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Encyclopedia > Area 51
"Area 51"

Area 51 is name for a secret military facility in Nevada, north of Las Vegas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (752x948, 383 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Area 51 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...

IATA: none – ICAO: KXTA
Summary
Airport type Military
Operator United States
Elevation AMSL 4462 ft / 1360 m
Coordinates 37°14′06″N 115°48′40″W / 37.235, -115.81111
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
14L/32 12,000 3,658 Asphalt
12/30 5,420 1,652 Asphalt
09L/27R 11,440 3,489 Salt
09R/27L 11,440 3,489 Salt
03L/21R 10,030 3,057 Salt
03R/21L 10,030 3,057 Salt
14R/32L 23,270 7,093 Closed

Area 51 is a remote tract of land in the southwestern portion of Lincoln County in southern Nevada in the western United States. Situated at its center, on the southern shore of a dry lakebed (salt lake), is a large military airfield, one of the most secretive places in the world. The base's primary purpose is to support development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems.[1][2] An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier [1], is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). ... The ICAO (IPA pronunciation: ) airport code or location indicator is a four-letter alphanumeric code designating each airport around the world. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For a lake containing a high concentration of salt, see salt lake (geography). ...


The base lies within the United States Air Force's vast Nevada Test and Training Range. Although the facilities at the range are managed by the 99th Air Base Wing at Nellis Air Force Base, the Groom facility appears to be run as an adjunct of the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave Desert, around 160 miles (260 km) from Groom (AFFTC homepage), and as such the base is known as Air Force Flight Test Center (Detachment 3).[3][4] “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Map showing Nellis AFB, NAFR, and other federal properties in southern Nevada The Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) is a training facility of the United States Air Force located in the desert of southern Nevada in the United States. ... The 99th Air Base Wing is today the host unit at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, having for a long time served at Ellsworth Air Force Base, SD, as part of Strategic Air Command. ... Map showing the locations of Nellis AFB and the NTTR Nellis Air Force Base (IATA: LSV, ICAO: KLSV) is a United States Air Force base, in Clark County, Nevada, on the northeast side of Las Vegas. ... Edwards Air Force Base (IATA: EDW, ICAO: KEDW) is a United States Air Force airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due east of Rosamond. ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ...


Other names used for the facility include Dreamland, Paradise Ranch,[5] Home Base, Watertown Strip, Groom Lake[6] and most recently Homey Airport.[7] The area is part of the Nellis Military Operations Area, and military pilots refer to the forbidden airspace around it (R-4808N[8]) as The Box. A military operations area (MOA) is airspace established outside Class A airspace to separate or segregate certain nonhazardous military activities from IFR Traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where these activities are conducted. ...


The intense secrecy surrounding the base, the very existence of which the US Government barely acknowledges, has led it to become the frequent subject of conspiracy theories and UFO folklore. For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... UFO redirects here. ...

Contents

Geography

Map showing Area 51, NAFR, and the NTS
Map showing Area 51, NAFR, and the NTS

Area 51 shares a border with the Yucca Flats region of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the location of many of the US Department of Energy's nuclear weapons tests. The Yucca Mountain nuclear storage facility is approximately 40 miles (64 km) southwest of Groom Lake. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1972x1148, 1869 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Area 51 Yucca Mountain Nevada Test Site Nellis Air Force Base Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Tonopah Test Range Nellis Air Force Range Mercury, Nevada Desert National Wildlife Range Wikipedia... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1972x1148, 1869 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Area 51 Yucca Mountain Nevada Test Site Nellis Air Force Base Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Tonopah Test Range Nellis Air Force Range Mercury, Nevada Desert National Wildlife Range Wikipedia... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Yucca Mountain Yucca Mountain is a ridge line in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Nevada. ...


Operations at Groom Lake

Satellite view of Area 51 from 1968.
Satellite view of Area 51 from 1968.

Groom Lake is not a conventional airbase, as frontline units are not normally deployed there. It instead appears to be used during the development, testing, and training phases for new aircraft. Once these aircraft have been approved by the United States Air Force or other agencies such as the CIA, operation of that aircraft is generally conducted from a normal air force base. Groom is reported, however, to be the permanent home for a small number of Soviet-designed aircraft (obtained by various means),[9] which are analyzed and used for training purposes. Download high resolution version (640x1000, 97 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (640x1000, 97 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... CCCP redirects here. ...


Soviet spy satellites obtained photographs of the Groom Lake area during the height of the Cold War, and later civilian satellites produced detailed images of the base and its surroundings. These images support only modest conclusions about the base; they depict a nondescript base, long airstrip, hangars and the lake, but nothing that supports some of the claims about underground facilities.


Though no ICAO identifier for the base appears on any official document, in December 2007, airline pilots noticed that the base had appeared in their aircraft navigation systems' latest Jeppesen database revision as "KXTA".[10] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ...


U-2 program

Groom Lake was used for bombing and artillery practice during World War II, but was then abandoned until 1955, when it was selected by Lockheed's Skunk Works team as the ideal location to test the forthcoming U-2 spy plane.[11] The lakebed made an ideal strip from which they could operate the troublesome test aircraft, and the Emigrant Valley's mountain ranges and the NTS perimeter protected the test site from prying eyes and outside interference. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... A modern Skunk Works project leverages an older: LASRE atop the SR-71 Blackbird. ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency. ...


