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Encyclopedia > Architecture of Ancient Greece
The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens
The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens

Architecture, executed to considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. But since many Greek buildings in the colonization period (8th - 6th century BC), were made of wood or mud-brick or clay, nothing remains of them except for a few ground-plans, and almost no written sources on early architecture or descriptions of these embryonic buildings exist. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 212 KB) Description: The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Photographer: Adam Carr Image history of en:Image:Ac. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 212 KB) Description: The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Photographer: Adam Carr Image history of en:Image:Ac. ... This article is about building architecture. ... The Helladic is a modern term to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A Mudbrick is an unfired brick made of clay. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...


Common materials of Greek architecture were wood, used for supports and roof beams; unbaked brick used for walls, especially for private homes; limestone and marble, used for columns, walls, and upper portions of temples and public buildings; terracotta, used for roof tiles and ornaments; and metals, especially bronze, used for decorative details. Architects of the Archaic and Classical periods used these building materials to construct five simple types of buildings: religious, civic, domestic, funerary, or recreational. For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ...

Contents

History

Around 6000 BC, the wooden columns of the old Temple of Hera at Olympia underwent a material transformation, known as "petrification", in which they were replaced by stone columns. By degrees, other parts of the temple were petrified until the entire temple was made of stone. With the spread of this process to other sanctuaries, Greek temples and significant buildings from the 6th century BC onwards were built largely from stone, and a few fortunate examples have survived through the ages. The introduction of stone walls also allowed thatched roofs to be replaced by heavier roof tiles which acted as a means of improving fire resistance. For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... Doric Capital at the Temple of Hera (east side, 4th column from S corner) The Temple of Hera at Olympia, Greece, is an important monument of Doric architecture. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material is converted into stone or a similar substance. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ...


Most of our knowledge of Greek architecture comes from the late archaic period (550 - 500 BC), the Periclean age (450 - 430 BC), and the early to pure classical period (430 - 400 BC). Greek examples are considered alongside Hellenistic and Roman periods (since Roman architecture heavily copied Greek), and late written sources such as Vitruvius (1st century). This results in a strong bias towards temples, the only buildings which survive in numbers. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... The Age of Pericles is the term used to denote the historical period (roughly) from the end of the Persian Wars to either the death of Pericles or the end of the Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC - 430 BC - 429 BC 428 BC... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ...


Like Greek painting and sculpture, Greek Architecture in the first half of classical antiquity was not "art for art's sake" in the modern sense. The architect was a craftsman employed by the state or a wealthy private client. No distinction was made between the architect and the building contractor. The architect designed the building, hired the laborers and craftsmen who built it, and was responsible for both its budget and its timely completion. He did not enjoy any of the lofty status accorded to modern architects of public buildings. Even the names of architects are not known before the 5th century. An architect like Iktinos, who designed the Parthenon, who would today be seen as a genius, was treated in his lifetime as no more than a very valuable master tradesman. For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Iktinos (also Iktious or Ictinus) was an architect active in the mid 5th century BC, who, together with Kallikrates designed the Parthenon (447–432 BC) in Athens, Greece. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ...


Religious

The Greek Religion was also a worship of natural phenomena and highly developed. The gods were personfications of particular elements, or were deified heroes, and each town or district had its own local preferences, ceremonies and traditions. There was no regular priesthood. The priests and priestesses were not members of an exclusive class but led the normal community life.


The principal Greek deities, with their attributes and Roman name are as follows:

Greek name Roman name Description
Zeus* Jupiter* The supreme god, and ruler of the sky
Hera Juno Wife of Zeus, goddess of marriage
Apollo Apollo God of law and reason, art, music and poetry, founder of cities
Athena Minerva Goddess of wisdom and learning
Poseidon* Neptune* The sea god
Dionysus Bacchus God of wine, feasting and revelry
Demeter Ceres Goddess of earth and agriculture
Artemis Diana Goddess of the Chase
Hermes Mercury Messenger of the gods
Aphrodite Venus God of love, beauty and commerce
Hephaestus Vulcan God of fire, flame, forge and handicrafts
Ares Mars God of war
Hades* Pluto* God of the underworld

* were known as "the big three" because they were the most powerful. Also Heracles (Hercules) - God of strength and labour pan, god of the flocks. For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ...


