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Encyclopedia > Arctic
The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border
The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border
Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region
Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region

The Arctic is the region around the Earth's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. The Arctic includes the Arctic Ocean (which overlies the North Pole) and parts of Canada, Greenland (a territory of Denmark), Russia, the United States (Alaska), Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland. The word Arctic comes from the Greek word arktos (άρκτος) , which means bear. This is due to the location of the constellation (a group of stars) Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", above the Arctic region.[citation needed] The side-wheeler S.S. Arctic sank September 27 1854, off Cape Race, Newfoundland, after colliding with the 250-ton French iron propeller ship SS Vesta. ... Image File history File links Arctic. ... Image File history File links Arctic. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (978x941, 110 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arctic ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (978x941, 110 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arctic ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Antarctica (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the constellation. ...


There are numerous definitions of the Arctic region. The boundary is generally considered to be north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33’N), which is the approximate limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Other definitions are based on climate and ecology, such as the 10°C (50°F) July isotherm, which roughly corresponds to the tree line in most of the Arctic. Socially and politically, the Arctic region includes the northern territories of the eight Arctic states, including Lapland, although by natural science definitions much of this territory is considered subarctic. For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... The midnight sun at Nordkapp, Norway. ... The polar night is the night lasting more than 24 hours, usually inside the polar circles. ... An isotherm is a line of equal or constant temperature on a graph, plot, or map; an isopleth of temperature. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ...


The Arctic region consists of a vast ice-covered ocean (which is sometimes considered to be a northern arm of the Atlantic Ocean) surrounded by treeless, frozen ground. In recent years the extent of the sea ice has declined, and there is some evidence suggesting Arctic water may be ice-free in summer. Some estimates suggest an ice-free summer Arctic by 2040,[1] or 2100[2][3] while a more recent study accompanied by unexpected increased melting in summer 2007 estimates as soon as 2013.[4][5].However according to the Norwegian International Polar Year Secretariat the arctic polar ice cap would be completely gone by summer 2008[6] Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, and human societies. An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about the body of water. ...


The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions.

Contents

Nature

Climate

Main article: Climate of the Arctic

The Arctic's climate is characterized by cold winters and cool summers. Precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow. The Arctic's annual precipitation is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm (20 inches). High winds often stir up snow, creating the illusion of continuous snowfall. Average winter temperatures can be as low as -40°C (-40°F), and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately -68°C (-90°F). Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having generally warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas. The Climate of the Arctic is characterized broadly by long, cold winters and short, cool summers. ...


Plants

Since trees cannot grow in the Arctic climate, the vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, lichens and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra. As one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth decreases considerably. In the northernmost areas, plants are at their metabolic limits, and small differences in the total amount of summer warmth make large differences in the amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction. Colder summer temperatures cause the size, abundance, productivity and variety of plants to decrease. In the warmest parts of the Arctic, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m (6 ft) in height; sedges, mosses and lichens can form thick layers. In the coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare; nonvascular plants such as lichens and mosses predominate, along with a few scattered grasses and forbs (like the Arctic poppy). Arctic vegetation by definition has no trees. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ...


Animals

Herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic hare, lemming, muskox, and caribou. They are preyed on by the Arctic fox, wolves. The polar bear is also a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. There are also many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixel Image in higher resolution (1488 × 1064 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken on 30 October 2004 in Dovrefjell National Park, Norway File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixel Image in higher resolution (1488 × 1064 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken on 30 October 2004 in Dovrefjell National Park, Norway File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map. ... Binomial name Lepus timidus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mountain Hare (Lepus timidus) is a hare, which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats. ... This article is about the rodent. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... This article is about the animal. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus arctos Pocock, 1935 Arctic Wolf range Main article: Gray Wolf The Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus arctos), also called Polar Wolf or White Wolf, is a mammal of the Canidae family, and a subspecies of the Gray Wolf. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ...


Natural resources

The Arctic region includes sizable potential natural resources (oil, gas, minerals, forest – if the subarctic is included – and fish) to which modern technology and the opening up of Russia have given significant new opportunities. The interest of the tourism industry in the cold and exotic Arctic is also on the increase. Tourist redirects here. ...


The Arctic region is one of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world, and its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable. The increasing presence of humans fragments vital habitats. The Arctic is particularly susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare reproduction places of the animals that are characteristic to the region. For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Groundcover is any plant used for the purpose of growing over an area of ground to hide it or to protect it from erosion or drought. ...


