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Encyclopedia > Architecture
Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral.
Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral.

Architecture is the art and science of designing and constructing buildings and other physical structures. A wider definition often includes the design of the total built environment, from the macro level of how a building integrates with its surrounding manmade landscape (see town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture) to the micro level of architectural or construction details and, sometimes, furniture. The term "Architecture" is also used for the profession of providing architectural services.* Architecture may refer to: Traditional architecture, the art and science of designing buildings Nontraditional architecture, a representation of an arbitrary natural or man-made structure of two or more interacting parts. ... Image File history File links Brunelleshi-and-Duomo-of-Florence. ... Image File history File links Brunelleshi-and-Duomo-of-Florence. ... View of the façade with Giottos Bell Tower. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Central Park, like most city parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ...


Architects are primarily driven by the creative manipulation of mass,space, form, volume, texture,structure, light, shadow, materials, program, and pragmatic elements such as cost, construction and technology, in order to achieve an end which is aesthetic, functional and often artistic. This distinguishes architecture from engineering design, which is driven primarily by the creative manipulation of materials and forms using mathematical and scientific principles. The word manipulation can refer to: Joint manipulation Social influence Sleight of hand tricks in magic or XCM. Abuse Advertising Brainwashing Charisma Fraud Indoctrination Love bombing Machiavellianism Media manipulation Mind control Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) Propaganda Social psychology Puppeteer Photo manipulation Categories: | | ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... This article is about the idea of space. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... Look up texture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Shadows on pavement A shadow is a region of darkness where light is blocked. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... An Architectural brief in its broadest sense, is a problem a client may have, which an architect attempts to solve. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ...


Separate from the design process, architecture is also experienced [1] through the senses, which therefore gives rise to aural [2] , visual, olfactory [3], and tactile [4] architecture. As people move through a space, architecture is experienced as a time sequence. [5] Even though our culture considers architecture to be a visual experience, the other senses play a role in how we experience both natural and built environments. Attitudes towards the senses depend on culture [6]. The design process and the sensory experience of a space are distinctly separate views, each with its own language and assumptions.


Architectural works are perceived as cultural and political symbols and works of art. Historical civilizations are often known primarily through their architectural achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of Egypt and the Roman Colosseum are cultural symbols, and are an important link in public consciousness, even when scholars have discovered much about a past civilization through other means. Cities, regions and cultures continue to identify themselves with (and are known by) their architectural monuments.[7] Central New York City. ... This is about the polyhedron. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline. ...

Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome, not only transformed the cathedral and the city of Florence, but also the role and status of the architect.
Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome, not only transformed the cathedral and the city of Florence, but also the role and status of the architect.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (859x521, 108 KB) Santa Maria del Fiore, view, Florence, Italy File from nl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (859x521, 108 KB) Santa Maria del Fiore, view, Florence, Italy File from nl. ... Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ...

Etymology and application of the term

The word "architecture" comes from the Latin architectura and that from Greek αρχιτέκτων (architekton), "master builder", from the combination of αρχι- (archi-), "chief" or "leader" and τέκτων (tekton), a "builder" or "carpenter"[8][9]. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


While the primary application of the word "architecture" pertains to the built environment, by extension, the term has come to denote the art and discipline of creating an actual (or inferring an implied or apparent) plan of any complex object or system. The term can be used to connote the implied architecture of mathematics or of abstract things such as music, the apparent architecture of natural things, such as geological formations or the structure of biological cells, or explicitly planned architectures of human-made things such as software, computers, enterprises, and databases, in addition to buildings. In every usage, an architecture may be seen as a subjective mapping from a human perspective (that of the user in the case of abstract or physical artifacts) to the elements or components of some kind of structure or system, which preserves the relationships among the elements or components. The phrase refers to the manmade surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging from the large-scale civic surroundings to the personal places. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Discipline (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology concerned with the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules--proteins and nucleic acids in particular—and what causes them to have the structures they have. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... This article is about Enterprise Architecture. ... This article is about computing. ... In mathematics and related technical fields, the term map or mapping is often a synonym for function. ... In mathematics, an element (also called a member) is an object contained in a set (or more generally a class). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Architect

Main article: architect
Design for a gardener's cottage and engine house in the grounds of a castle. Ludwig Persius, Berlin, 1836.
Design for a gardener's cottage and engine house in the grounds of a castle. Ludwig Persius, Berlin, 1836.