Structure and style of Greek temples

The standard format of Greek public buildings is known from surviving examples such as the Parthenon and the Hephaesteum at Athens, the group at Paestum, the temple complex at Selinunte (Selinus) and the sanctuaries at Agrigentum. Most buildings were rectangular and made from limestone or tufa, of which Greece has an abundance, and which was cut into large blocks and dressed. Marble was an expensive building material in Greece: high quality marble came only from Mt. Pentelicus in Attica and from a few islands such as Paros, and its transportation in large blocks was difficult. It was used mainly for sculptural decoration, not structurally, except in the very grandest buildings of the Classical period such as the Parthenon. For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... The Temple of Hephaestus, Athens: eastern face. ... Paestum is the classical Roman name of a major Graeco-Roman city in the Campania region of Italy. ... Temple E, the so-called Temple of Hera, at Selinus Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site situated on the south coast of Sicily between the valleys of the rivers Belice and Modione in the province of Trapani. ... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Agrigentum (modern Agrigento). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Tufa is the name for an unusual geological formation. ... Pentéli or Pendeli, (Greek: Πεντέλη, ancient forms: Pentele, Pentelikon or Pentelicus, and Vrilissos or Vrilittos (Greek: Βριλησσός, Βριληττός), Mendeli in medieval times) is a tall mountain and mountain range situated northeast of Athens and southwest of Marathon. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Paros (Greek: νήσος Πάρος; Venetian: isola di Paro) is an island of Greece in the central Aegean Sea, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ...


The basic rectangular plan was surrounded by a colonnaded portico of columns on all four sides (peripteral or peristyle) such as the Parthenon, and occasionally at the front and rear only (amphiprostyle) as seen in the small Temple of Athena Nike. Some buildings had a projecting head of columns forming the entrance (prostyle), while others featured a pronaos facade of columns leading on to the cella. The Greeks roofed their buildings with timber beams covered with overlapping terra cotta or occasionally marble tiles. They understood the principles of the masonry arch but made little use of it, and did not put domes on their buildings—these elaborations were left to the Romans. Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... Bahut a dwarf-wall of plain masonry, carrying the roof of a cathedral or church and masked or hidden behind the balustrade. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... In classical architecture, Amphiprostyle denotes a temple with a portico both at the front and the rear. ... Reconstruction of the temple Nike means Victory in Greek, and Athena was worshiped in this form, as goddess of victory, on the Acropolis, Athens. ... The National Bank, Oamaru, New Zealand, built 1871. ... A pronaos is the inner area of the portico of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, situated between the colonnade or walls of the portico and the entrance to the cella or shrine. ... Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ...


The low pitch of the gable roofs produced a squat triangular shape at each end of the building, the pediment, which was typically filled with sculptural decoration. Between the roof and the tops of the columns a row of lintels formed the entablature, whose outward-facing surfaces also provided a space for sculptures, know as friezes. The frieze consisted of alternating metopes (holding the sculpture) and triglyphs. No surviving Greek building preserves these sculptures intact, but they can be seen on some modern imitations of Greek structures. A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... Pre-fabricated, pre-tensioned concrete lintels spanning garage doors. ... An entablature is a classical architectural element, the superstructure which lies horizontally above the columns, resting on their capitals. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... In classical architecture, a metope is the rectangular blank spaces on the surface between two triglyphs on a Doric frieze which were often decorated with carvings. ... Triglyph centered over the last column in the Doric order of the Ancient Romans Triglyph is an architectural term for the vertically channeled tablets of the Doric frieze, so called because of the angular channels in them, two perfect and one divided, the two chamfered angles or hemiglyphs being reckoned...


Greek public architecture

The temple was the most common and best-known form of Greek public architecture, and the temple did not serve the same function as a modern church. For one thing, the altar stood under the open sky in the temenos or sacred fane, often directly before the temple. Temples served as storage places for the treasury associated with the cult of the god in question, as the location of a cult image sometimes of great antiquity, but from the time of Pheidias often a great work of art as well. The temple was a place for devotees of the god to leave their votive offerings, such as statues, helmets and weapons. The inner room of the temple, the cella, thus served mainly as a strongroom and storeroom. It was usually lined by another row of columns. The Greeks began to build monumental temples in the first half of the 8th century BC. The temples of Hera at Samos and of Poseidon at Isthmia were among the first erected. ... Greek Temenos ([1], from the Greek verb to cut) (plural = temene) is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain, especially to kings and chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary, holy grove or holy... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Phidias, (or Pheidias), son of Charmides, (circa 490 BC - circa 430 BC) was an ancient Greek sculptor, universally regarded as the greatest of Greek sculptors. ... A votive deposit or votive offering is an object left in a sacred place for ritual purposes. ...