Lockheed constructed a makeshift base at Groom, consisting of little more than a few shelters, workshops and trailer homes in which to house its small team. The first U-2 flew at Groom in August 1955, and U-2s under the control of the CIA began overflights of Soviet territory by mid-1956. The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... CCCP redirects here. ...


During this period, the NTS continued to perform a series of atmospheric nuclear explosions. U-2 operations throughout 1957 were frequently disrupted by the Plumbbob series of atomic tests, which detonated over two dozen devices at the NTS. The Plumbbob-Hood explosion on July 5 scattered fallout across Groom and forced a temporary evacuation. The Smoky shot of Operation Plumbbob. ... The Smoky shot of Operation Plumbbob. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ...


As the U-2's primary mission was to fly over the Soviet Union, it operated largely from airbases near the Soviet border, including Incirlik in Turkey, Peshawar in Pakistan, and Bodø, Norway. The Incirlik Air Base (Turkish: ), an important air base in NATOs Southern Region, is located in Ä°ncirlik, 12 km east of Adana, Turkeys fifth largest city, and 56 km from the Mediterranean Sea ( ). Its ICAO airport code is LTAG. The airbase has a United States Air Force (USAF...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... County District Salten Municipality NO-1804 Administrative centre Bodø Mayor (2005) Odd-Tore Fygle (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 62 1,392 km² 1,308 km² 0. ...


Blackbird programs

OXCART aircraft on the ramp at Groom Lake/Area 51 in 1964. There are ten aircraft in the photo; the first eight are OXCART machines, and the last two are Air Force YF-12As.

Even before U-2 development was complete, Lockheed began work on its successor, the CIA's OXCART project, a Mach-3 high altitude reconnaissance aircraft, a later variant of which became the famed USAF SR-71 Blackbird. The Blackbird's flight characteristics and maintenance requirements forced a massive expansion of facilities and runways at Groom Lake. By the time the first A-12 Blackbird prototype flew at Groom in 1962, the main runway had been lengthened to 8500 ft (2600 m), and the base boasted a complement of over 1000 personnel. It had fueling tanks, a control tower, and a baseball diamond. Security was greatly enhanced, the small civilian mine in the Groom basin was closed, and the area surrounding the valley was made an exclusive military preserve (where interlopers could be subject to "lethal force"). Groom saw the first flight of all major Blackbird variants: A-12, SR-71, its abortive YF-12 interceptor variant, and the D-21 Blackbird-based drone project. The A-12 would remain at Groom Lake until 1968. Some people say that the Blackbird was scrapped for a new plane called the Aurora, even though the government claims that the latter is just a myth. Image File history File links USAF Lockheed A-12 Oxcarts on an airbase ramp, including the lone trainer aircraft. ... Image File history File links USAF Lockheed A-12 Oxcarts on an airbase ramp, including the lone trainer aircraft. ... The Lockheed YF-12 was a prototype interceptor aircraft that formed the basis for the SR-71 Blackbird. ... The Lockheed YF-12 was a prototype interceptor aircraft, one of several variants of the CIAs highly-secret A-12 OXCART that also spawned the now-famous USAF SR-71 Blackbird. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... An F/A-18 Hornet breaking the sound barrier. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... SR-71 redirects here. ... This article is about the sport. ... The Lockheed A-12 was a reconnaissance aircraft built for the Central Intelligence Agency by Lockheeds famed Skunk Works. ... SR-71 redirects here. ... The Lockheed YF-12 was a prototype interceptor aircraft, one of several variants of the CIAs highly-secret A-12 OXCART that also spawned the now-famous USAF SR-71 Blackbird. ... The Lockheed D-21 was a Mach 3+ reconnaissance drone that began development in October 1962. ... The £124 million Taranis UAV built by BAE Systems An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ...


Have Blue/F-117 program

The first Have Blue prototype stealth fighter (a smaller cousin of the F-117 Nighthawk) first flew at Groom in December 1977.[12] Testing of a series of ultra-secret prototypes continued there until mid-1981, when testing transitioned to the initial production of F-117 stealth fighters. In addition to flight testing, Groom performed radar profiling, F-117 weapons testing, and was the location for training of the first group of frontline USAF F-117 pilots. Subsequently, the still highly classified active-service F-117 operations moved to the nearby Tonopah Test Range, and finally to Holloman Air Force Base. Have blue on ground Have Blue was the code-name for Lockheeds prototype Stealth Fighter program which preceded the F-117 Nighthawk production stealth aircraft project. ... This article is about the stealth fighter. ... Tonopah airbase and the surrounding test range (composite NASA Landsat-7 image) Tonopah Test Range is a military installation located about 30 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. ... Holloman Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in Otero County, about 6 miles SW of Alamogordo, New Mexico. ...


Later operations

Area 51 border and warning sign. Guards watch the photographer from their vehicle, parked on the hilltop inside the secure area.
Area 51 border and warning sign. Guards watch the photographer from their vehicle, parked on the hilltop inside the secure area.

