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Encyclopedia > Architect
An architect at his drawing board, 1893
An architect at his drawing board, 1893

An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, design, and oversight of a building's construction. The word "architect" (Latin: architectus) derives from the Greek arkhitekton (arkhi, chief + tekton, builder")[1] . In the broadest sense an architect is a person who translates a user's requirements into a built environment. Architect may refer to one of the following. ... Download high resolution version (2195x2710, 203 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2195x2710, 203 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ...


Architects must frequently make professional decisions that affect the safety and well being of the general public. Architects are required to obtain specialized education and experience to obtain a license to practice architecture, similar to the requirements for other professionals. The requirements for practice vary from place to place (see below). This article is about building architecture. ... This article is about people called professionals. ...


The most prestigious award a living architect can receive is the Pritzker Prize, often termed the "Nobel Prize for architecture." Other awards for excellence in architecture are given by national regional professional associations such as the American Institute of Architects and Royal Institute of British Architects. Other prestigious architectural awards are the Alvar Aalto Medal (Finland) and the Carlsberg Architecture Prize (Denmark'). The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually by the Hyatt Foundation to honor a living architect. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This is a list of architecture prizes // Major international prizes AIA Gold Medal Pritzker Prize RIBA Royal Gold Medal (first awarded 1848) International prizes Aga Khan Award for Architecture (for Islamic architecture) Emporis Skyscraper Award European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture National prizes UK RIAS... The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architects in the United States. ... The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects in the United Kingdom. ...


Although the term "architect" refers to a professionally-qualified individual, the word is frequently used in the broader sense noted above to define someone who brings order to a built or non-built situation.

Contents

Architects in practice

An architect must thoroughly understand the building and operational codes under which his or her design must conform. That degree of knowledge is necessary so that he or she is not apt to omit any necessary requirements, or produce improper, conflicting, ambiguous, or confusing requirements. Architects must also understand the various methods available to the builder for building the client's structure, so that he or she can negotiate with the client to produce a best possible compromise of the results desired within explicit cost and time boundaries. The idea of what constitutes a result desired varies among architects, as the values and attitudes which underlie modern architecture differ both between the schools of thought which influence architecture and between individual practising architects.[2] A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ...


The practice of architecture is a business, in which technical knowledge, management skills, and an understanding of good business practice are as important as creative design. In practice, an architect accepts a commission from a client (an individual, a board of directors, a government agency or a corporation). This commission may involve the preparation of feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a single building, or the design of several buildings, structures and the spaces between them. Increasingly, the architect participates in the development of requirements the client wishes to have met in the building. Throughout the project, from planning to occupancy, the architect usually acts as the coordinator of a team of specialists (the "design team"). Structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers, as well as other specialists, are generally retained by the client or the architect. The architect must ensure that the work of all these different disciplines is coordinated and fits together in the overall design. In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... structural engineer is an engineering profession who practices structural engineering. ... Mechanical engineering is the application of physical principles to the creation of useful devices, objects and machines. ... An engineers degree is an academic degree which is intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate; it is occasionally to be encountered in the United States in technical fields. ...


Working hours are typically over a standard work week, but when working to tight deadlines it is not uncommon for architects to work long hours, including evenings, weekends and all nighters. Architects are predominantly office-based, but their work includes frequent out-of-office visits with clients and to job sites.


Design role

Increasingly, the architect participates in the development of requirements the client wishes to have met in the building. They design projects based on a client requirements, conditions particular to the site, and many other external needs and wishes. Architects must also pay attention to the economics and budget for a particular commission.


Architects deal with various government jurisdictions on local and federal levels, regarding numerous regulations and building codes. The architect may need to comply with local planning and zoning requirements such as required setbacks, height limitations, parking requirements, transparency requirements (windows), land use and other requirements. In many established jurisdictions, design guidelines and historic preservation guidelines must be adhered to. The term jurisdiction has more than one sense. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ... Demolition of the former Penn Station concourse raised public awareness about preservation Historic preservation is the act of maintaining and repairing existing historic materials and the retention of a propertys form as it has evolved over time. ...


Architects also prepare technical documents filed for permits (such as development permits and building permits) which require compliance with building, seismic and various other federal and local regulations. The documents (construction drawings and specifications) are also used for pricing and, ultimately, actual construction. Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure. ...