Architecture as a profession is the practice of providing architectural services. The practice of architecture includes the planning, designing and oversight of a building's construction by an architect. Architectural services typically address both feasibility and cost for the builder, as well as function and aesthetics for the user. For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 387 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3116 × 4819 pixel, file size: 624 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Berlin, Schloss Klein Glienicke Gärtner- und Maschinenenhaus Architekt: Ludwig Persius 1836/38 Source: Architektonisches Album, Heft 9, Blatt 50 (1842) Faithful reproductions of two... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 387 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3116 × 4819 pixel, file size: 624 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Berlin, Schloss Klein Glienicke Gärtner- und Maschinenenhaus Architekt: Ludwig Persius 1836/38 Source: Architektonisches Album, Heft 9, Blatt 50 (1842) Faithful reproductions of two... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... In economics, business, and accounting, a cost is the value of inputs that have been used up to produce something, and hence are not available for use anymore. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ...


Architecture did not start to become professionalized until the late nineteenth century. Before then, architects had ateliers and architectural education varied, from a more formal training as at the École des Beaux-Arts in France, which was founded in the mid seventeenth century, to the more informal system where students worked in an atelier until they could become independent. There were also so-called gentlemen architects, which were architects with private means. This was a tradition particularly strong in England during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Lord Burlington, designer of Chiswick House, (1723-49) is an example. Some architects were also sculptors, such as Bernini, theater designers such as Filippo Juvarra and John Vanbrugh, and painters, such as Michelangelo and Le Corbusier. École des Beaux-Arts (IPA ) refers to several art schools in France. ... Atelier is a French word literally translated as workshop. In English, it is used to refer to a working studio, typically an artists studio. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork (April 25, 1694 – 1753) , born in Yorkshire, was a descendant of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork. ... Chiswick House Chiswick House is a Palladian villa in Burlington Lane, Chiswick, London W4, England. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Filippo Juvarra. ... Sir John Vanbrugh in Godfrey Knellers Kit-cat portrait, considered one of Knellers finest portraits. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ...


In the 1440s, the Florentine architect, Alberti, wrote his De Re Aedificatoria, published in 1485, a year before the first edition of Vitruvius, with which he was already familiar.[10].[11] Alberti gives the earliest definition of the role of the architect. The architect is to be concerned firstly with the construction. This encompasses all the practical matters of site, of materials and their limitations and of human capability. The second concern is "articulation"; the building must work and must please and suit the needs of those who use it. The third concern of the architect is aesthetics, both of proportion and of ornament. Alberti was an illustrious Florentine family, rivals of the Medicis and the Albizzi. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. ...


The role of the architect is constantly evolving, and is central to the design and implementation of the environments in which people live. In order to obtain the skills and knowledge required to design, plan, and oversee a diverse range of projects, architects must go through extensive formal education, coupled with a requisite amount of professional practice.


The work of an architect is an interdisciplinary field, drawing upon mathematics, science, art, technology, social sciences, politics and history, and is often governed by the architect's personal approach or philosophy. Vitruvius, the earliest known architectural theorist, states: "Architecture is a science, arising out of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning: by the help of which a judgement is formed of those works which are the result of other arts." He adds that an architect should be well versed in other fields of learning such as music and astronomy.[11] Vitruvius' broad definition of the architect still holds true to some extent today, even though business concerns and the computer have reshaped the activities and definition of the modern architect in significant ways. Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


Theory of Architecture

Historic treatises

Plan, Front view and side view of a typical column of Perspolis palace of Persia.
Plan, Front view and side view of a typical column of Perspolis palace of Persia.
Persepolis palace after 2500 years, Persia.
Persepolis palace after 2500 years, Persia.

The earliest written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century CE.[11] According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitatis utilitatis venustatis,[12] [13] which translates roughly as - Alternate meanings: Persepolis (football), Persepolis (graphic novel) Persepolis was an ancient capital of the Persian Empire, situated some 70 km northeast of Shiraz, not far from where the small river Pulwar flows into the Kur (Kyrus). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Image File history File links Parsa7. ... Image File history File links Parsa7. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... De architectūra (Latin: On architecture) was a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. ...

