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Encyclopedia > Arctic Ocean
Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)

The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the world's five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest.[1] The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers may call it the Arctic Mediterranean Sea or simply the Arctic Sea, classifying it as one of the mediterranean seas of the Atlantic Ocean[2]. Alternatively, the Arctic Ocean can be seen as the northernmost lobe of the all-encompassing World Ocean. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region For the ship, see SS Arctic. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... A mediterranean sea, in oceanography, is a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ...


Almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America, the Arctic Ocean is largely covered by sea ice throughout the year. The Arctic Ocean's temperature and salinity vary seasonally as the ice cover melts and freezes[3]; its salinity is the lowest on average of the five major seas, due to low evaporation, heavy freshwater inflow from rivers and streams, and limited connection and outflow to surrounding oceanic waters with higher salinities. The summer shrinking of the icepack has been quoted at 50%.[1] For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Vaporization redirects here. ...

Contents

Geography

Bathymetric/topographic map of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounds
Bathymetric/topographic map of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounds

The Arctic Ocean occupies a roughly circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km² (5,440,000 sq mi), slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the United States.[4] The coastline length is 45,389 kilometers (28,203 mi).[4] Nearly landlocked, it is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, Greenland, and several islands. It includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea[1] and Labrador Sea. Its geographic coordinates are: 90°00′N, 0°00′E Image File history File links Size of this preview: 526 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (762 × 868 pixel, file size: 710 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 526 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (762 × 868 pixel, file size: 710 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: http://www. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Baffin Bay, lying between Nunavut, Canada and Greenland. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ... Chukchi Sea (Russian: Чуко́тское мо́ре) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, between Chukotka and Alaska. ... East Siberian Sea (Russian: ) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... The Greenland Sea exists next to the Norwegian Sea. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Hudson Strait is a strait connecting Hudson Bay to the Atlantic Ocean, running in an west-east direction. ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... Labrador Sea (French: mer du Labrador) (60°00N, 55°00W) is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between Labrador and Greenland. ...


According to the International Hydrographic Organization,[5] the limits of the Arctic Ocean proper are (see the map):

  • A great circle line running from Cape Morris Jesup, the northernmost point of Greenland (83°38′N, 32°40′W) to the northernmost point of Spitsbergen (south of which line lies the Greenland Sea).
  • Parallel 80° North to North East Land (Nordaustlandet).
  • The north shore of Nordaustlandet to its easternmost point, Cape Leigh Smith (80°05′N, 28°00′E).
  • A line running from Cape Leigh Smith to Cape Kohlsaat, the easternmost point of Franz Josef Land (81°14′N, 65°10′E, south of which line lies the Barents Sea).
  • A line running from Cape Kohlsaat to Cape Molotov (Arctic Cape), the northernmost point of Komsomolets Island (81°13′N, 95°15′E, south of which line lies the Kara Sea).
  • A line running from Arctic Cape to the northernmost point of Kotelni Island (76°10′N, 138°50′E, south of which line lies the Laptev Sea).
  • A line running from the northernmost point of Kotelni Island to the northernmost point of Wrangel Island (71°40′N, 179°30′W, south of which line lies the East Siberian Sea).
  • A line running from the northernmost point of Wrangel Island to Point Barrow, the northernmost point of Alaska (71°23′N, 156°29′W, south of which line lies the Chuckchi Sea).
  • A line running from Point Barrow to Cape Land's End on Prince Patrick Island, Northwest Territories (76°27′N, 121°59′W, south of which line lies the Beaufort Sea).
  • The northwest coast of Prince Patrick Island north to Cape Leopold M'Clintock, its northernmost point (77°33′N, 116°23′W).
  • A line running from Cape Leopold M'Clintock to Cape Murray on Brock Island (77°57′N, 115°04′W).
  • The northwest coast of Brock Island north , to its northernmost point (78°05′N, 114°20′W).
  • A line running from the northernmost point of Brook Island to Cape Mackay on Borden Island, its westernmost point (78°20′N, 113°18′W).
  • The northwest coast of Borden Island north to Cape Malloch (78°46′N, 110°24′W, the northernmost point of the Northwest Territories).
  • A line running from Cape Malloch to Cape Isachsen on Ellef Ringnes Island, Nunavut, its northwesternmost point (79°20′N, 105°24′W).
  • A line running from Cape Isachsen to the northwesternmost point of Meighen Island (80°05′N, 100°10′W).
  • A line running from the northwesternmost point of Meighen Island to Cape Stallworthy on Axel Heiberg Island, its northernmost point (81°23′N, 93°33′W).
  • A line running from Cape Stallworthy to Cape Colgate on Ellesmere Island, its westernmost point (81°37′N, 91°55′W).
  • The north coast of Ellesmere Island north to Cape Columbia, its northernmost point (83°05′N, 70°21′W).
  • A line running from Cape Columbia to Cape Morris Jesup (south of which line lies the Lincoln Sea).
Arctic Region
Arctic Region