Other architectural forms used by the Greeks were the tholos or circular temple, of which the best example is the Tholos of Theodorus at Delphi dedicated to the worship of Athena Pronaia; the propylon or porch, forming the entrance to temple sanctuaries (the best-surviving example is the Propylaea on the Acropolis of Athens); the fountain house, a building where women filled their vases with water from a public fountain; and the stoa, a long narrow hall with an open colonnade on one side, which was used to house rows of shops in the agoras (commercial centres) of Greek towns. A completely restored stoa, the Stoa of Attalus, can be seen in Athens. Greek towns of substantial size also had a palaestra or a gymnasium, the social centre for male citizens. These peripterally enclosed space open to the sky were used for athletic contests and exercise. Greek towns also needed at least one bouleuterion or council chamber, a large public building which served as a court house and as a meeting place for the town council (boule). Because the Greeks did not use arches or domes, they could not construct buildings with large interior spaces. The bouleuterion thus had rows of internal columns to hold the roof up (hypostyle). No examples of these buildings survive. The Treasure of Atreus tholos in 2004 Beehive tombs, also known as Tholos tombs (plural tholoi), are a style of Mycenaean chamber tomb from the Bronze Age. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Crowds of tourists climb the steps to the Propylaea, gateway to the Acropolis, Athens Stairs leading up to the Propylea The Propylaea, Propylea or Propylaia (Greek Προπυλαια) is the monumental gateway that serves as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens. ... The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city, The Sacred Rock) in the world. ... The Painted Porch (Stoa poikile), during the 3rd century BC, was where Zeno of Citium taught Stoicism. ... Stoa of the ancient agora de Thessaloniki An agora (αγορά), translatable as marketplace, was a public space and an essential part of an ancient Greek polis or city-state. ... Stoa of Attalos The Stoa of Attalos (also spelt Attalus) is one of the most impressive buildings in the Athenian Agora. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Pompeii palaestra seen from the top of the stadium wall. ... The gymnasium functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... A Bouleuterion was a building which housed the council of citizens (boule) in Ancient Greece. ... The term boule can be used to describe a large block of synthetically produced crystal material. ... In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. ...


Finally, every Greek town had a theatre.These were used for both public meetings as well as dramatic performances. These performances originated as religious ceremonies; they went on to assume their Classical status as the highest form of Greek culture by the 6th century BC (see Greek theatre). The theatre was usually set in a hillside outside the town, and had rows of tiered seating set in a semi-circle around the central performance area, the orchestra. Behind the orchestra was a low building called the skene, which served as a store-room, a dressing-room, and also as a backdrop to the action taking place in the orchestra. A number of Greek theatres survive almost intact, the best known being at Epidaurus. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Greek theatre or Greek Drama came into its own between 600 and 200 BC in the ancient city of Athens. ... In classical drama, the skene was the background building to which was connected the platform stage, in which were stored the costumes and to which the periaktoi (painted panels serving as the background) was connected. ... Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ...


City planning and houses

The Greeks had begun to lay out cities in a grid-like pattern before the start of the Classical period in the early 5th century BC, with streets regularly intersecting at right angles. Yet the Greeks credited the invention of the right-angled plan to Ionian architect Hippodamus. He planned new cities for Piraeus and the Athenian colony of Thuril. The late 5th century Olynthus also showed his influence in the city's uniform streets and blocks. By the 4th century BC, planned cities and civic spaces had become common in the Greek city states. Hippodamus of Miletus (sometimes also called Hippodamos), was a Greek architect of the 5th century BC. It was he who introduced order and regularity into the planning of cities, in place of the previous intricacy and confusion. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Olynthus, an ancient city of Chalcidice, situated in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, at some little distance from the sea, and about 60 stadia (7 or 8 miles) from Potidaea. ...