Since the F-117 became operational in 1983, operations at Groom Lake have continued unabated. The base and its associated runway system have been expanded, and the daily flights bringing civilian commuters from Las Vegas continue. Some commentators, after examining recent satellite photos of the base, estimate it to have a live-in complement of over 1000 people, with a similar number commuting from Las Vegas. In 1995, the federal government expanded the exclusionary area around the base to include nearby mountains that had hitherto afforded the only decent overlook of the base. Subsequently, limited views of the area are available only from the summits of several distant mountains east. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 702 KB) Warning sign near secret Area 51 base in Nevada. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 702 KB) Warning sign near secret Area 51 base in Nevada. ...


Aircraft that have been tested at Groom include the Northrop Tacit Blue stealth demonstrator, various classified UAVs, and a stealthy cruise missile (most likely the AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missile). Other rumored Groom test programs include a small stealthy VTOL troop-transport aircraft, the Aurora hypersonic spy plane, a "Stealth Blimp", a secret USAF spaceplane codenamed Blackstar,[13] and replacements for the SR-71 and F-117A. The Northrop Tacit Blue was a technology demonstrator aircraft created to demonstrate that a stealth low observable surveillance aircraft with a low probability of intercept radar and other sensors could operate close to the forward line of battle with a high degree of survivability. ... The £124 million Taranis UAV built by BAE Systems An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... A stealthy strategic nuclear-tipped cruise missile. ... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... Aurora (also credited as the SR-91 Aurora) is the popular name for a hypothesised American reconnaissance aircraft, believed by some to be capable of hypersonic flight at speeds of Mach 5+. According to the hypothesis, the Aurora was developed in the 1980s or 1990s as a replacement for the... Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ... The Stealth Blimp is believed to be an electrokinetic propulsion type airship. ... A spaceplane is a rocket plane designed to pass the edge of space. ... For other uses, see Black Star. ...


Area 51 commuters

Defense contractor EG&G maintains a private terminal 36°05′31″N 115°09′54″W / 36.092, -115.165 at McCarran International Airport in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. A number of unmarked aircraft operate daily shuttle services from McCarran to sites operated by EG&G in the extensive federally controlled lands in southern Nevada. These aircraft reportedly use JANET radio call signs (e.g., "JANET 6")(the JANET airplanes are now using either call sign "Bland" or "JANET" on the radio, and "WWW" on their flight number identifier), said to be an acronym for "Joint Air Network for Employee Transportation" or (perhaps jokingly) "Just Another Non-Existent Terminal". EG&G advertises in the Las Vegas press for experienced military pilots, requiring applicants to be eligible for government security clearance, and that successful applicants can expect to always stay overnight at Las Vegas. These aircraft, painted white with red trim (the livery of now defunct Western Airlines), include six Boeing 737/T-43As and several smaller turboprops. Their tail numbers are registered to the U.S. Air Force. They are reported to shuttle to Groom, Tonopah Test Range, to other locations in the NAFR and NTS, and reportedly to Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake. Observers tracking the number of departures and cars in the private EG&G parking lot at McCarran estimate several thousand JANET commuters each day. These shuttle flights were previously operated by Key Air, which had flown 22,000 passenger trips on 300 flights from Nellis Air Force Base to Tonopah Test Range per month from 1982 until early 1991.[citation needed] EG&G logo EG&G is a defense contractor and provider of management and technical services. ... FAA diagram of McCarran International Airport “LAS” redirects here. ... The Las Vegas metropolitan area, includes the Las Vegas Valley a 600 square mile (1600 km²) basin, and surrounding areas, that are part of Clark County in southern Nevada. ... A new restoration of a Convair 240 sports a Western Airlines paint scheme. ... The Boeing 737 is a short to medium range, single aisle, narrow body jet airliner. ... The Boeing T-43 is a modified Boeing 737-200 used by the US Air Force. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... Tonopah airbase and the surrounding test range (composite NASA Landsat-7 image) Tonopah Test Range is a military installation located about 30 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. ... NASA satellite photo showing the main runways at NAWS China Lake The Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake (NAWS China Lake) is an airborne weapons testing and training range operated by the United States Navy and its contractors. ... Map showing the locations of Nellis AFB and the NTTR Nellis Air Force Base (IATA: LSV, ICAO: KLSV) is a United States Air Force base, in Clark County, Nevada, on the northeast side of Las Vegas. ...


Commuter service is provided along Groom Lake Road by a bus, catering to a small number of employees living in several small communities beyond the NTS boundary (although it is not clear whether these workers are employed at Groom or at other facilities in the NTS). The bus travels Groom Lake Road and stops at Crystal Springs, Ash Springs, and Alamo, and parks at the Alamo court house overnight. Crystal Springs is a ghost town located in Lincoln County, Nevada. ... A man overlooks the tiny town of Ash Springs. ... Alamo is a town in Lincoln County, Nevada. ...


Runways

The airbase, given the ICAO airport identifier code of KXTA and listed as "Homey Airport"[14] in aviation GPS databases, has seven runways including one that now appears to be closed. The closed runway, 14R/32L, is also by far the longest with a total length of approximately 7,093 meters (23,270 feet), not including stopway. The other runways are two asphalt runways, the 14L/32R with a length of 3,658 meters (12,000 feet) and 12/30 with a length of 1,652 meters (5,420 feet), and four runways located on the salt lake. These four runways are 09L/27R and 09R/27L, which are both approximately 3,489 meters (11,440 feet), and 03L/21R and 03R/21L, which are both approximately 3,057 meters (10,030 feet).[15][16] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... XTRA 570 AM. Southern California Sports Talk Radio Station External Link: http://www. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... A database is an information set with a regular structure. ... A runway is a strip of land on an airport, on which aircraft can take off and land. ...