  • Durability - it should stand up robustly and remain in good condition.
  • Utility - it should be useful and function well for the people using it.
  • Beauty - it should delight people and raise their spirits.

According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfil each of these three attributes as well as possible.

The Parthenon, Athens, "the supreme example among architectural sites." (Fletcher).
The Parthenon, Athens, "the supreme example among architectural sites." (Fletcher).[14]

Leone Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, although ornament also played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden Mean. The most important aspect of beauty was therefore an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially; and was based on universal, recognisable truths. The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari.[15] The treatises, by the 18th century, had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 449 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1150 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 449 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1150 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Gillette Factory on the Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex. ... Late statue of Leon Battista Alberti. ... De re aedificatoria: On the Art of Building in Ten Books, is a classic architectural treatise written by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450. ... In philosophy (especially that of Aristotle), the golden mean is the felicitous middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency; for this meaning, see golden mean (philosophy). ... Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ...


In the early nineteenth century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts (1836) that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only “true Christian form of architecture.” This article is about the English architect and designer, 1812–1852. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ...


The 19th century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849,[16] was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men … that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health, power, and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance. His work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned". For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the very least. Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ...


On the difference between the ideals of "architecture" and mere "construction", the renowned 20th C. architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone, wood, and concrete, and with these materials you build houses and palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity is at work. But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful. That is Architecture".[17] For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ...

The Wainwright Building in St. Louis, designed by Louis Sullivan.
The Wainwright Building in St. Louis, designed by Louis Sullivan.
Europe's Gate, Madrid; the first intentionally inclined buildings in the world.
Europe's Gate, Madrid; the first intentionally inclined buildings in the world.

Image File history File links Wainwright_building_st_louis_USA.jpg Louis Sullivans Wainwright Building, St. ... Image File history File links Wainwright_building_st_louis_USA.jpg Louis Sullivans Wainwright Building, St. ... Wainwright Building The Wainwright Building is a 10-story red-brick landmark office building in downtown St. ... Louis Henri Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, called the father of modernism. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PlazaCastillaMadrid. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PlazaCastillaMadrid. ... Puerta de Europa from Paseo de la Castellana, with the monument to Calvo-Sotelo in the center. ...

Modern concepts of architecture

The great 19th century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". Louis Henri Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, called the father of modernism. ... Form follows function is a principle associated with Modern architecture and industrial design in the 20th Century, which states that the shape of a building or object should be predicated on its intended purpose. ...


While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and scepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural.


Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development. To restrict the meaning of (architectural) formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades form into a mere instrumentality".[18]


Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and phenomenology. In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... This article is about the philosophical movement. ...

Sydney Opera House, designed by Utzon. photo E.Lau.
Sydney Opera House, designed by Utzon. photo E.Lau.

In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability. To satisfy the modern ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste management and lighting. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 846 pixel, file size: 248 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sydney Opera House, clearly showing the outline of its sails. Taken by Enoch Lau on 20 July 2004. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 846 pixel, file size: 248 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sydney Opera House, clearly showing the outline of its sails. Taken by Enoch Lau on 20 July 2004. ... The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Jorn Utzon (born April 9, 1918) is a Danish architect best known for his groundbreaking design for the Sydney Opera House. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ...


There is also a concept among architects that although architecture does not exist in a vacuum, architectural form cannot be merely a compilation of historical precedent, functional necessities, and socially aware concerns, but that to achieve significance, a work of architecture must be a transcendent synthesis of all of the former and a creation of worth in and of itself.


History

Vernacular architecture in Denmark.
Vernacular architecture in Denmark.

The History of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various countries and dates. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (2097 × 1386 pixel, file size: 526 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Typical half-timbered village house with thatched roof and white exterior. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (2097 × 1386 pixel, file size: 526 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Typical half-timbered village house with thatched roof and white exterior. ...

Origins and the ancient world

Architecture first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills). As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, architecture became a craft. Here there is first a process of trial and error, and later improvisation or replication of a successful trial. What is termed Vernacular architecture continues to be produced in many parts of the world. Indeed, vernacular buildings make up most of the built world that people experience every day. Concrete and metal rebar used to build a floor Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorize a method of construction which uses locally available resources to address local needs. ...