An underwater ridge, the Lomonosov Ridge, divides the deep sea North Polar Basin into two basins: the Eurasian Basin, which is between 4,000 and 4,500 meters (13,000 and 15,000 ft) deep, and the Amerasian Basin (sometimes called North American, or Hyperborean), which is about 4,000 meters (13,000 ft) deep. The bathymetry of the ocean bottom is marked by fault-block ridges, plains of the abyssal zone, ocean deeps, and basins. The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1,038 meters (3,407 ft).[6] The deepest point is in the Eurasian Basin, at 5,450 meters (17,881 ft). Map of Cape Morris Jesup and the Lincoln Sea. ... Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen) is a Norwegian island, the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, situated in the Arctic Ocean. ... The Greenland Sea exists next to the Norwegian Sea. ... Nordaustlandet (sometimes translated as North East Land) is the second largest island of Svalbard, with an area of 14,600 km². As its name suggests, it lies north east of Spitzbergen. ... Nordaustlandet (sometimes translated as North East Land) is the second largest island of Svalbard, with an area of 14,600 km². As its name suggests, it lies north east of Spitzbergen. ... Location of Franz Josef Land (Map is annotated in German). ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Artic Cape, Komsomolets Island, Russia. ... The Arctic Cape is the northernmost point of Komsomolets Island, which in turn is the northernmost island of the Russian Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. ... Komsomolets Island (Russian: остров Комсомолец) is the northernmost island of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic, and the third largest island in the group. ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... Kotelny Island (Russian: Остров Котельный) and Faddeyevsky Island (О. Фаддеевский) formed as separate islands in the New Siberian Islands group of the eastern Russian Arctic. ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... This article is about the Russian island. ... East Siberian Sea (Russian: ) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... Point Barrow or Nuvuk, is a headland at the northernmost point of Alaska and of the United States, on the Arctic Ocean, Panoramic view of the tip of point Barrow, Alaska. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Chukchi Sea (Russian: ) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, between Chukotka and Alaska. ... Prince Patrick Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ... Brock Island, Northwest Territories. ... Borden Island, NWT/Nunavut. ... Ellef Ringnes Island, Nunavut . Ellef Ringnes Island is one of the Sverdrup Islands in Nunavut, Canada. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... Meighen Island, Nunavut Meighen Island is an uninhabited Canadian arctic island in Nunavut, Canada. ... Axel Heiberg Island within Nunavut Closeup of Axel Heiberg Island Satellite photo montage of Axel Heilberg Island Axel Heiberg Island is the 31st largest island in the world and Canadas 7th largest island. ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Cape Columbia is the northernmost point of land of Canada, located on Ellesmere Island at 83°05N, 70°21W. It marks the westernmost coastal point of Lincoln Sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... Lincoln Sea, is a body of water in the Arctic Ocean. ... Image File history File links Arctic. ... Image File history File links Arctic. ... Lomonosov Ridge (Хребет Ломоносова in Russian) is an underwater oceanic ridge in the Arctic Ocean. ... The North Polar Basin is an oceanic basin in the Arctic Ocean, consisting of two main parts, the Central Polar Basin and the Norwegian Basin, divided by a mid-ocean ridge lying between north Greenland and the Svalbard archipelago. ... Bathymetric/topographic map of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounds The Eurasian Basin, is one of the two major basins into which the North Polar Basin of the Arctic Ocean is split by the Lomonosov Ridge (the other one being the Amerasian Basin). ... Bathymetric/topographic map of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounds The Amersian Basin, is one of the two major basins into which the North Polar Basin of the Arctic Ocean is split by the Lomonosov Ridge (the other one being the Eurasian Basin). ... Bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to topography. ... Abyssal plains are flat or very gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin floor. ...


