms, native to South America and the Caribbean. ... Carnauba is a wax derived from the leaves of a plant native to northeastern Brazil, the carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera). ... Species Eight species, including: Corypha elata Corypha gebang Corypha taliera Corypha umbraculifera Corypha utan Corypha (Gebang Palm, Buri Palm or Talipot Palm) is a genus of eight species of large leaved palms (family Arecaceae), native to India, Malaysia, Indonesia, and northern Australia. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Species Euterpe broadwayi Euterpe catinga Euterpe edulis Euterpe longibracteata Euterpe luminosa Euterpe oleracea Euterpe precatoria Açaí Palm (IPA ) is a member of the Arturo Family, which contains 7 species of palms native to tropical Central and South America, from Belize south to Brazil and Peru, growing mainly in floodplains... Species Hyphaene compressa Hyphaene coriacea Hyphaene dichotoma Hyphaene guineensis Hyphaene indica Hyphaene petersiana Hyphaene thebaica Hyphaene is a genus of palms that includes the doum palm among others. ... Binomial name Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart. ... Binomial name Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baill. ... Metroxylon is a genus of flowering plant in the Arecaceae family. ... Species Phoenix abyssinica Phoenix acaulis Phoenix canariensis Canary Island Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm Phoenix lourierii Phoenix paludosa Phoenix pusilla Phoenix reclinata Senegal Date Palm Phoenix roebelinii Pygmy Date Palm Phoenix rupicola Cliff Date Palm Phoenix sylvestris Indian Date Palm Phoenix theophrastii Cretan Date Palm Phoenix is a genus... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Species About 25-30 species, including: Raphia australis Raphia farinifera Raphia hookeri Raphia regalis Raphia taedigera Raphia vinifera The Raffia palm (Raphia) is a genus of tropical palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Madagascar, Central America and South America. ... Species See text Royal Palm may also refer to the Royal Palm (Passenger Train) of the Southern Railway (US). ... Species Sabal bermudana Sabal mexicana Sabal minor Sabal palmetto - cabbage palmetto The genus Sabal is a small palm tree of genus (family Arecaceae) with only four species, all in the neotropics or subtropics. ... Binomial name Salacca edulis Reinw. ... Binomial name Salacca zalacca (Gaertn. ... Species See text. ... Species T. fortunei (?) Trachycarpus is a genus of six to eight species of palms native to Asia, from the Himalaya east to eastern China. ... Binomial name Trachycarpus fortunei (Hook. ... Binomial name Trachycarpus takil Becc. ... Species Washingtonia filifera Washingtonia robusta Washingtonia (named for George Washington, 1st U.S. President) is a genus of palms, native to the southwestern United States (in southern California, southwest Arizona) and northwest Mexico (in northern Baja California and Sonora). ... This is a list of all the genera in the botanical family Arecaceae, the palm tree family, arranged by tribes within the family. ... List of Arecaceae or Palmae genera arranged alphabetically. ...


Evolution

A cross-section of a palm branch
A cross-section of a palm branch

Arecaceae is the first modern family of monocots that is clearly represented in the fossil record. Palms first appear in the fossil record around 80 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous Period. The first modern species, such as Nypa fruticans and Acrocomia aculeata, appeared 69-70 million years ago, confirmed by fossil Nypa pollen dated to 70 million years ago. Palms appear to have undergone an early period of adaptive radiation. By 60 million years ago, many of the modern, specialized genera of palms appeared and became widespread and common, much more widespread than their range today. Because palms separated from the monocots earlier than other families, they developed more intrafamilial specialization and diversity. By tracing back these diverse characteristics of palms to the basic structures of monocots, palms may be valuable in studying monocot evolution. [12] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Binomial name Nypa fruticans Wurmb Nypa fruticans , known as the Attap Palm (Singapore), Nipa Palm (Philippines), and Mangrove Palm or Nipah palm (Malaysia), is the only palm considered a mangrove. ... Binomial name Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. ... Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ...