See also Petroleum exploration in the Arctic The Arctic is considered to be one of the most technically and physically challenging environments in which to search and extract petroleum. ...


Paleo-history

Marine fossils in Canadian Arctic
Marine fossils in Canadian Arctic

During the Cretaceous, the Arctic still had seasonal snows, though only a light dusting and not enough to permanently hinder plant growth.[citation needed] Animals such as Chasmosaurus, Hypacrosaurus, Troodon, and Edmontosaurus may have all migrated north to take advantage of the summer growing season, and migrated south to warmer climes when the winter came. A similar situation may also have been found amongst dinosaurs that lived in Antarctic regions, such as Muttaburrasaurus of Australia. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,880 × 2,024 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,880 × 2,024 pixels, file size: 3. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Species Chasmosaurus (KAZ-mo-sawr-us) is a ceratopsid dinosaur genus from the Upper Cretaceous Period of North America. ... Species (type) Brown, 1913 Horner & Currie, 1994 Synonyms Cheneosaurus Lambe, 1917 Procheneosaurus Matthew, 1920 (in part)[1] Hypacrosaurus (meaning near the highest lizard, because it was almost but not quite as large as Tyrannosaurus)[2][3] was a genus of duckbill dinosaur similar in appearance to Corythosaurus. ... Binomial name Troodon formosus Leidy, 1856 Troodon formosus was a relatively small, bird-like dinosaur from the late Cretaceous Period (68–65 MYA). ... Species (type) Marsh, 1892 Sternberg, 1926 Synonyms Anatosaurus Lull & Wright, 1942 Edmontosaurus (ed-MON-toh-sawr-us) meaning Edmonton lizard (after where it was found, in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and Greek sauros meaning lizard) was a hadrosaurid dinosaur genus from the Maastrichtian, the last stage of the Cretaceous Period, 71... Species Muttaburrasaurus was a large four-legged ornithopod herbivorous dinosaur genus that was capable of rearing onto two legs. ...


Indigenous population

Main article: Circumpolar peoples
Further information: Circumpolar religion, Indigenous peoples of Siberia, and Inuit Circumpolar Conference

The Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule culture, a nomadic people who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 CE and spread eastwards across the Arctic, displacing the related Dorset culture (in Inuktitut, the Tuniit). Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as "giants", people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit, but who were easily scared off and retreated from the advancing Inuit. Researchers believe that the Dorset culture lacked dogs, boats and other technologies that gave the expanding Inuit society a large advantage over them. By 1300, the Inuit had settled west Greenland, and finally moved into east Greenland over the following century. This article is in need of attention. ... Inuit Circumpolar Conference or ICC, is an multinational nongovernmental organization representing 150,000 Inuit, living in Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and the Yukon Territory), the United States (Alaska), Greenland, and on the Russian peninsula of Chukotka. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... This is about the social science. ... The Thule were the ancestors of all modern Canadian Inuit. ... The Dorset culture preceded the Eskimo culture in Arctic North America. ...


The Tuniit survived in Aivilik, Southampton and Coats Islands, until the beginning of the 20th century. They were known as Sadlermiut (Sallirmiut in the modern spelling). Their population had been ravaged by diseases brought by contact with Europeans, and the last of them fell in a flu epidemic caught from a passing whaler in 1902. The area has since been resettled by Inuit. Genetic research suggests that there was little or no intermarriage between the Tuniit and the Inuit over the thousand years of contact in the Canadian Arctic. Categories: Islands of Canada | Canada geography stubs ... Coats Island, Nunavut Closeup of Coats Island Coats Island lies at the northern end of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut. ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ...


International cooperation and politics

The Arctic region is a focus of international political interest. International Arctic cooperation got underway on a broad scale well over ten years ago. The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), hundreds of scientists and specialists of the Arctic Council, the Barents Council and its regional cooperation have compiled high quality information on the Arctic. Current logo Map of current Arctic Council national members in light blue. ...


Territorial claims

Main article: Territorial claims in the Arctic

No country owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. The surrounding Arctic states, the United States, Canada, Russia, Norway and Denmark (via Greenland), are limited to a 370 kilometre (200 nautical mile) economic zone around their coasts. Arctic topography Under international law, no country currently owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. ...