The two major basins are further subdivided by ridges into the Canada Basin (between Alaska/Canada and the Alpha Ridge), Makarov Basin (between the Alpha and Lomonosov Ridges), Fram Basin (between Lomonosov and Nansen-Gakkel ridges), and Nansen Basin (Amundsen Basin) (between the Nansen-Gakkel Ridge and the continental shelf that includes the Franz Joseph Land). For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For a ridge in Alaska, see Alpha Ridge, Alaska The Alpha Ridge is the principal tectonic feature under the Arctic Ocean between the Canada Basin (off the Ellesmere Island) and the Lomonosov Ridge. ... The Gakkel Ridge is a mid-oceanic ridge located in the Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Siberia with a length of about 1800 kilometers. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Franz Josef Land (russ. ...


The Arctic Ocean contains a major chokepoint in the southern Chukchi Sea,[7] which provides northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait between North America and Russia. The Arctic Ocean also provides the shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia. There are several floating research stations in the Arctic, operated by the U.S. and Russia. Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05...


The greatest inflow of water comes from the Atlantic by way of the Norwegian Current, which then flows along the Eurasian coast. Water also enters from the Pacific via the Bering Strait. The East Greenland Current carries the major outflow. The Norwegian Current is warm water current that north-easterly along the Atlantic coast of Norway. ... The East Greenland Current originates in the Arctic Ocean and brings cold, low salinity, Southbound water along the East Coast of Greenland. ...


Ice covers most of the ocean surface year-round, causing subfreezing temperatures much of the time. The Arctic is a major source of very cold air that inevitably moves toward the equator, meeting with warmer air in the middle latitudes and causing rain and snow. Marine life abounds in open areas, especially the more southerly waters. The ocean's major ports are the Russian cities of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, Churchill, Manitoba (Canada) and Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (US).[7] World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... This article is about precipitation. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Orthographic projection centred over Churchill Manitoba. ... Prudhoe Bay (IPA: ) is a census-designated place (CDP) located in North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. ...


The Arctic Ocean is encompassed by the Arctic shelves, of which the largest (actually, the largest on the Earth) is the Siberian Shelf. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The Siberian Shelf, one of the Arctic shelves, is the largest continental shelf of the Earth, a part of the continental shelf of Russia. ...


History

Painting (1886) of Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld during his exploration of Arctic regions. Georg von Rosen (1843 - 1923)
Painting (1886) of Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld during his exploration of Arctic regions. Georg von Rosen (1843 - 1923)
Further information: Open Polar Sea
Further information: Northwest Passage

For much of Western history, the geography of the North Polar regions remained largely unexplored and conjectural. Pytheas of Massalia recorded an account of a journey northward in 325 B.C. to a land he called "Eschate Thule," where the sun only set for three hours each day and the water was replaced by a congealed substance "on which one can neither walk nor sail." He was probably describing loose sea ice known today as "growlers" and "bergy bits." His "Thule" may have been Iceland, though Norway is more often suggested.[8] Image File history File links Adolf_Erik_Nordenskiöld_målad_av_Georg_von_Rosen_1886. ... Image File history File links Adolf_Erik_Nordenskiöld_målad_av_Georg_von_Rosen_1886. ... Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld by Axel Jungstedt 1902 Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld with the Vega by Georg von Rosen Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld Baron (Nils) Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld [IPA: [nuːrdenʃɶld]], also known as A. E. Nordenskioeld (November 18, 1832, Helsinki... Open Polar Sea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... Pytheas (Πυθέας), ca. ...


Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the Pole as land (as in Johannes Ruysch's map of 1507, or Gerardus Mercator's map of 1595) or water (as with Martin Waldseemüller's world map of 1507). The fervent desire of Europeans for a northern passage to "Cathay" (China) caused water to win out, and by 1723 mapmakers such as Johann Homann featured an extensive "Oceanus Septentrionalis" at the northern edge of their charts. The few expeditions to penetrate much beyond the Arctic Circle in this era added only small islands, such as Nova Zemlya (11th century) and Spitsbergen (1596), though since these were often surrounded by pack-ice their northern limits were not so clear. The makers of navigational charts, more conservative than some of the more fanciful cartographers, tended to leave the region blank, with only the bits of known coastline sketched in. Johannes Ruysch (c. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... Martin Waldseemüller (19th century painting). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 447 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1144 pixel, file size: 820 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image:Martin waldseemuller map 1507 m 2. ... Johann Baptist Homann (1664 - 1724) of Nuremberg, Germany was a geographer and cartographer, who was instrumental in making maps of the Americas to show to Europeans, and in turn bringing Europeans to see America. ... Novaya Zemlyas position on the map The archipelago of Novaya Zemlya (Russian: Но́вая Земля́, New Land; formerly known as Nova Zembla) consists of two major islands in the Arctic Ocean in the north of Russia, separated by the narrow Matochkin Strait, and a number of smaller ones. ... Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen) is a Norwegian island, the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, situated in the Arctic Ocean. ...

Arctic expedition of George Hubert Wilkins (1888-1958), 1926 (Detroit Arctic Expedition)
Arctic expedition of George Hubert Wilkins (1888-1958), 1926 (Detroit Arctic Expedition)

This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In England and other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was long-lived and persistent. John Barrow, longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, made this belief the cornerstone of his campaign of Arctic exploration from 1818 to 1845. In the United States in the 1850s and '60s, the explorers Elisha Kent Kane and Isaac Israel Hayes both claimed to have seen the outskirts of this elusive body of water. Even quite late in the century, the eminent authority Matthew Fontaine Maury included a description of the Open Polar Sea in his textbook The Physical Geography of the Sea (1883). Nevertheless, as all the explorers who trekked closer and closer to the pole reported, the Polar Ice Cap was ultimately quite thick, and persists year-round. Image File history File links Wilkins_arctic_expedition_1926. ... Image File history File links Wilkins_arctic_expedition_1926. ... Sir George Hubert Wilkins (1888-1958) circa 1948 For the seventeenth century English dramatist and pamphleteer George Hubert Wilkins, see George Wilkins. ... This article is about the English statesman Sir John Barrow. ... Polar exploration Polar Explorers Roald Amundsen Robert Falcon Scott Robert Peary Fridtjof Nansen Category: ... Elisha Kent Kane Elisha Kent Kane (February 3, 1820 - February 16, 1857) was a U.S. scientist and explorer. ... Isaac Israel Hayes (1832-1881) was an Arctic explorer and physician. ... Matthew Fontaine Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), USN - American astronomer, astrophysicist, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, educator. ...


Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a naval crossing of the Arctic Ocean in 1896. The first surface crossing of the Arctic Ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska to Svalbard with air support.[citation needed] Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ... Sir Wally Herbert is a British polar explorer, writer and artist. ... Dog sled A dog sled (or dogsled) is a sled pulled by one or more dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Since 1937 Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean. Scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometers by ice floes.[9] Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are important contributors to exploration of the Arctic. ... Drift ice consists of slabs of ice that float on the surface of the water in cold regions. ...


Climate

The images compare late summer and late winter ice cover, averaged between the years 1978 and 2002.[10]
Extent of Arctic ice-pack, Feb, (1978-2002)
Extent of Arctic ice-pack, Feb, (1978-2002)
Extent of Arctic ice-pack, Sept, (1978-2002)
Extent of Arctic ice-pack, Sept, (1978-2002)

The ocean is contained in a polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges. Winters are characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers are characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow. Download high resolution version (976x974, 97 KB)Arctic ice-pack in February Licensed for use in accordance with the GFDL. This map was initially created using this tool, then adapted, by hand, to recreate the boundaries from the images on this site. ... Download high resolution version (976x974, 97 KB)Arctic ice-pack in February Licensed for use in accordance with the GFDL. This map was initially created using this tool, then adapted, by hand, to recreate the boundaries from the images on this site. ... Extent of the Arctic ice-pack in September 1978-2002 Licensed for use in accordance with the GFDL. This map was initially created using this tool, then adapted, by hand, to recreate the boundaries from the images on this site. ... Extent of the Arctic ice-pack in September 1978-2002 Licensed for use in accordance with the GFDL. This map was initially created using this tool, then adapted, by hand, to recreate the boundaries from the images on this site. ... Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ...