Conservation

Pritchardia affinis, a critically endangered species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.
Pritchardia affinis, a critically endangered species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

Like many other plants, palms have been threatened by human intervention and exploitation. The greatest risk to palms is destruction of habitat, especially in the tropical forests, due to urbanization, wood-chipping, mining, and conversion to farmland. Palms rarely reproduce after such great changes in the habitat, and palms with a small habitat range are most vulnerable to them. The harvesting of heart of palm, a delicacy in salads, also poses a threat because it is derived from the inner core of the tree and thus harvesting kills the tree. The use of rattan palms in furniture has caused a major population decrease in these species that has negatively affected local and international markets as well as biodiversity in the area. [13] The sale of seeds to nurseries and collectors is another threat, as the seeds of popular palms are sometimes harvested directly from the wild. At least 100 palm species are currently endangered, and nine species have reportedly recently become extinct. [9] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 1035 KB) Pritchardia affinis From: Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project, http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 1035 KB) Pritchardia affinis From: Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project, http://www. ... Binomial name Becc. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... Heart of palm. ...


However, several factors make palm conservation more difficult. Palms live in almost every type of habitat and have tremendous morphological diversity. Most palm seeds lose viability quickly, and they cannot be preserved in low temperatures because the cold kills the embryo. Using botanical gardens for conservation also presents problems, since they can only house a few plants of any species or truly imitate the natural setting. [14] There is also the risk of cross-pollination,, which leads to hybrid species.


The Palm Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) began in 1984 and has performed a series of three studies in order to find basic information on the status of palms in the wild, utilization of wild palms, and palms under cultivation. Two projects on palm conservation and utilization supported by the World Wildlife Fund took place from 1985-1990 and 1986-1991, in the American tropics and southeast Asia respectively. Both studies produced a large amount of new data and publications on palms. Preparation of a global action plan for palm conservation began in 1991, supported by the IUCN, and was published in 1996 [14]. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... WWF, the global environment conservation organization, was constituted and registered in 1961 pursuant to Sections 80 et seq. ...


The rarest palm known is the Hyophorbe amaricaulis. The only living individual that remains is at the Botanic Gardens of Curepipe in Mauritius. Hyophorbe amaricaulis (synonym, Mascarena revaughanii L. H. Bailey) is a hurricane palm of the order Arecales, Family Arecaceae, Subfamily Ceroxyloideae, Tribe Hyophorbeae. ...


Uses and cultivation

Fruit of the Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera
Fruit of the Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera

Human use of palms is as old or older than human civilization itself, starting with the cultivation of the Date Palm by Mesopotamians and other Middle Eastern peoples 5000 years or more ago.[15] Date wood, pits for storing dates, and other remains of the Date Palm have been found in Mesopotamian sites.[16] The Date Palm had a tremendous effect on the history of the Middle East. W.H. Barreveld wrote: Download high resolution version (600x875, 179 KB)Photo of date (fruit) cluster on tree in Las Vegas, Nevada, taken November 2004 by User:Stan Shebs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (600x875, 179 KB)Photo of date (fruit) cluster on tree in Las Vegas, Nevada, taken November 2004 by User:Stan Shebs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...

"One could go as far as to say that, had the date palm not existed, the expansion of the human race into the hot and barren parts of the "old" world would have been much more restricted. The date palm not only provided a concentrated energy food, which could be easily stored and carried along on long journeys across the deserts, it also created a more amenable habitat for the people to live in by providing shade and protection from the desert winds (Fig. 1). In addition, the date palm also yielded a variety of products for use in agricultural production and for domestic utensils, and practically all parts of the palm had a useful purpose."[15]

An indication of the importance of Palms is that they are mentioned more than 30 times in the Bible[17], and at least 22 times in the Quran.[18] For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Arecaceae has great economic importance including coconut products, oils, dates, ivory nuts, carnauba wax, rattan cane, and raffia.