Upon ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a country has ten years to make claims to extend its 200 mile zone.[7] Due to this, Norway (ratified the convention in 1996[8]), Russia (ratified in 1997[8]), Canada (ratified in 2003[8]) and Denmark (ratified in 2004[8]) launched projects to establish claims that certain Arctic sectors should belong to their territories. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...


On August 2, 2007, two Russian bathyscaphes, MIR-1 and MIR-2, for the first time in history descended to the Arctic seabed beneath the North Pole and placed there a Russian flag made of rust-proof titanium alloy. The mission was a scientific expedition, but the flag-placing raised concerns of a race for control of the Arctic's vast petroleum resources[9](See 2007 Russian North Pole expedition) is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Typical internal arrangement A bathyscape, bathyscaphe, or bathyscaph is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea diving submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere suspended below a float (rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design) Bathyscaphe Trieste, before dive into Marianas Trench... MIR submersible. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Russian Federation. ... Titanium alloys are metallic materials which contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. ... The 2007 Russian North Pole expedition is an expedition in which Russia will attempt the first ever manned descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, to a depth of 4. ...


A strategic military region

High Arctic
High Arctic from helicopter

Some countries claim the Arctic has never been under the political control of any nation, although some nations' militaries have attached a strategic importance to the region. Canada has an outpost in the region (Alert) and has long laid claim to much of the Arctic. Several recent excursions by the Canadian navy have taken place, with more planned to underline Canadian sovereignty in the region. On July 9th, 2007, Canada's prime minister Stephen Harper announced that Canada will build up to eight armed patrol ships with helicopter pads and a deep water port at a location yet to be disclosed to reassert Canada's sovereignty over Arctic territories.[10] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 4. ... It has been suggested that CFS Alert be merged into this article or section. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


In the 1950s and 1960s, the Arctic was often used by submarines to test new weapons, sonar equipment, and depth capability. During the Cold War, the Arctic region was extensively monitored by the United States military and NATO, since it was believed that the first warnings of a nuclear strike from the Soviet Union would have been indicated by ICBMs launched over the North Pole towards the United States. The United States placed such importance on the region that two military decorations, the Arctic Service Ribbon and Coast Guard Arctic Service Medal, were established for military duty performed within the Arctic Circle. For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... The Arctic Service Ribbon is a decoration of the United States Navy which was established in May 1986. ... The Coast Guard Artic Service Medal was established in 1976 by Admiral Owen W. Siler, USCG and is awarded to any member of the U.S. Coast Guard who performs twenty one days of cumulative duty in the polar waters of the Arctic Circle. ...


In 2006, Envisat and EOS Aqua revealed a polar route connecting Spitsbergen and Siberia. [7] Increased Russian activity has also been detected, though this can be attributed to the Chelyuskin icebreaker wreck expeditionary force. [8] Model of Envisat The Envisat (Environmental Satellite) satellite is an Earth-observing satellite built by the European Space Agency. ... Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen) is a Norwegian island, the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, situated in the Arctic Ocean. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Chelyuskin or Cheliuskin may refer to one of the following. ... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ...


Scientific exploration

Since 1937 the whole Arctic region was extensively explored by the Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations. Scientific settlements that were established on the drift ice were carried thousands of kilometers by the ice flow.[11] Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are important contributors to exploration of the Arctic. ... Drift ice consists of slabs of ice that float on the surface of the water in cold regions. ...


Pollution

Long-range pollution pathways to the Arctic
Long-range pollution pathways to the Arctic

The Arctic is comparatively clean, although there are certain ecologically difficult localized pollution problems that present a serious threat to people’s health living around these pollution sources. Due to the prevailing worldwide sea and air currents, the Arctic area is the fallout region for long-range transport pollutants, and in some places the concentrations exceed the levels of densely populated urban areas. An example of this is the phenomenon of Arctic haze, which is commonly blamed on long-range pollutants. Another example is with the bioaccumulation of PCB's [polychlorinated biphenyls] in arctic wildlife. Image File history File links Contamination_pathways_large. ... Image File history File links Contamination_pathways_large. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ... Arctic Haze describes the phenomena of a visible reddish-brown haze in the atmosphere at high latitudes in the Arctic due to air pollution. ...