Greek house designs were various and in the 5th and 4th centuries BC two standard plans became commonplace. Typical houses in Olynthus during this time period and the 2nd century houses on Delos had the small rooms of the home arranged in a rectangle plan around a colonnaded interior courtyard. A second house plan was found in Priene which also focused on an interior courtyard but it had much different floorplan. Instead of a collection of small rooms, the primary living area consisted of a large rectangular hall that led to a columned porch. Opening off the sides of the courtyard were small rooms for servants, storage, and cooking. Houses in the Hellenistic period became much more diverse. For example, houses of wealthy people might have featured marble thresholds, columns and doorways; mosaic floors depicting scenes of humans or animals; and plastered walls modeled to look much like fine stonework. The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Priene (mod. ...


Orders of Greek architecture

There were two main styles (or "orders") of Greek architecture, the Doric and the Ionic. These names were used by the Greeks themselves, and reflected their belief that the styles descended from the Dorian and Ionian Greeks of the Dark Ages, but this is unlikely to be true. The Doric style was used in mainland Greece and spread from there to the Greek colonies in Italy. The Ionic style was used in the cities of Ionia (now the west coast of Turkey) and some of the Aegean islands. The Doric style was more formal and austere, the Ionic was more relaxed and decorative. The more ornate Corinthian style was a later development of the Ionic. These styles are best known through the three orders of column capitals, but there are differences in most points of design and decoration between the orders. The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ...


Most surviving Greek buildings, such as the Parthenon and the Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, are Doric. The Erechtheum and the small temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis are Ionic however. The Ionic order became dominant in the Hellenistic period, since its more decorative style suited the aesthetic of the period better than the more restrained Doric. Records show that the evolution of the Ionic order was resisted by many Greek States, as they claimed it represented the dominance of Athens. Some of the best surviving Hellenistic buildings, such as the Library of Celsus, can be seen in Turkey, at cities such as Ephesus and Pergamum. But in the greatest of Hellenistic cities, Alexandria in Egypt, almost nothing survives. For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) Temple of Hephaestus, Athens: eastern face The Temple of Hephaestus in central ancient Athens, Greece, is the best-preserved ancient Greek temple in the world, but is far less well... Erechtheum, from SW The Porch of Maidens The Erechtheum, or Erechtheion, is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece, notable for a design that is both elegant and unusual. ... Ruins of Celsus Library The Library of Celsus is a monumental tomb for Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, built by his son Galius Julius Aquila in 135 in Ephesus, Turkey. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


Architectural elements

Roof tiles

The earliest finds of roof tiles in archaic Greece are documented from a very restricted area around Corinth (Greece), where fired tiles began to replace thatchet roofs at two temples of Apollo and Poseidon between 700-650 BC.[1] Spreading rapidly, roof tiles were within fifty years in evidence for a large number of sites around the Eastern Mediterranean, including Mainland Greece, Western Asia Minor, Southern and Central Italy.[2] Early roof tiles showed an S-shape, with the pan and cover tile forming one piece. They were rather bulky, weighting around 30 kg apiece.[3] Being more expensive and labour-intensive to produce than thatchet, their introduction has been explained with their greatly enhanced fire resistance which gave desired protection to the costly temples.[4] The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


The spread of the roof tile technique has to be viewed in connection with the simultaneous rise of monumental architecture in Archaic Greece. Only the appearing stone walls, which were replacing the earlier mudbrick and wood walls, were strong enough to support the weight of a tiled roof.[5] As a side-effect, it has been assumed that the new stone and tile construction also ushered in the end of 'Chinese roof' (Knickdach) construction in Greek architecture, as they made the need for an extended roof as rain protection for the mudbrick walls obsolete.[6]


Greek Revival architecture

See article Greek Revival architecture for the revival of Greek architecture in the eighteenth century and later. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Tower of the Winds, Athens from The Antiquities of Athens, 1762. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ... Supreme Court building in Washington, D.C. The buildings facade underwent renovation during the summer of 2006. ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... The Jefferson Memorial from outside The Thomas Jefferson Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C. that is dedicated to Thomas Jefferson, an American Founding Father and the third president of the United States. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... The Harris The Harris Museum is a Grade I listed museum building in Preston and has the largest gallery space in Lancashire, England. ... Full name Downing College Motto Quaerere Verum Seek the truth Named after Sir George Downing Previous names - Established 1800 Sister College(s) Lincoln College Master Prof. ...