The temperature of the surface of the Arctic Ocean is fairly constant, near the freezing point of seawater, slightly below zero degrees Celsius. In the winter the relatively warm ocean water exerts a moderating influence, even when covered by ice. This is one reason why the Arctic does not experience the extremes of temperature seen on the Antarctic continent. For other uses, see Antarctica (disambiguation). ...


There is considerable seasonal variation in how much pack ice of the Arctic ice pack covers the Arctic Ocean. Much of the ocean is also covered in snow for about 10 months of the year. The maximum snow cover is in March or April — about 20 to 50 centimeters (8 to 20 in) over the frozen ocean. An icebreaker navigates some through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... NOAA Projected arctic changes Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earths polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the...


Natural resources

See also Territorial claims in the Arctic Arctic topography Under international law, no country currently owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. ...


Petroleum and gas fields, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates, fish, seals and whales can all be found in abundance in the region.[7] Petro redirects here. ... In geology, a placer deposit is a deposit of earth, sand, or gravel, containing valuable minerals in particles, especially by the side of a river, or in the bed of a mountain stream. ... Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... subfamilies Otariidae Phocidae Odobenidae Pinnipeds are large marine mammals belonging to the Pinnipedia, a family (sometimes a suborder or superfamily, depending on the classification scheme) of the order Carnivora. ... This article is about the animal. ...


The political dead zone near the center of the sea is also at the center of a mounting dispute between the United States, Russia, Canada, Norway, and Denmark.[11] It is considered significant because of its potential to contain as much as or more than a quarter of the world's undiscovered oil and gas resources, the tapping of which could greatly alter the flow of the global energy market.[12]


Natural hazards

Ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island, and icebergs are formed from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada. Permafrost is found on most islands. The ocean is virtually ice locked from October to June, and ships are subject to superstructure icing from October to May.[7] Before the advent of modern icebreakers, ships sailing the Arctic Ocean risked being trapped or crushed by sea ice. Interestingly, two "ghost ships", the Baychimo and the Octavius, drifted through the Arctic Ocean untended for decades despite these hazards. Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... While these two men dig in Alaska to study soil, the hard permafrost requires the use of a jackhammer In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years. ... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... A ghost ship, in fiction, is a ship crewed by the not-living. ... The Baychimo was a steel 1,322 ton cargo steamer built in 1914 in Sweden and owned by the Hudsons Bay Company, used to trade pelts for provisions in Inuit settlements along the Victoria Island coast of the North West Territory of Canada. ... The Octavius was a ghost ship found near Greenland by the whaler Herald in 1775. ...


Animal and plant life

Endangered marine species include walruses and whales.[7] The area has a fragile ecosystem which is slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage.[7] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1575, 896 KB) Three Polar bears approach the starboard bow of the Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine USS Honolulu (SSN 718) while surfaced 280 miles from the North Pole. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1575, 896 KB) Three Polar bears approach the starboard bow of the Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine USS Honolulu (SSN 718) while surfaced 280 miles from the North Pole. ... The name Polar Bear is also a tradename for a type of scuba divers warm undersuit to be worn under a drysuit. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ...


The Arctic Ocean has relatively little plant life except for phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are a crucial part of the ocean and there are massive amounts of them in the Arctic. Nutrients from rivers and the currents of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans provide food for the Arctic phytoplankton.[13] During summer, the sun is out day and night, thus enabling the phytoplankton to photosynthesize for long periods of time and reproduce quickly. However, the reverse is true in winter where they struggle to get enough light to survive.[13] Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


Environmental concerns

Record minimum extent of Arctic sea ice, September 2005
Record minimum extent of Arctic sea ice, September 2005
Decline of summer Arctic ice from 1979-2000 to 2002-05.
Decline of summer Arctic ice from 1979-2000 to 2002-05.[14]
Main article: Arctic shrinkage