The type member of Arecaceae is the Areca palm, the fruit of which, the betel nut, is chewed with the betel leaf for intoxicating effects. Also belonging to the family of the Arecaceae are the Date Palm, harvested for its edible fruit; Rattans, whose stems are used extensively in furniture and baskets; and the Coconut. Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil produced by the oil palms in the genus Elaeis. Several species are harvested for heart of palm, a vegetable eaten in salads. Palm sap is sometimes fermented to produce palm wine or toddy, an alcoholic beverage common in parts of Africa, India, and the Philippines [19]. The Palm Sunday festival uses palm leaves, usually from the Date Palm, hence the name. Dragon's blood, a red resin used traditionally in medicine, varnish, and dyes, may be obtained from the fruit of Daemonorops species. Coir is a coarse water-resistant fiber extracted from the outer shell of coconuts, used in doormats, brushes, mattresses, and ropes. Some indigenous groups living in palm-rich areas use palms to make many of their necessary items and food. Sago, for example, a starch made from the pith of the trunk of the Sago Palm Metroxylon sagu, is a major staple food for lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas. Palm leaves are also valuable to some peoples as a material for thatching or clothing. [20] Species (Betel nut palm) and about 50 more Areca is a genus of about 50 species of single-stemmed palms in the family Arecaceae, found in humid tropical forests from Malaysia to the Solomon Islands. ... Binomial name Areca catechu Linnaeus Areca nut, or pinang, more commonly known as betel nut, is the seed of the betel palm or Areca catechu, a species of palm tree which grows throughout the Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. ... Binomial name Piper betle L. The Betel (Piper betle) is a spice whose leaves have medicinal properties. ... Genera Calamus Calospatha Ceratolobus Daemonorops Eremospatha Eugeissonia Korthalsia Laccosperma Metroxylon Myrialepis Oncocalamus Pigafetta Plectocomia Plectomiopsis Raphia Zalacca Zalacella Rattan (from the Malay rotan), is the name for the roughly six hundred species of palms in the tribe Calameae, native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australasia. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Four styles of household basket. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Heart of palm. ... Sap exuding (gummosis) from the stem of a koa tree, probably in response to surface damage Sap is the fluid carried in tubules inside a plant, circulating to distribute food and water to various parts of the plant. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For other uses, see Palm wine (disambiguation). ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of an alcohol includes many other compounds. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... Dragons blood is a bright red resin that is obtained from different species of four distinct plants genera Croton, Dracaena, Daemonorops, and Pterocarpus. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about varnish. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species See text Daemonorops is a genus of rattan palms in the family Arecaceae. ... Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sago (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Rottb. ... A staple food is a food that forms the basis of a traditional diet. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ...

Today, palms are valuable as ornamental plants and are often grown along streets in tropical and subtropical cities, and also along the Mediterranean coast in Europe. Farther north, palms are a common feature in botanical gardens or as indoor plants. Few palms tolerate severe cold, however, and the majority of the species are tropical or subtropical. The three most cold-tolerant species are Trachycarpus fortunei, native to eastern Asia, and Rhapidophyllum hystrix and Sabal minor, both native to the southeastern United States [21]. For more details, see hardy palms. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1400 KB) Summary Palm trees in Santa Monica, California Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Arecaceae Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1400 KB) Summary Palm trees in Santa Monica, California Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Arecaceae Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Binomial name Washingtonia robusta H.Wendl. ... For other uses, see Santa Monica (disambiguation). ... Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants both for scientific purposes and for the enjoyment and education of visitors. ... Binomial name Trachycarpus fortunei (Hook. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H.Wendl. ... Binomial name Sabal minor (Jacq. ... Dwarf Palmetto Sabal minor in snow, Congaree National Park, South Carolina. ...


The southeastern state of South Carolina is nicknamed the Palmetto State after the Cabbage Palmetto, logs from which were used to build the fort at Fort Moultrie. During the American Revolutionary War they were invaluable to those defending the fort, because their spongy wood absorbed or deflected the British cannonballs.[22] Some palms can be grown as far north as Maryland, Arkansas, and even up along the Pacific coast to Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, where ocean winds have a warming effect. There have even been known species of transplanted palms that have survived as far north as southern New Jersey[23]. The Chinese Trachycarpus fortunei is being grown experimentally on the Faroe Islands at 62°N, with young plants doing well so far. [24] Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Binomial name Sabal palmetto (Walt. ... Fort Moultrie is the name of a series of forts on Sullivans Island, South Carolina, built to protect the city of Charleston, South Carolina. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Binomial name Trachycarpus fortunei (Hook. ...


Symbolism

Main article: Palm branch (symbol)

The palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory in pre-Christian times. The Romans rewarded champions of the games and celebrated military successes with palm branches. Early Christians used the palm branch to symbolize the victory of the faithful over enemies of the soul, as in the Palm Sunday festival celebrating the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem. In Judaism, the palm represents peace and plenty, and is one of the Four Species of Sukkot; the palm may also symbolize the Tree of life in Kabbalah. Today, the palm, especially the Coconut, remains a symbol of the stereotypical tropical island paradise [9]. Palms appear on the flags and seals of several places where they are native, including those of Haiti, Guam, Florida and South Carolina. Palm fronds Palm branches, or palm fronds, usually refer to the leaves of the Arecaceae (sometimes known by the names Palmae). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For the book by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sukkot (Hebrew:  ; booths. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ... Guam COA Guam coat of arms is identical to the seal in the middle of the flag_of_Guam. ... The Great Seal of the State of Florida The Great Seal of the State of Florida is used to represent the Government of the State of Florida, and for various official purposes, such as to seal official documents and legislation. ... The flag of South Carolina The flag of South Carolina is believed to have been originally designed in 1775 for use by South Carolinian troops during the American Revolutionary War. ...