See also

The Greeks began to build monumental temples in the first half of the 8th century BC. The temples of Hera at Samos and of Poseidon at Isthmia were among the first erected. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Orjan Wikander, p.285
  2. ^ Orjan Wikander, p.286
  3. ^ William Rostoker; Elizabeth Gebhard, p. 212
  4. ^ Orjan Wikander, p.289
  5. ^ Marilyn Y. Goldberg, p.309
  6. ^ Marilyn Y. Goldberg, p.305

References

Re-invention of roof tiles ... Taschen is an art book publisher founded in 1980 by Benedikt Taschen in Cologne, Germany. ...

  • Marilyn Y. Goldberg, “Greek Temples and Chinese Roofs,” American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 87, No. 3. (Jul., 1983), pp. 305-310
  • Orjan Wikander, “Archaic Roof Tiles the First Generations,” Hesperia, Vol. 59, No. 1. (Jan. - Mar., 1990), pp. 285-290
  • William Rostoker; Elizabeth Gebhard, “The Reproduction of Rooftiles for the Archaic Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia, Greece,” Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 8, No. 2. (Summer, 1981), pp. 211-227

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // 250 years 1000 years - The last 250 years (fine grid) is detailed above 8000 years - The last 1000 years (fine grid) is detailed above Voorthuis - Timelines Categories: | | ... Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. ... For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world which developed a vast array of structures known as Ancient Egyptian architecture. ... Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt. ... Dravidian architecture, as unique and spectacular as any Greek, Roman or Egyptian architecture, spans many thousands of years. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... A wall in the fortress of Ollantaytambo Inca architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Sassanid architecture. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Stupa at Swayambhunath Newari architecture is the architecture developed by Newars. ... Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism: stupas and viharas. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Profile of a Hoysala temple at Somanathapura Hoysala architecture (Kannada: ) is the distinctive building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire, in the region known today as Karnataka, India, between the 11th and 14th centuries. ... Vijayanagar Raya Gopura Belur, Karnataka The Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565CE) was a unique building idiom evolved by the imperial Vijayanagar Empire that ruled the whole of South India from their regal capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka, India. ... Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal, a unique 24 pointed, uninterrupted stellate (star shaped), 7 tiered dravida plan, 12th c. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... The monastery of Geghard in Kotayk, Armenia. ... Subcategories There are 2 subcategories in this category, which are shown below. ... Subcategories There are 3 subcategories in this category, which are shown below. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Subcategories There are 9 subcategories in this category, which are shown below. ... Subcategories There are 2 subcategories in this category, which are shown below. ... Subcategories There are 7 subcategories to this category shown below (more may be shown on subsequent pages). ... Pages in category Maltese architecture There are 9 pages in this section of this category. ... Montenegro has a number of significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... MediaÅŸ, historic city centre The UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites includes Romanian sites such as the Saxon villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Painted churches of northern Moldavia with their fine exterior and interior frescoes, the Wooden Churches of Maramures unique examples that combine Gothic style with traditional... The Great Mosque of Córdoba Sagrada Familia church, by Gaudí Spanish architecture is the name given to the constructions made in Spain throughout time, and those by Spanish architects world-wide. ... Subcategories There is one subcategory in this category, which is shown below. ... World map of dependent territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ancient Greece (198 words)
Essays and pictures of ancient Greek Architecture, from the neolithic to the Hellenistic and Greco-Roman periods.
A brief history of Greece is compiled here, as well as articles regarding the history of major Eras, places, and monuments of Ancient Greece.
A timeline of ancient Greece that outlines major periods and events from 8000 to 30 BCE.
Ancient Greek Architecture - Great Buildings Online (243 words)
Fourth Temple of Hera, by Rhoikos of Samos, at Samos, Greece, -575 to -550.
Stoa of Attalus, by unknown, at Athens, Greece, -150.
Temple of Apollo, by Ictinus, at Bassae, Greece, -420 to -410.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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