The polar ice pack is thinning, and there is a seasonal hole in ozone layer in many years. [15] Reduction of the area of Arctic sea ice will have an effect on the planet's albedo, thus possibly affecting global warming within a positive feedback mechanism.[16] Many scientists are presently concerned that warming temperatures in the Arctic may cause large amounts of fresh meltwater to enter the North Atlantic, possibly disrupting global ocean current patterns. Potentially severe changes in the Earth's climate might then ensue.[16] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2349 KB) NASA Arctic sea ice imagery, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2349 KB) NASA Arctic sea ice imagery, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1160x710, 65 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sea ice ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1160x710, 65 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sea ice ... Arctic shrinkage refers to the marked decrease in arctic ice levels in recent years. ... NOAA Projected arctic changes Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earths polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... A simplified summary of the path of the Thermohaline Circulation. ...


Other environmental concerns relate to the radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean from, for example, Russian radioactive waste dumpsites in the Kara Sea[17] and Cold War nuclear test sites such as Novaya Zemlya.[18] The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ...


Major ports and harbors

Arctic Ocean ports
Arctic Ocean ports

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (488x787, 24 KB)Arctic Ocean Seaports, Churchill, Inuvik, Prudhoe Bay, Barrow, Pevek, Tiksi, Dikson, Dudinka, Arkhangelsk, Murmansk File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (488x787, 24 KB)Arctic Ocean Seaports, Churchill, Inuvik, Prudhoe Bay, Barrow, Pevek, Tiksi, Dikson, Dudinka, Arkhangelsk, Murmansk File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Orthographic projection centred over Churchill Manitoba. ... Inuvik is a small town in the Northwest Territories of Canada. ... Prudhoe Bay (IPA: ) is a census-designated place (CDP) located in North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. ... Barrow is a city in North Slope Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. ... Pevek and other Arctic Ocean Seaports Pevek is a city in north-east Russia situated by the coast of the Arctic Ocean. ... Tiksi Tiksi, on the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Tiksi is a port town located on Russias Arctic Ocean coast. ... The Yenisei watershed, Lake Baikal, and the settlements of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Dikson (Russian: ) is a closed urban-type settlement in Krasnoyarsk Krai. ... Dudinka and Dikson on the Yenisei River estuary The Yenisei watershed, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Dudinka (Russian: ) is a town and the administrative center of Taymyria Autonomous District in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ; Finnish: (archaic); Northern Sami: ; Skolt Sami: ) is a city in the extreme northwest part of Russia with a seaport on the Kola Bay, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russias borders with Norway and... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Kirkenes, Norway and Petsamo, Russia Orthographic projection over Kirkenes Norway Kirkenes is the centre of the municipality of Sør-Varanger in Finnmark county, Norway. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2002 Administrative centre Vardø Mayor (2003) Rolf Einar Mortensen (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 183 600 km² 586 km² 0. ... Longyearbyen Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on Svalbard, Norway and its capital. ... Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen) is a Norwegian island, the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, situated in the Arctic Ocean. ...