U.S. government's positions on Area 51

A letter from the USAF replying to a query about Area 51
A letter from the USAF replying to a query about Area 51

On July 14th, 2003 the Federal Government admits the facility's existence, tacitly conceding that the Air Force has an "operating location" near the lake, but does not provide any further information. The base is conspicuously absent from Federal publications and inquiries to the government regarding the facility are rejected for reasons of national security. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (688x900, 828 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Area 51 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (688x900, 828 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Area 51 ...


Unlike much of the Nellis range, the area surrounding the lake is permanently off-limits both to civilian and normal military air traffic. The area is protected by radar stations, and unauthorized personnel are quickly expelled. Even military pilots training in the NAFR risk disciplinary action if they accidentally stray into the exclusionary "box" surrounding Groom's airspace.[17]

A montage of available USGS satellite photography showing southern Nevada. The NTS and the surrounding lands are visible; the NAFR and neighboring land has been removed
A montage of available USGS satellite photography showing southern Nevada. The NTS and the surrounding lands are visible; the NAFR and neighboring land has been removed

Perimeter security is provided by uniformed private security guards working for EG&G's security subcontractor Wackenhut,[18] who patrol in desert camouflage Jeep Cherokees and HMMWV vehicles, and more recently, champagne-colored Ford F-150 pickups and gray Chevy 2500 4X4 pickups. Although the guards are armed with M16s, no violent encounters with Area 51 observers have been reported; instead, the guards generally follow visitors near the perimeter and radio for the Lincoln County Sheriff. Deadly force is authorized if violators who attempt to breach the secured area fail to heed warnings to halt. Fines of around $600 seem to be the normal course of action, although some visitors and journalists report receiving follow-up visits from FBI agents. Some observers have been detained on public land for pointing camera equipment at the base. Surveillance is supplemented using buried motion sensors[19][20][21] and by HH-60 Pave Hawk helicopters. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x948, 128 KB) A montage image of southern Nevada, showing available USGS/NRO monochrome digital orthographic photography. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x948, 128 KB) A montage image of southern Nevada, showing available USGS/NRO monochrome digital orthographic photography. ... The Wackenhut Corporation is a United States-based private security and investigation firm, and is headquartered in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. ... The Jeep Cherokee is a name for three different SUV models produced from 1974 to the present: 1974–1983 Jeep Cherokee (SJ) full-size SUV 1984–2001 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) compact SUV 1993–present Jeep Grand Cherokee mid-size SUV 2002–present european version of Jeep Liberty mid-size SUV... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ... The F-Series is a series of full-size pickup trucks from Ford Motor Company sold for over 5 decades. ... M16 is the U.S. Military designation for a family of rifles derived from the ArmaLite AR-15. ... Lincoln County is a county located in the state of Nevada. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... United States Air Force HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopter The primary function of the Sikorsky HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopter is to conduct day or night operations into hostile environments to recover downed aircrew or other isolated personnel during war. ...


The base does not appear on public U.S. government maps;[22] the USGS topographic map for the area only shows the long-disused Groom Mine,[23] and the civil aviation chart for Nevada shows a large restricted area,[24] but defines it as part of the Nellis restricted airspace. Similarly the National Atlas page showing federal lands in Nevada[25] does not distinguish between the Groom block and other parts of the Nellis range. Although officially declassified, the original film taken by U.S. Corona spy satellite in the 1960s has been altered prior to declassification; in answer to freedom of information queries, the government responds that these exposures (which map to Groom and the entire NAFR) appear to have been destroyed.[26] Terra satellite images (which were publicly available) were removed from webservers (including Microsoft's "Terraserver") in 2004,[27] and from the monochrome 1 m resolution USGS datadump made publicly available. NASA Landsat 7 images are still available (these are used in the NASA World Wind). Higher resolution (and more recent) images from other satellite imagery providers (including Russian providers and the IKONOS) are commercially available. These show, in considerable detail, the runway marking, base facilities, aircraft, and vehicles. KH-4B Corona satellite Recovery of Discoverer 14 return capsule (typical for the Corona series Diagram of J-1 type stereo / panoramic reciprocating Corona reconnaissance satellite camera system used on KH-4A missions from 1963 to 1969. ... A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... Animation showing atmosphere and shading effects in v1. ... IKONOS is a commercial earth observation satellite, and was the first to collect publicly available high-resolution imagery at 1- and 4-meter resolution. ...


Nevada's state government, recognizing the folklore surrounding the base might afford the otherwise neglected area some tourism potential, officially renamed the section of Nevada State Route 375 near Area 51 "The Extraterrestrial Highway", and posted fancifully illustrated signs along its length.[28] Official Extraterrestrial Highway roadsign. ...