Early human settlements were mostly rural. Due to a surplus in production the economy began to expand resulting in urbanization thus creating urban areas which grew and evolved very rapidly in some cases, such as that of Çatal Huyuk in Anatolia and Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan. In many ancient civilizations, like the Egyptians' and Mesopotamians', architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural, while in other ancient cultures such as Persia architecture and urban planning was used to exemplify the power of the state. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 557 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (650 × 700 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Angkor (Cambodia, early 13th century) - The Bayon, built under the rule of king Jayavarman VII, is one of the few temples in Angkor that was consecrated... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 557 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (650 × 700 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Angkor (Cambodia, early 13th century) - The Bayon, built under the rule of king Jayavarman VII, is one of the few temples in Angkor that was consecrated... Map of the Angkor region in Cambodia. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Mohenjo-daro (Urdu: , Sindhi: , English: ) was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization built around 2600 BCE and is located in the Sindh Province of Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...


The architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilizations such as the Greek and the Roman evolved from civic ideals rather than religious or empirical ones and new building types emerged. Architectural styles developed. Urbanism is the study of cities - their geographic, economic, political, social and cultural environment, and the imprint of all these forces on the built environment. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Texts on architecture began to be written in the Classical period. These became canons to be followed in important works, especially religious architecture. Some examples of canons are found in the writings of Vitruvius, the Kao Gong Ji of ancient China[19] and Vaastu Shastra of ancient India. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. ... Vaastu Shastra (Vaastu- physical environment and Shastra- knowledge/ text/ principles. ...


The architecture of different parts of Asia developed along different lines to that of Europe, Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each having different characteristics. Buddhist architecture, in particular, showed great regional diversity. In many Asian countries a pantheistic religion led to architectural forms that were designed specifically to enhance the natural landscape. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

The Taj Mahal, in India, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."
The Taj Mahal, in India, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ...

The Medieval builder

Islamic architecture began in the 7th century CE, developing from the architectural forms of the ancient Middle East but developing features to suit the religious and social needs of the society. Examples can be found throughout the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, and were to become a significant stylistic influence on European architecture during the Medieval period. The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... BCE redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

In Europe, in both the Classical and Medieval periods, buildings were not attributed to specific individuals and the names of the architects frequently unknown, despite the vast scale of the many religious buildings extant from this period. During the Medieval period guilds were formed by craftsmen to organise their trade and written contracts have survived, particularly in relation to ecclesiastical buildings. The role of architect was usually one with master builder, except in the case where a cleric, such as the Abbot Suger at Saint Denis, Paris, provided the design. Over time the complexity of buildings and their types increased. General civil construction such as roads and bridges began to be built. Many new building types such as schools, hospitals, and recreational facilities emerged. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2748x2068, 1378 KB) The west front of Wells Cathedral, Wells, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2748x2068, 1378 KB) The west front of Wells Cathedral, Wells, England. ... The west front, completed c. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... Suger of Saint-Denis on a medieval window Suger (c. ...


Renaissance and the architect

La Rotonda, by Palladio.
La Rotonda, by Palladio.

With the Renaissance and its emphasis on the individual and humanity rather than religion, and with all its attendant progress and achievements, a new chapter began. Buildings were ascribed to specific architects - Brunelleschi, Alberti, Michelangelo, Palladio - and the cult of the individual had begun. But there was no dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any of the related vocations. At this stage, it was still possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations involved was within the scope of the generalist. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1406x912, 2200 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Villa Capra "La Rotonda" ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1406x912, 2200 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Villa Capra "La Rotonda" ... Villa Capra La Rotonda in Vicenza. ... Illustration from a 1736 English edition of I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ... Alberti was an illustrious Florentine family, rivals of the Medicis and the Albizzi. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Illustration from a 1736 English edition of I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


With the emerging knowledge in scientific fields and the rise of new materials and technology, architecture and engineering began to separate, and the architect began to lose ground on some technical aspects of building design. He therefore concentrated on aesthetics and the humanist aspects. Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Look up Humanist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

St Pancras Midland Hotel, London
St Pancras Midland Hotel, London

There was also the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly on visual qualities derived usually from historical prototypes, typified by the many country houses of Great Britain that were created in the Neo Gothic or Scottish Baronial styles. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 264 KB)The ornate Gothic Revival facade and clock tower of Sir George Gilbert Scotts Midland Hotel. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 264 KB)The ornate Gothic Revival facade and clock tower of Sir George Gilbert Scotts Midland Hotel. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Neo-gothic architecture is an American branch of the Gothic revival style that was imported from England in the 1830s. ... Craigievar Castle in Aberdeenshire, completed in 1626, shows the origin of the style. ...