See also

The Arctic Bridge is a sea route linking Russia to Canada. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Arctic char or Arctic charr () is both a freshwater and saltwater fish in the Salmonidae family, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic and alpine lakes and coastal waters. ... Binomial name Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, 1763[2] Breeding grounds (red), wintering grounds (blue) and migration routes (green) The Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. ... This is a list of the extreme points of the Arctic, the points of Arctic lands that are farther to the north than any other location classified by continent and country, Geographical position and distance to the North Pole. ... The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) is a non-governmental organization which is composed of international science groups participating in arctic science research. ... Nordicity is the degree of northerness. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Schematic of the worlds ocean currents. ... USS O-12 (SS-73) was an O-class submarine of the United States Navy. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ... Vilhjalmur Stefansson (Icelandic: Vilhjálmur Stefánsson / Vilhjálms Stefánssonar) (November 3, 1879 – August 26, 1962) was a Canadian Arctic explorer and ethnologist. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Michael Pidwirny (2006). Introduction to the Oceans. www.physicalgeography.net. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  2. ^ Tomczak, Matthias & Godfrey, J. Stuart (2003), Regional Oceanography: an Introduction (2 ed.), Delhi: Daya Publishing House, ISBN 81-7035-306-8, <http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~mattom/regoc/>
  3. ^ Some Thoughts on the Freezing and Melting of Sea Ice and Their Effects on the Ocean K. Aagaard and R. A. Woodgate, Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington, January 2001. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  4. ^ a b Wright, John W. (ed.); Editors and reporters of The New York Times (2006). The New York Times Almanac, 2007, New York, New York: Penguin Books, 455. ISBN 0-14-303820-6. 
  5. ^ Limits of Oceans and Seas. International Hydrographic Organization Special Publication No. 23, 3rd Edition, 1953 (the fourth edition has yet to be ratified)
  6. ^ The Mariana Trench - Oceanography. www.marianatrench.com (2003-04-04). Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Arctic Ocean CIA World Factbook. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  8. ^ Pytheas Andre Engels. Retrieved 16 December 2006.
  9. ^ North Pole drifting stations (1930s-1980s)
  10. ^ What sensors on satellites are telling us about sea ice 2007-01-31, The National Snow and Ice Data Center. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
  11. ^ The Arctic's New Gold Rush - BBC
  12. ^ The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons, by Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff and Timothy Fenton Krysiek, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007
  13. ^ a b Physical Nutrients and Primary Productivity Professor Terry Whiteledge. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  14. ^ Continued Sea Ice Decline in 2005 Robert Simmon, Earth Observatory, and Walt Meier, NSIDC. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  15. ^ Clean Air Online - Linking Today into Tomorrow
  16. ^ a b Earth - melting in the heat? Richard Black, 7 October 2005. BBC News. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  17. ^ 400 million cubic meters of radioactive waste threaten the Arctic area Thomas Nilsen, Bellona, 24 August 2001. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  18. ^ Plutonium in the Russian Arctic, or How We Learned to Love the Bomb Bradley Moran, John N. Smith. Retrieved 7 December 2006.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Earth Observatory is a publishing organization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States. ... The National Snow and Ice Data Center, or NSIDC, is a United States information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Neatby, Leslie H., Discovery in Russian and Siberian Waters 1973 ISBN 0-8214-0124-6
  • Ray, L., and bacon, B., eds., The Arctic Ocean 1982 ISBN 0-333-31017-9
  • Thorén, Ragnar V. A., Picture Atlas of the Arctic 1969 ISBN 0-8214-0124-6

External links

Look up Arctic Ocean in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  • The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005 Daily logs, photos and video from exploration mission.
  • Oceanography Image of the Day, from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • Arctic Council
  • The Northern Forum
  • Arctic Environmental Atlas Interactive map
  • NOAA Arctic Theme Page
  • Arctic Ocean entry at The World Factbook
  • Daily Arctic Ocean Rawinsonde Data from Soviet Drifting Ice Stations (1954-1990) at NSIDC
  • Arctic time series: The Unaami Data collection
  • NOAA North Pole Web Cam Images from Web Cams deployed in spring on an ice floe
  • NOAA Near-realtime North Pole Weather Data Data from instruments deployed on an ice floe
  • Search for Arctic Life Heats Up by Stephen Leahy
  • International Polar Foundation

Coordinates: 90° N 0° E Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The National Snow and Ice Data Center, or NSIDC, is a United States information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Arctic Ocean. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (980 words)
The principal arms of the Arctic Ocean are the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, Barents, and Greenland seas.
The continental shelf encloses a deep oval basin (average depth 12,000 ft/3,658 m) that stretches between Svalbard and Alaska; E of Greenland the ring of the continental shelf is broken by the Greenland Sea.
Arctic research was stimulated when it was recognized that the shortest air routes between the great cities of the Northern Hemisphere cross the Arctic Ocean.
Arctic Ocean - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1198 words)
The Arctic Ocean, located mostly in the north polar region, is the smallest of the world's five oceans, and the shallowest.
The average depth of the Arctic Ocean is 1038 m (3,407 ft), in part due to the large extent of continental shelf extant on the Eurasian side [1].
The Arctic is a major source of very cold air that inevitably moves toward the equator, meeting with warmer air in the middle latitudes and causing rain and snow.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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