Construction role

Architects typically put projects to tender on behalf of their clients, advise on the award of the project to a general contractor, and review the progress of the work during construction. They typically review subcontractor shop drawings, prepare and issue site instructions, and provide construction contract administration (see also Design-bid-build). In many jurisdictions, mandatory certification or assurance of the work is required. For the locomotive car, see Tender locomotive. ... A general contractor is an organization or individual that contracts with another organization or individual (the owner) for the construction of a building, road or other facility. ... A subcontractor is an individual or in many cases a business that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of anothers contract. ... A shop drawing is a drawing or set of drawings produced by the contractor, supplier, manufacturer, subcontractor, or fabricator. ... Design-Build-Bid(D-B-B) is a project delivery method in which the agency or owner holds separate contracts with separate entities for the design and construction of a project. ...


Depending on the client's needs and the jurisdiction's requirements, the spectrum of the architect's services may be extensive (detailed document preparation and construction review) or less inclusive (such as to allowing a contractor to exercise considerable design-build functions). With very large, complex projects, an independent construction manager is sometimes hired to assist in design and to manage construction. In the United Kingdom and other countries, a quantity surveyor is often part of the team to provide cost consulting. Design-Build(D-B) is a project delivery method in which the agency or owner holds a single contract with a single entity for both the design and construction of a project. ... Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Alternate practice and specializations

Recent decades have seen the rise of specializations within the profession. Many architects and architectural firms focus on certain project types (for example health care, retail, public housing, etc.), technological expertise or project delivery methods. Some architects specialize as building code, building envelope, sustainable design, historic preservation, accessibility and other forms of specialist consultants. A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... A local authority tower block in Cwmbrân, South Wales Public housing or project homes are forms of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... A building envelope is the exterior assembly that encloses the interior space of a building. ... Sustainable architecture applies techniques of sustainable design to architecture. ... Demolition of the former Penn Station concourse raised public awareness about preservation Historic preservation is the act of maintaining and repairing existing historic materials and the retention of a propertys form as it has evolved over time. ... It has been suggested that Easy Access be merged into this article or section. ...


Many architects elect to move into real estate (property) development , corporate facilities planning, project management, construction management, interior design and other specialized roles. A real estate developer builds on land, thereby increasing its value. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction... It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ...


Professional requirements

Australia

In Australia the title of architect is legally protected and architects are registered through state boards. These boards are affiliated through the Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA) [3]. The AACA also provides accreditation for schools and assessments for architects with overseas qualifications for the purposes of migration.


There are three key requirements for registration: a professional degree from a school of architecture accredited by the AACA; at least two years of practical experience, and; the completion of the architectural practice examination.


Architects may also belong to the Royal Australian Institute of Architects which is the professional organization and members use the suffix RAIA after their name. The Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA) is a professional body for architects in Australia. ...


Canada

In Canada, architects are required to meet three common requirements for registration: education, experience, and examination. Educational requirements generally consist of an M.Arch. degree and are certified by the Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB). For degreed candidates, the experience requirement is typically the Intern Architecture Program (IAP). The provincial associations of architects, by the authority granted under their respective provincial Architects Act, require that Interns gain a minimum of 5,600 hours of work experience. The fundamental purpose of the pre-registration/licensing employment period is to ensure that the Intern is provided with sufficient experience to meet the standards of practical skill and level of competence required to engage in the practice of architecture. This experience is diversified into four main categories and 16 sub-categories, and must be completed working under the direct supervision of a registered architect. At present, all jurisdictions use the Architect Registration Examination (ARE), a series of nine computerized exams administered by the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB). Upon completion of the educational requirements, IAP, and examinations, one can apply for registration/license. An annual fee must be paid, and continuing education requirements met, in order to maintain a license to practice.


The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC) was established in 1907 and is a voluntary national association representing more than 3,600 architects and Faculty and graduates of accredited Canadian Schools of Architecture.[4] The RAIC aims to be "the voice of Architecture and its practice in Canada". Members are permitted to use the suffix MRAIC after their names. The suffix FRAIC (Fellow of the RAIC) is used by members of the RAIC College of Fellows. Not all members of the RAIC hold accredited degrees in architecture, and not all Canadian architects are members of the RAIC. The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC), founded in 1907, is a Canadian association representing over 3,200 architects, and faculty and graduates of Canadian Schools of Architecture. ...