Formal architectural training, in the 19th century, at, for example Ecole des Beaux Arts in France, gave much emphasis to the production of beautiful drawings and little to context and feasibility. Effective architects generally received their training in the offices of other architects, graduating to the role from draughtsmen or clerks. École des Beaux Arts refers to several art schools in France. ...


Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass production and consumption. Aesthetics became a criterion for the middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper under machine production. Vernacular architecture became increasingly ornamental. House builders could access current architectural design in their work by combining features found in pattern books and architectural journals. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Modernism and reaction of architecture

The dissatisfaction with such a general situation at the turn of the twentieth century gave rise to many new lines of thought that served as precursors to Modern Architecture. Notable among these is the Deutscher Werkbund, formed in 1907 to produce better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of industrial design is usually placed here. Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... The Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) was a German association of architects, designers and industrialists, an important precursor to the Bauhaus. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ...


Following this lead, the Bauhaus school, founded in Germany in 1919, consciously rejected history and looked at architecture as a synthesis of art, craft, and technology. For information about British rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ...


When Modern architecture was first practiced, it was an avant-garde movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings. Immediately after World War I, pioneering modernist architects sought to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order, focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes. They rejected the architectural practice of the academic refinement of historical styles which served the rapidly declining aristocratic order. Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

The approach of the Modernist architects was to reduce buildings to pure forms, removing historical references and ornament in favor of functionalist details. Buildings that displayed their construction and structure, exposing steel beams and concrete surfaces instead of hiding them behind traditional forms, were seen as beautiful in their own right. Architects such as Mies van der Rohe worked to create beauty based on the inherent qualities of building materials and modern construction techniques, trading traditional historic forms for simplified geometric forms, celebrating the new means and methods made possible by the Industrial Revolution. Image File history File linksMetadata FallingwaterWright. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FallingwaterWright. ... This article is about the house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer, educator, and philosopher who designed more than 1,000 projects, of which more than 500 resulted in completed works. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (March 27, 1886 - August 17, 1969) was an architect and designer. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Many architects resisted Modernism, finding it devoid of the decorative richness of ornamented styles. As the founders of the International Style lost influence in the late 1970s, Postmodernism developed as a reaction against the austerity of Modernism. Robert Venturi's contention that a "decorated shed" (an ordinary building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the outside) was better than a "duck" (a building in which the whole form and its function are tied together) gives an idea of this approach. The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is an award winning American architect. ...


Architecture today

Gare do Oriente Railway Station, Lisbon, by Santiago Calatrava.

Part of the architectural profession, and also some non-architects, responded to Modernism and Postmodernism by going to what they considered the root of the problem. They felt that architecture was not a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it had to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to give a livable environment. The Design Methodology Movement involving people such as Christopher Alexander started searching for more people-oriented designs. Extensive studies on areas such as behavioral, environmental, and social sciences were done and started informing the design process. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Gare do Oriente is one of the main transport hubs in Lisbon, Portugal. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Santiago Calatrava Valls (born July 28, 1951) is an internationally recognized and award-winning Spanish architect and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zurich, Switzerland. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... Christopher Alexander (born October 4, 1936 in Vienna, Austria) is an architect noted for his theories about design, and for more than 200 building projects in California, Japan, Mexico and around the world. ...


As many other concerns began to be recognized and the complexity of buildings began to increase (in terms of aspects such as structural systems, services, energy and technologies), architecture started becoming more multi-disciplinary than ever. Architecture today usually requires a team of specialist professionals, with the architect being one of many, although usually the team leader.


