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Encyclopedia > Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
IUCN Category IV (Habitat/Species Management Area)
Map of the United States
Location: Alaska, USA
Nearest city: Kaktovik, Alaska
Area: 19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²)
Established: 1960
Governing body: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) covers 19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²) in northeastern Alaska, in the North Slope region. It was originally protected in 1960 by order of Fred A. Seaton, the Secretary of the Interior under U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. As part of Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, the refuge was expanded by the United States Congress in 1980 through the lobbying efforts of Olaus and Margaret Murie, with The Wilderness Society. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Kaktovik is a city located in North Slope Borough, Alaska. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... ... Frederick Andrew Seaton (December 11, 1909–January 16, 1974) was United States Secretary of the Interior during Dwight Eisenhowers administration. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961). ... The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) was an American law passed in 1980 by U.S. Congress and signed by President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... Margaret Mardy Thomas Murie (August 18, 1902-October 19, 2003) was the enabling force behind the Wilderness Act in the United States, and the protection of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. ... TWS is composed of spirited people protecting Americas Wilderness since 1935 through the potent combination of science, advocacy and education. ...


Image:Doublemountain.jpg Image File history File links Doublemountain. ...


Eight million acres (32,375 km²) of the refuge are designated as U.S. Wilderness Area. The 1980 expansion of the refuge designated 1.5 million acres (6,070 km²) of the coastal plain as the 1002 area and mandated studies of the natural resources of this area, especially petroleum. Congressional authorization is required before oil drilling may proceed in this area. The remaining 10.1 million acres (40,873 km²) of the refuge are designated as "Minimal Management," a category intended to maintain existing natural conditions and resource values. These areas are suitable for wilderness designation, although there are presently no proposals to designate them as wilderness. The Wilderness Act protects exceptional undisturbed natural areas and scenery, such as in the Ansel Adams Wilderness On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate a wilderness area under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964. ... The 1002 area is a 1,500,000 acre (6,070 km²) area on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge specified by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... An oil well is a laymans term for any perforation through the Earths surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons. ...


There are presently no roads within or leading into the refuge, though there are settlements there. On the northern edge of the Refuge is the Inupiaq village of Kaktovik and on the southern boundary the Gwich'in settlement of Arctic Village. A popular widerness route and historic passage exists between the two villages, traversing the Refuge and all its ecosystem types from boreal, interior forest to Arctic Ocean coast. Generally, visitors gain access to the land by aircraft, but it is also possible to reach the refuge by boat or by walking (the Dalton Highway passes near the western edge of the refuge). In the United States of America, the geographic location most remote from human trails, roads, or settlements is found here, at the headwaters of the Sheenjek River. Kaktovik is a city in North Slope Borough, Alaska, USA. As of the 2000 census, the population of the city is 293. ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The highway and pipeline run generally parallel to each other; this segment is between the Arctic Circle and Coldfoot. ...

Contents

Wildlife

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Map
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Map

The refuge supports a greater variety of plant and animal life than any other protected area in the circumpolar arctic. A continuum of six different ecozones spans some 200 miles (300 km) north to south. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The circumpolar arctic is a region close to the north pole (axis, not magnetic). ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ...


Along the northern boundary of the refuge, barrier islands, coastal lagoons, salt marshes, and river deltas provide habitat for migratory waterbirds including sea ducks, geese, swans, and shorebirds. Fish such as dolly varden and arctic cisco are found in nearshore waters. Coastal lands and sea ice are used by caribou seeking relief from biting insects during summer, and by polar bears hunting seals and giving birth in snow dens during winter. In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... An Atlantic coastal salt marsh in Connecticut. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Genera Polysticta Somateria Histrionicus Camptorhynchus Melanitta Clangula Bucephala Mergellus Lophodytes Mergus † For other ducks, see also: Anatidae The seaducks, Merginae, form a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Species 6-7 living, see text. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... Trinomial name Salvelinus malma malma Walbaum, 1792 For the other subspecies, see Southern Dolly Varden. ... Binomial name Coregonus artedi Lesueur, 1818 blah The cisco (Coregonus artedi) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family (family Salmonidae). ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Binomial name Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774 Polar bear range Synonyms Thalarctos maritimus The polar bear (Ursus maritimus), also known as the white bear, northern bear, sea bear, ice bear or nanuq in some Inuit languages, is a species of bear that is native to the Arctic and the apex predator... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ...


The arctic coastal plain stretches southward from the coast to the foothills of the Brooks Range. This area of rolling hills, small lakes, and north-flowing, braided rivers is dominated by tundra vegetation consisting of low shrubs, sedges, and mosses. Caribou travel to the coastal plain during June and July to give birth and raise their young. Migratory birds and insects flourish here during the brief arctic summer. Tens of thousands of snow geese stop here during September to feed before migrating south, and musk oxen live here year-round. Brooks Range from near Galbraith Lake The Brooks Range is a mountain range that stretches from west to east across northern Alaska and into Canadas Yukon Territory, a total distance of about 1100 km (700 mi). ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Genera See text The family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... This is an article about the plant. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Summer is a season of the year that is defined as beginning on June 21st, and ending in September in the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Anser caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758) The Snow Goose (Anser caerulescens) is a North American species of goose. ... Binomial name Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780) The Musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) is a bovine noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor of the male. ...