Singapore

In Singapore, university study is required (such as the 5 year course of study at the National University of Singapore or certain approved foreign universities). Upon completion of university, additional training by working for a minimum of two years under a registered architect is required in order to become registered. Singaporean law governs the use of the term "architect" and prescribes the requirements to be listed in the Register of Architects. Membership in the Singapore Institute of Architects is a voluntary professional credential. Malay name Malay: Universiti Nasional Singapura Tamil name Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் தேசிய பல்கலைக்கழகம் University Cultural Centre The National University of Singapore (Abbreviation: NUS) is Singapores oldest university. ...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom practicing under the name, style or title "architect" is restricted by law to those registered at the Architects Registration Board. It usually takes a minimum of seven years to obtain the necessary qualifications and experience for registration. Those wishing to become registered must first study at a recognized university-level school of architecture. Though there are some variations from university to university, the basic principle is that in order to qualify as an architect a candidate must pass through three stages: Architects (Registration) Act, 1931 In the United Kingdom, the Architects Act 1997 imposes restrictions on the use of the name, style or title architect in connection with a business or a professional practice, and for that purpose requires a statutory Register of Architects to be maintained. ... The Architects Registration Board is the statutory registration and regulating body for architects in the United Kingdom. ... From 1932 there has been a statutory Register of Architects under legislation of the United Kingdom Parliament originally enacted in 1931. ...

  • On completing an initial degree in architecture (usually 3 or 4 years, usually either a B.A, BSc, or B.Arch) the candidate receives exemption from RIBA Part I. There then follows a period of a minimum of one year which the candidate spends in an architect's office gaining work experience.
  • The candidate must then complete a post-graduate university course, usually two years, to receive either a Post Graduate Diploma (Dip. Arch), Masters (M.Arch) or B(Arch). On completing that course, the candidate receives exemption from Part II of the RIBA process.
  • The candidate must then spend a further period of at least one year gaining experience before being allowed to take the RIBA Part III examination in Professional Practice and Management.

United States

In the United States, people wishing to become licensed architects are required to meet the requirements of their respective state. Each state has a registration board to oversee that state's licensure laws. In 1919, the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) was created to ensure parity between the states' often conflicting rules. The registration boards of each of the 50 states (and 5 territories), are NCARB member boards. The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) is the professional association of architectural registration boards of the various states in the United States. ...


Requirements vary between jurisdictions, and there are three common requirements for registration: education, experience and examination. About half of the States require a professional degree from a school accredited by the NAAB to satisfy their education requirement; this would be either a B.Arch or M.Arch degree. The experience requirement for degreed candidates is typically the Intern Development Program (IDP), a joint program of NCARB and the American Institute of Architects (AIA). IDP creates a framework to identify for the intern architect base skills and core-competencies. The intern architect needs to earn 700 training units (TUs) diversified into 16 categories; each TU is equivalent to 8 hours of experience working under the direct supervision of a licensed Architect. The states that waive the degree requirement typically require a full 10 years experience in combination with the I.D.P divesification requirements before the candidate is eligible to sit for the examination. California requires C-IDP (Comprehensive Intern Development Program) which builds upon the seat time requirement of IDP with the need to document learning having occurred. All jurisdictions use the Architect Registration Examination (ARE), a series of nine computerized exams administered by NCARB. The NCARB also has a certification for those architects meeting NCARB's model standard: NAAB degree, IDP and ARE passage. This certificate facilitates reciprocity between the member boards should an architect desire registration in a different jurisdiction. All architects licensed by their respective states have professional status as Registered Architects (RA). The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch. ... The Master of Architecture (M.Arch. ... The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architects in the United States. ... Intern Architect is a term often used to describe a person who has successfully completed a professional degree in Architecture (5-year B.Arch or 1-5-year M.Arch) and is studying for the professional certification exam. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Architect Registration Examination (ARE) is the professional licensure examination for architects in the United States and Canada. ...


Depending on the policies of the registration board for the state in question, it is sometimes possible to become licensed as an Architect in other ways: reciprocal licensure for over-seas architects and working under an architect as an intern for an extended period of time.


Professional organizations for Architects in the United States include:

  • The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization representing architects licensed in the United States, and offers its members services such as continuing education programs, standard contracts and other practice-related documents, and design award programs. The AIA is not directly involved with the professional licensing of architects, although AIA members usually place the suffix "AIA" after their names.
  • The Society of American Registered Architects or SARA is another professional organization for registered architects in the United States. Its activities and services include conventions, continuing education programs, standard contracts and other practice-related documents, and design award programs. Members of this organization may have the suffix "SARA" after their name.
  • The National Organization of Minority Architects or NOMA is an organization for minority registered architects and minority architectural students in the United States. It was created in 1971 to bring light to the contributions of African Americans and other minorities in the field of architecture in the United States and the world.

The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architects in the United States. ... The Society of American Registered Architects (SARA) was founded in 1956 as a professional society that includes the participation of all architects, regardless of their roles in the architectural community. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...