During the last two decades of the twentieth century and into the new millennium, the field of architecture saw the rise of specializations within the profession itself by project type, technological expertise or project delivery methods. In addition, there has been an increased separation of the 'design' architect [a] from the 'project' architect [b] within some architectural office collaborations.


Moving the issues of environmental sustainability into the mainstream is one of most significant recent developments in the architecture profession. Sustainability in architecture was pioneered in the 1970s by architects such as Ian McHarg in the US and Brenda and Robert Vale in the UK and New Zealand. The acceleration in numbers of buildings which seek to meet green building sustainable design principles is inline with a growing world-wide awareness of the risks and implications of accelerating man-made climate change. The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Ian McHarg Ian L. McHarg (1920-2001) was a landscape architect and the founder of the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Professor Brenda Vale and Doctor Robert Vale are architects, writers, pioneer researchers and leading experts in the field of sustainable housing. ... This article is about green building construction. ... Sustainable design (also referred to as green design, eco-design, or design for environment) is the art of designing physical objects and the built environment to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. ...


It is now widely expected that tomorrow’s architects will integrate sustainable principles into their projects.[20]

Contemporary architecture in Bangalore, India
Contemporary architecture in Bangalore, India

The American Institute of Architects acknowledges that half of today's global warming greenhouse gas emissions come from Buildings - more than Transportation or Industry, and that architects are chiefly responsible. [4] AIA states that immediate action by the building sector is essential to avoid hazardous man-made climate change. They have an "Architecture 2030" plan [5] to reduce new building energy consumption by 90% in 2030, and net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2035. Passive solar building design has been demonstrating essential elements of 70% to 90% energy consumption reduction in roughly 300,000 buildings since the 1978 U.S. Solar Energy Tax Incentives. Many of these basic building envelope energy efficiency features can be added at little-or-no additional net cost during new construction. Newer zero energy buildings have reduced net annual energy consumption, producing excess energy and selling it back to the grid-connected power company during moderate months. They are receiving significant publicity. The emerging demand for zero energy buildings is growing rapidly - Tens of thousands of U.S. Dollar zero energy building subsidies are available [6] - The supply of zero energy buildings has fallen far short of current demand. Off-the-grid buildings are now demonstrating total self sufficiency. Energy considerations are becoming significant portion of architecture. The 2009 Bank of America Tower (New York) has many innovative energy features. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architects in the United States. ... Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the suns daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling systems. ... Similar or related terms: Near zero energy building, Zero energy house, Near zero energy house A zero energy building (ZEB) can be described as structure with a net energy consumption of zero over a typical year. ... The term off the grid refers to a method of construction that relies on renewable energy sources rather than traditional public utility sources provided by the utility grid. ...


President George Bush’s 2006 Solar America Initiative expects architects and builders to actively design and construct new zero energy buildings by 2015. [7] The U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007[21] funded the new Solar Air Conditioning Research and Development Program, which should develop and demonstrate multiple new technology innovations and mass production economies of scale. Significant construction industry-wide re-education will be required very soon. Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ...