See also

Travellers Palm (Ravenala Madagascariensis) is an interesting plant from Madagascar. ... Families see text The Zingiberales are an order of flowering plants that includes many familiar plants like ginger, cardamom, turmeric, myoga, and also banana and arrowroot. ... Binomial name Thunb. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Toddy. ... Binomial name Ruprecht 1852 Postelsia, also known as the sea palm (not to be confused with the southern sea palm) or palm seaweed, is a genus of kelp. ... The Heterokontophyta (Phaeophyta or brown algae, singular: brown alga) is a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds of colder Northern Hemisphere waters. ... Dwarf Palmetto Sabal minor in snow, Congaree National Park, South Carolina. ...

References

  1. ^ "Palmaceae" is not accepted because the name Arecaceae (and its acceptable alternative Palmae, ICBN Art. 18.5) are conserved over other names for the palm family.
  2. ^ Landscaping with Palms in the Mediterranean
  3. ^ Uhl, Natalie W. and Dransfield, John (1987) Genera Palmarum - A classification of palms based on the work of Harold E. Moore. Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press. ISBN-10: ISBN-10: 0935868305 / ISBN-13: 978-0935868302
  4. ^ Arecaceae - University of Hawaii Botany
  5. ^ Arecaceae in Flora of North America
  6. ^ :: Presidencia de la República de Colombia ::
  7. ^ Conservatory of Flowers
  8. ^ a b Tropical Palms by Food and Agriculture Organization
  9. ^ a b c d Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - Introduction
  10. ^ N. W. Uhl, J. Dransfield (1987). Genera palmarum: a classification of palms based on the work of Harold E. Moore, Jr. (Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas).
  11. ^ a b Palms on the University of Arizona Campus
  12. ^ Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - Evolution and the fossil record
  13. ^ Palms: Their Conservation and Sustained Utilization
  14. ^ a b Palm Conservation: Its Atecedents, Status, and Needs
  15. ^ a b W.H. Barreveld. Date Palm Products - Introduction. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  16. ^ Date Sex @ University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
  17. ^ Bible search for "palm"
  18. ^ Koran search for "palm"
  19. ^ Palm Trees – Uses And Locations
  20. ^ Tropical Palms by Food and Agriculture Organization
  21. ^ Growing Hardy Palms
  22. ^ Revolutionary War Exhibit Text - November 2002
  23. ^ Windmill Palms in Southern New Jersey
  24. ^ Højgaard, A., Jóhansen, J., & Ødum, S. (1989). A century of tree planting on the Faroe Islands. Ann. Soc. Sci. Faeroensis Supplementum 14.
  • C. H. Schultz-Schultzenstein (1832). Natürliches System des Pflanzenreichs..., 317. Berlin, Germany.
  • Dransfield J., Uhl N.W., Asmussen C.B., Baker W.J., Harley M.M., Lewis C.E. (2005). "A new phylogenetic classification of the palm family, Arecaceae". Kew Bulletin 60: 559–569. [latest Arecaceae or Palmae classification]

With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations programs seek to raise levels of nutrition and standard of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to eliminate hunger. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Palm Trees, Small Palms, Cycads, Bromeliads & Tropical Plants Site with 1000's of large, high quality photos of palms and associated flora. Includes information on habitat and cultivation.
  • Palmpedia A wiki based site dedicated to high quality images and information on palm trees.
  • Guide to Palms A collection of palm images, scientific data, and horticultural information hosted by Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami.
  • Kew Botanic Garden's Palm Genera list A list of the currently acknowledged genera by Kew Royal Botanic Gardens in London, England.
  • PACSOA Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia palm species listing with images.
  • Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, Inc. (PACSOF), which includes pages on Arecaceae taxonomy and a photo index.
  • Guide to Palms grown in the UK


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arecaceae - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (525 words)
Arecaceae (also known as Palmae), the Palm Family, is a family of flowering plants, belonging to the monocot order, Arecales.
Of all the families of plants, the Arecaceae is the most easily recognizable as distinct by most persons.
The type member of this family is the areca palm, the fruit of which is chewed with the betel leaf and often confused with it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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