South of the coastal plain, the mountains of the eastern Brooks Range rise to over 9,000 feet (3,000 m). This northernmost extension of the Rocky Mountains marks the continental divide, with north-flowing rivers emptying into the Arctic Ocean and south-flowing rivers joining the great Yukon River. The rugged mountains of the Brooks Range are incised by deep river valleys creating a range of elevations and aspects that support a variety of low tundra vegetation, dense shrubs, rare groves of poplar trees on the north side and spruce on the south. During summer, peregrine falcons, gyrfalcons, and golden eagles build nests on cliffs. Harlequin ducks and red-breasted mergansers are seen on swift-flowing rivers. Dall sheep and wolves are active all year, while grizzly bears and arctic ground squirrels are frequently seen during summer but hibernate in winter. Confectionary Company, see Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory. ... The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Binomial name Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), formerly sometimes known in North America as the Duck Hawk, is a medium-sized falcon about the size of a large crow: 380-530 millimetres (15-21 in) long. ... // Binomial name Falco rusticolus Linnaeus, 1758 The Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), also spelled Gyr Falcon (The g is pronounced as j in jar), is a large bird of prey. ... Binomial name Aquila chrysaetos Linnaeus, 1758 World distribution of the golden eagle Light green = Nesting area Blue = Wintering area Dark green = All year distribution The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. ... Harlequin Duck - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Binomial name Mergus serrator Linnaeus, 1758 The Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) is a typical merganser. ... Binomial name Ovis dalli Nelson, 1884 The Dall Sheep (originally Dalls Sheep, sometimes called Thinhorn Sheep), Ovis dalli, is a wild sheep of the mountainous regions of northwest North America, ranging from white to slate brown and having curved yellowish brown horns. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Trinomial name Ursus arctos horribilis (Ord, 1815) Range map The grizzly bear, sometimes called the silvertip bear, is a powerful brownish-yellow bear that lives in the uplands of western North America. ... Genera See entry. ...


The southern portion of the Arctic Refuge is within the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Beginning as predominantly treeless tundra with scattered islands of black and white spruce trees, the forest becomes progressively denser as the foothills yield to the expansive flats north of the Yukon River. Frequent forest fires ignited by lightning result in a complex mosaic of birch, aspen, and spruce forests of various ages. Wetlands and south-flowing rivers create openings in the forest canopy. Neotropical migratory birds breed here in spring and summer, attracted by plentiful food and the variety of habitats. Caribou travel here from farther north to spend the winter. Year-round residents of the boreal forest include moose, lynx, marten, wolverines, black and grizzly bears, and wolves. Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Binomial name Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) Moose range map The moose (so named in North America) or elk (in Europe), Alces alces, is the largest member of the deer family Cervidae, distinguished from the others by the palmate antlers of its males. ... Type species Felis lynx Linnaeus, 1758 The overall range of Lynx species. ... Species Martes americana Martes flavigula Martes foina Martes gwatkinsii Martes martes Martes melampus Martes pennanti Martes zibellina for the Wiltshire village see Marten, Wiltshire The Martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in family Mustelidae. ... Binomial name Gulo gulo (Linnaeus, 1758) Wolverine range The Wolverine (Gulo gulo) is the largest land-dwelling species of the Mustelidae or weasel family (the Giant Otter is largest overall), and is the only species currently classified in the genus Gulo (meaning glutton). It is also called the Glutton or... Binomial name Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780 For the Eurasian Black Bear, see Asiatic Black Bear. ... Trinomial name Ursus arctos horribilis (Ord, 1815) Range map The grizzly bear, sometimes called the silvertip bear, is a powerful brownish-yellow bear that lives in the uplands of western North America. ...


Each year, thousands of waterfowl and other birds nest and reproduce in areas surrounding Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk fields and a healthy and increasing caribou herd migrates through these areas to calve and seek respite from annoying pests such as human activity. Oil field facilities have been located and designed to accommodate wildlife and utilize the least amount of tundra surface, but the damage left through exploration and maintenance can scar the land permanently.


Arctic Refuge drilling controversy

The issue of drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge has been a debated topic since World War II, and has been a political football for every U.S. President since Jimmy Carter. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... President Harrison political cartoon: What can I do when both parties insist on kicking? A political football is a term used to describe a political topic or issue that is continually debated but left unresolved. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


See also

The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) is an area of land in the North Slope of Alaska owned by the United States Federal Government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The wise use movement is a loose affiliation of activists inspired by the work of Ron Arnold. ...

External links

  • Official website
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
  • Photo Highlights & Journaled Accounts of the Natural Diversity of the Arctic Refuge by Photographer Jim M. Goldstein

 
 

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