See also

Main list: List of basic architecture topics

Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings. ... Acoustics is the interdisciplinary sciences that always deals with the study of sound, ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... Air rights are a type of development right in real estate. ... Ancient lights is a term of property law in England. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Architecture for Humanity is a 501c3 non-profit organization founded in 1999 to promote architectural and design solutions to global, social and humanitarian crises and provide design services to communities in need. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, or most importantly writing about architecture. ... This page indexes the individual year in architecture pages. ... The Try2004 Hyperstructure or Megacity as featured on the Discovery Channels Extreme Engineering programs. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Building biology (or Baubiologie as it was coined in Germany) is a science that investigates the indoor living environment for a variety of irritants. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... // Building engineering: a discipline for the modern era Building engineering, commonly known in the US as architectural engineering, is an emerging engineering discipline that concerns with the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... A building envelope is the exterior assembly that encloses the interior space of a building. ... Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... This terminology used in the Netherlands and European Union (EU) See also: Computer-aided design (CAD) Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) software programs are the repository of accurate and comprehensive records of buildings and is used by architects and architectural companies. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... An energy plus house is producing it`s own energy, or even more than is being used within it`s own walls. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... This article is about green building construction. ... Official Habitat for Humanity logo Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) (generally referred to as Habitat for Humanity or simply Habitat) is an international, ecumenical Christian, non-governmental, non-profit organization devoted to building simple, decent, and affordable housing. ... The History of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various countries and dates. ... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... Central Park, like most city parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ... 7 World Trade Center, considered New York Citys first green office tower by gaining gold status in the U.S. Green Building Councils LEED program. ... // List of architecture magazines and internet resources (international) This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... This is a list of buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... The following is a list of famous architects. ... Mathematics and architecture have always enjoyed a close association with each other, not only in the sense that the latter is informed by the former, but also in that both share the search for order and beauty, the former in nature and the latter in buildings. ... A low-energy-house is any type of house that uses less energy than a regular house. ... For passive solar houses, see passive solar building design. ... Solar panels are used in passive and active solar hot water systems Passive solar technologies convert sunlight into usable heat, cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use, without the assistance of other energy sources. ... Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the suns daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling systems. ... Passive cooling refers to technologies or design features used to cool houses naturally, such as those technologies discussed in the Passive House project. ... A real estate developer (American English) or property developer (British English) makes improvements of some kind to real property, thereby increasing its value. ... Larger than life structures remain at Karnak 3400 years later Religious architecture is concerned with the design and construction of places of worship, such as churches, mosques, stupas, synagogues, and temples. ... Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a combination of ailments (a syndrome) associated with an individuals place of work; typically, but not always, an office building (though there have also been instances of SBS in residential buildings). ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Sustainable design (also referred to as green design, eco-design, or design for environment) is the art of designing physical objects and the built environment to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorize a method of construction which uses locally available resources to address local needs. ...

Notes

a. ^  A design architect is one who is responsible for the design
b. ^  A project architect is on who is responsible for ensuring the design is built correctly and who administers building contracts - in non-specialist architectural practices the project architect is also the design architect and the term refers to the differing roles the architect plays at differing stages of the process.

References

Find more about Architecture on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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Learning resources
  1. ^ S. Rasmussen Experiencing Architecture MIT Press
  2. ^ B. Blesser and L. Salter Spaces Speak, Are You Listening? Experiencing Aural Architecture MIT Press 2007. online [1]
  3. ^ A. Barbara and A. Perliss Invisible Architecture: Experiencing Places Through the Sense of Smell Skira, 2006
  4. ^ J. Pallasmaa The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses
  5. ^ P. Thiel People, Paths, and Purposes University of Washington Press, 1997
  6. ^ D. Howes The Variety of Sensory Experiences University of Toronto Press, 1991
  7. ^ The Tower Bridge, the Eiffel Tower and the Colosseum are representative of the buildings used on advertising brochures.
  8. ^ Architekton, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  9. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  10. ^ Leon Battista Alberti, The Ten Books of Architecture, publisher? ISBN
  11. ^ a b c D. Rowland - T.N. Howe: Vitruvius. Ten Books on Architecture. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999, ISBN 0-521-00292-3
  12. ^ Translated by Henry Wotton, in 1624, as "firmness, commodity and delight" [2]
  13. ^ Vitruvius [3]
  14. ^ Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method
  15. ^ Françoise Choay, Alberti and Vitruvius, editor, Joseph Rykwert, Profile 21, Architectural Design, Vol 49 No 5-6
  16. ^ John Ruskin, The Seven Lamps of Architecture, G. Allen (1880), reprinted Dover , (1989) ISBN 0-486-26145-X
  17. ^ Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture, Dover Publications(1985). ISBN 0-486-25023-7
  18. ^ Rondanini, Nunzia Architecture and Social Change Heresies II, Vol. 3, No. 3, New York, Neresies Collective Inc., 1981.
  19. ^ 7th-5th centuries BCE.
  20. ^ The U.S. Green Building Council's LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating system has been instrumental in this. Other energy efficiency and green building rating systems include Energy Star, Green Globes, and CHPS (Collaborative for High Performance Schools),LEED.
  21. ^ U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-23.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... For the bridge of the same name in California, see Tower Bridge (California). ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... 7 World Trade Center, considered New York Citys first green office tower by gaining gold status in the U.S. Green Building Councils LEED program. ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects in the United Kingdom. ...

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