Climate change

Arctic shrinkage as of 2007 compared to 2005 and also compared to 1979-2000 average
Arctic shrinkage as of 2007 compared to 2005 and also compared to 1979-2000 average

The Arctic is especially vulnerable to the effects of global warming as has become apparent in the melting sea ice in recent years. Climate models predict much greater warming in the Arctic than global average.[12] This fact has garnered significant international attention to the region. In particular, there are concerns that Arctic shrinkage, a consequence of melting glaciers and other ice in Greenland, could soon contribute to a substantial rise in sea levels worldwide.[13] A recent study by a research group at Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California working with members of Nasa and the Institute of Oceanology at the Polish Academy of Sciences estimate that the Arctic sea could be ice-free in the summer as soon as 2013.[4][5] The Arctic sea ice melted at an unprecedented rate, well ahead of models, in 2007. See also: Polar ice packs. Arctic shrinkage refers to the marked decrease in arctic ice levels in recent years. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... Arctic shrinkage refers to the marked decrease in arctic ice levels in recent years. ... The Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, United States is a graduate school operated by the United States Navy. ... For other uses, see Monterey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Categories: PAN | PAU | Scientific societies | Polish scientific societies | Stub | Education in Poland | Polish institutions | National academies ... NOAA Projected arctic changes Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earths polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the...


Apart from concerns regarding the detrimental effects of cooling in the Arctic, some potential opportunities have gained attention as well. The melting of the ice is making the so-called northwest passage, the shipping routes through the northern-most latitudes, more navigable, raising the possibility that the Arctic region will become a prime trade route.[14] In addition it is believed that the Arctic seabed may contain substantial oil fields which may become accessible if the ice covering them melts.[15] These factors have led to recent international debates as to which nations can claim sovereignty or ownership over the waters of the Arctic.[10][16][17] but according to the Norwegian International Polar Year Secretariat the arctic polar ice cap would be completely gone by summer 2008[18] For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ...


Arctic waters

Baffin Bay, lying between Nunavut, Canada and Greenland. ... Approximate area of the Beaufort Sea, and the disputed waters The Beaufort Sea is a large body of water north of The Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska and west of Canadas arctic islands that is a part of the Arctic Ocean. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... Chukchi Sea (Russian: Чуко́тское мо́ре) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, between Chukotka and Alaska. ... Map of Baffin Island and surrounding areas, including Davis Strait. ... The Denmark Strait is a strait between Greenland and Iceland. ... East Siberian Sea (Russian: ) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... The Greenland Sea exists next to the Norwegian Sea. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... The Nares strait is a waterway between Canadas Ellesmere Island and Greenland which connects Baffin Bay to the Arctic Ocean. ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ...

Arctic lands

For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Bjørnøya is located north of mainland Norway and south of Spitsbergen. ... World map depicting Canadian Arctic Archipelago Polar projection map of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Reference map of Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as just the Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Location of Franz Josef Land (Map is annotated in German). ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... New Siberian Islands (Russian: Новосиби́рские острова), an archipelago, located to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... During the 1960s, a terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... Severnaya Zemlya, Russia Severnaya Zemlya (Russian: , Northern Land) is an archipelago located in the Russian high Arctic at around . ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article is about the Canadian territory. ... This article is about the Russian island. ...

In popular culture

Jeremy Robinson (born 1974) is the author of two novels, Raising the Past (2006) and The Didymus Contingency (2005). ... Under the pen name James Rollins, former veterinarian Dr. Jim Czajkowski (1961 - ) writes such bestselling, action-packed adventure-thrillers as Subterranean (1999), Excavation (2000), Deep Fathom (2001), Amazonia (2002), Ice Hunt (2003), Sandstorm (2004), and Map of Bones Rollins is an amateur spelunker and a certified scuba diver. ... Deception Point book cover Deception Point (2001) is a thriller novel by Dan Brown, the author of The Da Vinci Code, Angels and Demons, and Digital Fortress. ... This article is about the writer. ... Barry Holstun Lopez (born January 6, 1945) is an American essayist, fictionist, and poet whose work deals with nature and ecological concerns. ...