Although federal property within the base is exempt from state and local taxes, facilities owned by private contractors are not. Area 51 researcher Glenn Campbell claimed in 1994 that the base only declares a taxable value of $2 million to the Lincoln County tax assessor, who is unable to enter the area to perform an assessment.[29]


Environmental lawsuit

In 1994, five unnamed civilian contractors and the widows of contractors Walter Kasza and Robert Frost sued the USAF and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Their suit, in which they were represented by George Washington University law professor Jonathan Turley, alleged they had been present when large quantities of unknown chemicals had been burned in open pits and trenches at Groom. Biopsies taken from the complainants were analyzed by Rutgers University biochemists, who found high levels of dioxin, dibenzofuran, and trichloroethylene in their body fat. The complainants alleged they had sustained skin, liver, and respiratory injuries due to their work at Groom, and that this had contributed to the deaths of Frost and Kasza. The suit sought compensation for the injuries they had sustained, claiming the USAF had illegally handled toxic materials, and that the EPA had failed in its duty to enforce the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (which governs handling of dangerous materials). They also sought detailed information about the chemicals to which they were allegedly exposed, hoping this would facilitate the medical treatment of survivors. Congressman Lee H. Hamilton, former chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, told 60 Minutes reporter Leslie Stahl, "The Air Force is classifying all information about Area 51 in order to protect themselves from a lawsuit."[30] “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ... The George Washington University (GW), is a private, coeducational university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The school was founded in 1821 as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia by Baptist ministers using funds bequeathed by George Washington. ... Professor Jonathan Turley teaches at The George Washington University Law School where he holds the Shapiro Chair for Public Interest Law. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Categories: Chemistry stubs ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), enacted in 1976, is a Federal law of the United States contained in 42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992k. ... Lee Hamilton redirects here. ... This article is about the CBS news magazine. ... Lesley R. Stahl (born December 16, 1941, in Swampscott, Massachusetts) is an American television journalist for CBS. She has been on 60 Minutes for thirteen seasons and also anchors 48 Hours Investigates. ...


Citing the State Secrets Privilege, the government petitioned trial judge U.S. District Judge Philip Pro (of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada in Las Vegas) to disallow disclosure of classified documents or examination of secret witnesses, alleging this would expose classified information and threaten national security.[31] When Judge Pro rejected the government's argument, President Bill Clinton issued a Presidential Determination, exempting what it called, "The Air Force's Operating Location Near Groom Lake, Nevada" from environmental disclosure laws. Consequently, Pro dismissed the suit due to lack of evidence. Turley appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, on the grounds that the government was abusing its power to classify material. Secretary of the Air Force Sheila E. Widnall filed a brief which stated that disclosures of the materials present in the air and water near Groom "can reveal military operational capabilities or the nature and scope of classified operations." The Ninth Circuit rejected Turley's appeal,[32] and the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear it, putting an end to the complainants' case. The State Secrets Privilege is an evidentiary rule - i. ... The United States District Court for the District of Nevada is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is comprised of the state of Nevada. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... A Presidential Determination is a document issued by the White House stating a determination resulting in an official policy or position of the executive branch of the United States government. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central District of California Eastern District of California Northern District of California Southern District of California District of Hawaii... The Secretary of the Air Force is the civilian head of the United States Department of the Air Force, a component organization of the Department of Defense. ... Sheila E. Widnall (official portrait) Institute Professor Sheila Evans Widnall is a American aerospace researcher and educator. ...


The President continues to annually issue a determination continuing the Groom exception.[33][34][35] This, and similarly tacit wording used in other government communications, is the only formal recognition the U.S. Government has ever given that Groom Lake is more than simply another part of the Nellis complex. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


An unclassified memo on the safe handling of F117 material was posted on an Air Force website in 2005. This discussed the same materials for which the complainants had requested information (information the government had claimed was classified). The memo was removed shortly after journalists became aware of it.[36]


1974 Skylab photography

In January of 2006, space historian Dwayne A. Day published an article in online aerospace magazine The Space Review titled "Astronauts and Area 51: the Skylab Incident." The article was based around a recently declassified memo written in 1974 to CIA director William Colby by an unknown CIA official. The memo reported that astronauts on board Skylab 4 had, as part of a larger program, inadvertently photographed a location of which the memo said "There were specific instructions not to do this. <redacted> was the only location which had such an instruction." Although the name of the location was obscured, the context led Day to believe that the subject was Groom Lake.[37][38] Dwayne Allen Day is an American space journalist and policy analyst. ... The Space Review is a free online publication, published every week on Monday, with in-depth articles, essays, commentary and reviews on space exploration and development. ... CIA redirects here. ... For the first secretary of the Sierra Club, see William Edward Colby. ... Skylab 4 or SL-4 was the fourth Skylab mission and placed the third crew on board. ...


The memo details debate between federal agencies regarding whether the images should be classified, with Department of Defense agencies arguing that it should, and NASA and the State Department arguing against classification. The memo itself questions the legality of unclassified images to be retroactively classified. The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Department of State redirects here. ...


Remarks on the memo,[39] handwritten apparently by DCI (Director of Central Intelligence) Colby himself, read: The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ...

He did raise it - said State Dept. people felt strongly. But he inclined leave decision to me (DCI) - I confessed some question over need to protect since:
  1. USSR has it from own sats
  2. What really does it reveal?
  3. If exposed, don't we just say classified USAF work is done there?