See also

The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) is a study describing the ongoing climate change in the Arctic and its consequences: rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, unprecedented melting of the Greenland ice sheet, and many impacts on ecosystems, animals, and people. ... Arctic Haze describes the phenomena of a visible reddish-brown haze in the atmosphere at high latitudes in the Arctic due to air pollution. ... The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) covers 19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²) in northeastern Alaska, in the North Slope region. ... Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Map The question of whether or not to allow drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has been a political football for every sitting American president since Jimmy Carter. ... Template:Geobox Mountain Range PIRRI WAZ NOT HERE AND DOESNT HAVE PS3 The Arctic Cordillera, sometimes called the Arctic Rockies, are a vast deeply dissected mountain range in northeastern North America. ... The Arctic Research Office (ARO) a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) run under the auspices of the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... This is a list of the extreme points of the Arctic, the points of Arctic lands that are farther to the north than any other location classified by continent and country, Geographical position and distance to the North Pole. ... Nordicity is the degree of northerness. ... Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ... NOAA Projected arctic changes Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earths polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the...

References

  1. ^ Arctic melt worse than predictions CNN.com, May 2, 2007
  2. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Summary for Policy Makers of Contributions by Working Group 1, 2007
  3. ^ Real Climate article about sea-ice decline
  4. ^ a b Arctic summers ice-free 'by 2013' Jonathan Amos BBC News December 12, 2007 Retrieved February 11, 2008
  5. ^ a b Arctic ice melt worse than predicted: scientists Barbara Miller, www.abc.net.au, December 13, 2007 Retrieved February 9, 2008
  6. ^ Expert: Arctic polar cap may disappear this summer - People's Daily Online
  7. ^ United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Annex 2, Article 4). Retrieved on 2007-07-26.
  8. ^ a b c d http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/status2007.pdf
  9. ^ The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons, by Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff and Timothy Fenton Krysiek, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007
  10. ^ a b New patrol ships will reassert northern sovereignty: PM, Victoria Times Colonist, 9 July, 2007[1]
  11. ^ North Pole drifting stations (1930s-1980s)
  12. ^ ACIA, Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, 2012. [2]
  13. ^ Study: Glaciers contributing more to rising seas,2007[3]
  14. ^ Will ice melt open fabled Northwest Passage?, CNN.com, 29 Aug, 2002[4]
  15. ^ The great Arctic Circle oil rush, CNN.com, 8 Aug, 2007[5]
  16. ^ Russia stakes its claim on North Pole in underwater search for oil, Times Online, 28 July, 2007[6]
  17. ^ "Arctic melt stuns scientists", CBS News, October 9, 2007. 
  18. ^ Expert: Arctic polar cap may disappear this summer - People's Daily Online
  • Arctic Centre, Rovaniemi Arctic research
  • WordReference.com Dictionary Etymology
  • CIA World Factbook 2002 - Arctic Region Large version of the Arctic region map
  • Arctic Theme Page Comprehensive Arctic Resource from NOAA.
  • Bering Sea Climate and Ecosystem Current state of the Bering Sea Climate and Ecosystem. Comprehensive resource on the Bering Sea with viewable oceanographic, atmospheric, climatic, biological and fisheries data with ecosystem relevance, recent trends, essays on key Bering Sea issues, maps, photos, animals and more. From NOAA.
  • Arctic time series: The Unaami Data collection Viewable interdisciplinary, diverse collection of Arctic variables from different geographic regions and data types.
  • Arctic exploration and history
  • Arctic research

is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The Canadian Museum of Civilization - The Story of the Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913-1918
  • The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons, by Shamil Midkhatovich Yenikeyeff and Timothy Fenton Krysiek, Oxford Energy Comment, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007
  • UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics library Information resources from the UN Environment programme
  • Arctic Institute of North America Digital Library Over 8000 photographs dating from the late 1800s through the 1900s.
  • euroarctic.com News service from the Barents region provided by Norwegian Broadcasting Corp (NRK), Swedish Radio (SR) and STBC Murman.
  • WWF International Arctic Programme Arctic environment and conservation information
  • International Polar Foundation
  • Arctic Council
  • NOAA Arctic Theme Page
  • Arctic Environmental Atlas Circum-Arctic interactive map, with multiple layers of information
  • GLOBIO Human Impact maps Report on human impacts on the Arctic
  • International Arctic Research Center
  • Vital Arctic Graphics Overview and case studies of the Arctic environment and the Arctic Indigenous Peoples.
  • Arctic and Taiga Canadian Atlas
  • Summary
  • NOAA State of the Arctic Report 2006
  • UN Environment Programme Key Polar Centre at UNEP/GRID-Arendal
  • Arctic Geobotanical Atlas, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • AMAP - the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme
  • Polar Discovery
Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...

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