The declassified documents do not disclose the outcome of discussions regarding the Skylab imagery, but were not placed in the federal government's archive of satellite imagery along with the remaining Skylab 4 photographs. The Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) is a United States Geological Survey data management, systems development, and research field center. ...


UFO and other conspiracy theories concerning Area 51

Its secretive nature and undoubted connection to classified aircraft research, together with reports of unusual phenomena, have led Area 51 to become a focus of modern UFO and conspiracy theories. Some of the unconventional activities claimed to be underway at Area 51 include: Flying machine redirects here. ... UFO redirects here. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...

  • The storage, examination, and reverse engineering of crashed alien spacecraft (including material supposedly recovered at Roswell), the study of their occupants (living and dead), and the manufacture of aircraft based on alien technology.
  • Meetings or joint undertakings with extraterrestrials.
  • The development of exotic energy weapons (for SDI applications or otherwise) or means of weather control.
  • The development of time travel technology.
  • The development of unusual and exotic propulsion systems related to the Aurora Program (see Aurora aircraft).
  • Activities related to a supposed shadowy one world government and or the Majestic Twelve organization.

Many of the hypotheses concern underground facilities at Groom or at nearby Papoose Lake, and include claims of a transcontinental underground railroad system, a disappearing airstrip (nicknamed the "Cheshire Airstrip", after Lewis Carroll's Cheshire cat) which briefly appears when water is sprayed onto its camouflaged asphalt,[40] and engineering based on alien technology. In 1989, Bob Lazar claimed that he had worked at a facility at Papoose Lake (which he called S-4) on such a U.S. Government flying saucer. Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... Green people redirects here. ... Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, announcing the capture of a flying saucer. ... Energy weapons are electromagnetic weapons which can be used during combat to kill or incapacitate, to destroy property, or to otherwise render resources non-functional or unavailable. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Aurora (also credited as the SR-91 Aurora) is the popular name for a hypothesised American reconnaissance aircraft, believed by some to be capable of hypersonic flight at speeds of Mach 5+. According to the hypothesis, the Aurora was developed in the 1980s or 1990s as a replacement for the... The term in its first known usage was not so much used in a political sense as it is commonly known now, but in a religious one. ... The 1947 letter, purported to be signed by Harry Truman, authorizing Operation Majestic Twelve. Majestic 12 (also known as Majic 12, Majestic Trust, M12, MJ 12, MJ XII or Majority 12) is the purported code name of a secret committee of scientists, military leaders, and government officials, supposedly formed in... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... Robert Scott Lazar (January 26, 1959), or Bob Lazar, claims to have worked from 1988 until 1989 as a physicist at an area called S-4 (Sector Four), located near Groom Lake, Nevada, next to Area 51. ... UFO redirects here. ...


Another hypothesis is that Area 51 is a place which simulates the environment of the moon.[citation needed] In 2000-2001, Fox Television broadcast a show about Apollo moon landing hoax accusations, in which it was suggested that the entire moon landing in 1969 was a hoax and was filmed in parts of Area 51.[citation needed] The Fox Broadcasting Company is a television network in the United States. ... Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong in NASAs training mockup of the Moon and lander module. ...


Others, however, claim that during the mid 1990s, the most secret work previously done at Groom was quietly moved to other facilities, including Dugway Proving Ground in Utah, and that the continued secrecy around Groom is largely a successful attempt at misdirection.[41] Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a US Army facility located approximately 85 miles (140 km) southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah in southern Tooele County. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Misdirection is a form of deception in which the attention of an audience is focused on one thing in order to distract its attention from another. ...


The 1996 documentary Dreamland directed by Bruce Burgess included an interview with a 71 year old mechanical engineer who claimed to be a former employee at Area 51 during the 1950s, working on a "flying disc simulator" built to train US Pilots, based on a disc originating from a crashed extraterrestrial craft. During his career at Area 51 he claimed to have worked with an extraterrestrial being whose name was "J-Rod", described as a telepathic translator.[42]


Dan Burisch (real name, Dan Crain) claims to have worked on cloning alien viruses at Area 51, also with the alien "J-Rod". [43][44]


In July 1996, a man named "Victor" announced on Art Bell's Coast to Coast AM radio show that he had a videotape of an alien interrogation which had taken place in Area 51. He claimed that he had made a copy of the tape during a scheduled transfer of analogue videotape files on the base into digital form, and had then smuggled the copy out of Area 51. The video appears to show the head of an alien creature in a dark interrogation room, allegedly using telepathy to communicate with military personnel and scientists.[45][46] The footage was eventually included in a video documentary entitled Area 51: The Alien Interview. Arthur Art W. Bell, III (born June 17, 1945) is an American broadcaster and author, known primarily as the founder and longtime host of the paranormal-themed radio program Coast to Coast AM. He also created and formerly hosted its companion show, Dreamland. ... Coast to Coast AM is a late-night syndicated radio talk show in the United States which deals with a variety of topics, but most frequently ones that relate either to the paranormal, or to alleged conspiracies. ...


Area 51 in popular culture

The numerous conspiracy theories surrounding Area 51 have granted it a fairly high profile in popular culture, specifically in the area of science fiction. There have been literally dozens of movies or television shows which deal with fictionalized events or happenings at the site. Perhaps the most well-known example is the 1996 action film Independence Day, in which the complex is shown to have been studying the crashed scout ship from the Roswell UFO incident of 1947. The heroes of the film later make their final attack from the airstrips at the base, and in a nod to established fact, Randy Quaid's character Russell Casse at one point refers to the base not being shown on a state map of Nevada. Independence Day (also known by its promotional abbreviation ID4) is a 1996 Academy Award-winning science fiction film directed by Roland Emmerich. ... Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, announcing the capture of a flying saucer. ... Randall Rudy Randy Quaid (born October 1, 1950) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor and comedian. ...


The 1998-2001 television series Seven Days took place largely inside the Area 51 complex itself, with the base depicted as being run by a covert National Security Agency operation which used time-travel made possible by alien technology recovered from the 1947 Roswell UFO incident. For other uses of NSA, see NSA (disambiguation). ... Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, announcing the capture of a flying saucer. ...


Also, in the game RollerCoaster Tycoon 3, one of the parks is called 'Broom Lake' and is run by a group of CIA operatives, and in the MMORPG World of Warcraft, a town in the zone Netherstorm is called 'Area 52'. RollerCoaster Tycoon 3 is a simulation and strategy computer game that simulates amusement park management. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment and is the fourth game in the Warcraft series, excluding expansion packs and the cancelled Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the Clans. ...


See also

Woomera Prohibited Area is a weapons testing range located in central South Australia. ... Kapustin Yar (Russian Капустин Яр; today Знаменск/Znamensk) is a Russian rocket launch and development site in the Astrakhan Oblast, between Volgograd and Astrakhan. ...

References

General references

Benjamin Robert Rich (June 18, 1925 – January 5, 1995) was the second director of Lockheeds Skunk Works from 1975 to 1991, succeeding its founder, Kelly Johnson. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... Lesley R. Stahl (born December 16, 1941, in Swampscott, Massachusetts) is an American television journalist for CBS. She has been on 60 Minutes for thirteen seasons and also anchors 48 Hours Investigates. ... This article is about the CBS news magazine. ... CBS (formerly an acronym for Columbia Broadcasting System, the former legal name of the network) is one of the largest television networks, and formerly one of the largest radio networks, in the United States. ... The Las Vegas Review-Journal, also known as The R-J, is published in Las Vegas, Nevada. ...

Specific references

  1. ^ DREAMLAND: Fifty Years of Secret Flight Testing in Nevada By Peter W. Merlin
  2. ^ Rich, ibid, p57, Rich describes Groom in 1977 as being "...a sprawling facility, bigger than some municipal airports, a test range for sensitive aviation projects"
  3. ^ Area 51 researcher Glenn Campbell claims that AFFTC Detachment 3 is located at Groom, citing the title of a leaked security manual, the mailbox in Henderson, Nevada he believes formerly served Groom, and the NASA biography of astronaut Carl E. Walz who was formerly a manager at AFFTC-DET3 !: "Area 51 is Edwards DET 3", Glenn Campbell, Groom Lake Desert Rat, 6/17/96 ; "Biography of Carl E. Walz (Colonel, USAF, Ret.), NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center
  4. ^ "Black Projects at Groom Lake: Into the 21st Century", Peter W. Merlin
  5. ^ Rich, ibid, p56 Rich writes "Kelly [Johnson, the U2's designer] had jokingly nicknamed this Godforsaken place Paradise Ranch, hoping to lure young and innocent flight crews"
  6. ^ Patton, ibid, p3, lists Paradise Ranch, Watertown, Groom Lake, and Home Base as nicknames
  7. ^ Daily Aviator - Homey Airport, article retrieved Januari 14, 2008.
  8. ^ FAA aviation chart for the Groom area
  9. ^ Moldovan Minister of defense jailed for sale of MiG-29 to USA
  10. ^ Don’t ask, don’t tell: Area 51 gets airport identifier
  11. ^ Rich, ibid, pp141..144, details U2 test pilot Tony LeVier scouting the remote area near Death Valley for locations, saying of Groom "I gave it a ten plus [score]... a dry lake bed around three and a half miles around", and describes LeVier showing the lake to U2 designer Kelly Johnson and CIA official Richard Bissell, and Johnson deciding to locate the runway "at south end of lake"
  12. ^ Rich, ibid, pp56-60
  13. ^ Two-Stage-to-Orbit 'Blackstar' System Shelved at Groom Lake? William B. Scott, Aviation Week March 5 2006
  14. ^ Don’t ask, don’t tell: Area 51 gets airport identifier
  15. ^ Measurements, runway state and alignment information based upon Google Earth / Digital Globe images as retrieved on 21 December, 2007.
  16. ^ Jeppesen-Sanderson, Inc. (August 2007). [[1] Jeppesen Flightstar Airport Database] (English). Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  17. ^ Hall, George. Skinner, Michael. Red Flag, Motorbooks International, 1993, ISBN 0879387599, p.49: "It is an understatement to say that overflying Dreamland is forbidden..."
  18. ^ Patton, p10
  19. ^ "Area 51 hackers dig up trouble" Kevin Poulsen, Security Focus 25 May 2004
  20. ^ "Road sensors", Dreamland Resort
  21. ^ "New Area 51 road sensors", Dreamland Resort
  22. ^ USGS 1:24K/25K Topo map for location UTM 11 605181E 4124095N (NAD27) (map via Topozone.com)
  23. ^ USGS 1:24K/25K Topo map for geopoint GROOM MINE,NV (map via Topozone.com)
  24. ^ "Airports and Landing strips, 2002", Nevada Department of Transportation, cf section R-4808N
  25. ^ "Federal lands and Indian reservations", The National atlas of the United States of America, United States Department of the Interior, document ID: pagefed_nv7.pdf INTERIOR-GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, RESTON, VIRGINIA-2003
  26. ^ Corona image
  27. ^ Terraserver image
  28. ^ Stephen Regenold (April 13, 2007). "Lonesome Highway to Another World?" (English). New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  29. ^ Glenn Campbell (March 1994). Secret Base Cheats Local Tax Rolls (English). The Groom Lake Desert Rat. Retrieved on 8, 2007. Retrieved on July, 2007. “In the 93-94 tax year, the Air Force paid taxes of $65,517 on a property assessment (for "Buildings and Improvements" plus "Other Personal Property") of $2,517,781.”
  30. ^ "Area 51 / Catch 22" segment, 60 Minutes broadcast March 17 1996.
  31. ^ Federal judges to hear case involving Area 51 Keith Rogers, Las Vegas Review-Journal, 4 June 2002
  32. ^ US 9th Circuit ruling on Kasza V Browner and related case Frost V Perry, Lake, Widnall
  33. ^ 2000 Presidential Determination
  34. ^ 2002 Presidential Determination
  35. ^ 2003 Presidential Determination
  36. ^ "Warnings for emergency responders kept from Area 51 workers", Keith Rogers, Las Vegas Review-Journal, 21 May 2006
  37. ^ Dwayne A. Day (January 9, 2006). Astronauts and Area 51: the Skylab Incident. The Space Review.
  38. ^ Presidential Determination No. 2003-39
  39. ^ CIA memo to DCI Colby. hosted by The Space Review.
  40. ^ "The Cheshire Airstrip", Tom Mahood, October 1996, retrieved April 2 2006
  41. ^ "Dugway Proving Ground - the new Groom Lake?" Above Top Secret June 23 2004, retrieved April 2 2006
  42. ^ Dreamland, Transmedia and Dandelion Production for Sky Television (1996).
  43. ^ Psychic Vibrations (July/August 2004).
  44. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-124136336.html Skeptical Inquirer, 11 January 2004.
  45. ^ Transcript of Art Bell's Coast to Coast AM interview with Victor
  46. ^ Victor's Alien Interrogation Video

A view of Black Mountain above Henderson, Nevada. ... Carl E. Walz (COLONEL, USAF) is a NASA astronaut. ... An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... Anthony W. Tony LeVier (February 14, 1913 - February 6, 1998) was an air racer and test pilot for the Lockheed Corporation from the 1940s to the 1970s. ... Kelly Johnson is the popular name for Clarence Johnson, an aircraft engineer. ... Richard Mervin Bissell, Jr. ... Categories: Stub | Science & technology magazines ... This article is about the day. ... Jeppesen (also known as Jeppesen Sanderson) is an American company that specialises in aeronautical charting and navigation services, flight planning, pilot supplies and aviation training. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kevin Lee Poulsen (far right), pictured circa 2001 with Kevin Mitnick and Adrian Lamo Kevin Lee Poulsen (born 1965 in Pasadena, California, U.S.) is a former black hat hacker. ... The Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) is a governmental agency in the U.S. state of Nevada. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally owned land. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Las Vegas Review-Journal, also known as The R-J, is published in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... Dwayne Allen Day is an American space journalist and policy analyst. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Space Review is a free online publication, published every week on Monday, with in-depth articles, essays, commentary and reviews on space exploration and development. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

General
Maps and photographs
HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Artistic representation of UFOs Ufology is the study of unidentified flying object (UFO) reports, sightings, alleged physical evidence, and other related phenomena. ... Contactee is a noun used to describe an individual who professes to have been in regular contact with extraterrestrial beings, either through physical meetings or through telepathy. ... This is a list of alleged UFO crashes studied within the field of Exopolitics and Ufology. ... For the song by Muse, see Black Holes and Revelations. ... This is a list of alleged UFO-related extraterrestrials within the field of Exopolitics and Ufology. ... Wikinews has a related section: UFO This is a list of UFO sightings including cases of alleged alien sightings and abductions. ... This is a list of topics studied in the field of Exopolitics and Ufology. ... This is a list of alleged UFO-related vehicles in the field of Exopolitics and Ufology. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 403 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (608 × 905 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alternative biochemistry Hollow... This is a list of government responses to UFO-related phenomenon. ... This is a list of UFO organizations located around the world. ... This is a list of UFO researchers from around the world. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Area 51 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4127 words)
Area 51 is a section of land of approximately 60 square miles (155 km²) in Lincoln County, Nevada, USA.
Area 51 is the name given to a variety of unrelated products and companies, including a range of computers built by Alienware, the development area for the phpBB forum software, one of the areas of the Geocities web hosting service, an Aprilia motor scooter, and numerous science-fiction bookstores and bulletin boards.
Area 51 is first visited in the episode Endgame because The Trust appears to have got their hands on some of the technology, and again in subsequent episodes is seen or mentioned.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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