Earnings

Earnings for architects range widely, depending on experience, and where and how they work. Salaries also vary depending on the size and location of the practice. Earnings have traditionally been dependent on the local economic conditions but, with rapid globalization, this is becoming less of a factor for larger international firms. Some architects become real estate (property) developers or specialized roles where they can earn a significantly higher income than the industry median. A real estate developer builds on land, thereby increasing its value. ...


Canada Earnings

In 2005, a typical salary for those employed in the architecture category in Canada was $49,595 to $73,684 ($CDN).[5] "Architecture" includes architects, architectural technologists, interior designers, landscape architects and structural technologists. Architectural Technologists , also known as Building Technologists, provide building design services and solutions and are well versed in the architectural technology, building design and construction. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A landscape architect is primarily a designer of spaces, mostly landscapes, and sometimes gardens, in the field of landscape architecture. ...


According to the 2005 Alberta Wage and Salary Survey, Albertans in the Architect occupational group, working part-time or full-time, earned from $31,000 to $114,700 a year. The average salary was $63,100 a year.


US Earning outlook

According to the 2006–2007 Occupation Outlook Handbook published by the US Department of Labor, the median salary of architects was $62,960 with the middle 50% earning between $46,690 and $79,770. This was slightly above accountants (median income $50,770), college professors (median income $51,800) and on par with most branches of engineering (median income of roughly $60,000).


Intern architects typically earn between $35k to 58k depending on experience prior to licensure. Architects that have completed the internship period can expect an average starting salary of between $51,709 and $64,519. For 10 years' experience, the base compensation level increases significantly to an average range of $62,608–$79,919; that range reaches $72,678–$96,928 for architects with 15 years' experience. Intern Architect is a term often used to describe a person who has successfully completed a professional degree in Architecture (5-year B.Arch or 1-5-year M.Arch) and is studying for the professional certification exam. ...


Senior architects and partners typically have earnings that exceed $100K annually. It is not unusual for an officer or equity partner to earn a base salary of $235,000, with a bonus of $200,000. Due to the major stake in ownership that equity partners may have, they can earn incomes approaching, and occasionally surpassing, seven figures. [6]


UK Earnings

The Royal Society of Architects in Wales (RSAW) publishes a guide to the salaries typical of the various stages of qualification [7]: Beginning level candidates (part one) can expect between £11,000 and £18,500. Recent graduates (part two) earn between £19,000 - £29,000. Newly registered architects (part three) earn £29,000 - £32,000; part three, three to five years post-registration £34,000 - £40,000 (salary data collected May 6). The range of typical salaries at senior levels (after 10-15 years in role) is £32,000 to £80,000, depending on the seniority of the position. is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Finland Earnings

The average salary for a finnish architect starting out in a private office is roughly 33,000€. Architects working for the municipalities are paid according to the Finnish governments salary system, in which the salary is determined by the level of stringency and expertise needed and how well a person copes with the requirements. The average base salary is about 35,000€[8] (2007).


Schools of Architecture

Professionals engaged in the design and supervision of construction projects prior to the 20th century were not necessarily trained in a separate architecture program in an academic setting. Instead, they usually carried the title of Master Builder, or surveyor, after serving a number of years as an apprentice (such as Sir Christopher Wren). The formal study of architecture in academic institutions played a pivotal role in the development of the profession as a whole, serving as a focal point for advances in architectural technology and theory. List of international architecture schools at colleges and universities: // Garyounis University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Benghazi, Libya. ... The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch. ... The Master of Architecture (M.Arch. ... There are three types of professional degrees in architecture in the United States: the Bachelor of Architecture, Master of Architecture, and the Doctorate degrees — either Doctor of Architecture, Doctor of Design or Doctor of Philosophy, respectively abbreviated as B.Arch, M.Arch, and D.Arch. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ...


Professional Organizations

Refer to the international list of professional architecture organizations for groups created to promote career and business development in architecture. A wide variety of prizes are awarded to architects to acknowledge superior buildings, structures and professional careers. Bundeskammer der Architekten und Ingenieurkonsulenten Belgium Conseil National de l’Ordre des Architectes Fédération Royale des Sociétés d’Architectes de Belgique Bulgaria Union of Architects in Bulgaria Cyprus Cyprus Architects Association Czech Republic Ceská Komora Architektu Denmark Danske Arkitekters Landsforbund / Akademisk Arkitektforening Praktiserende Arkitekters Ansatte Arkitekters... This is a list of architecture prizes // Major international prizes AIA Gold Medal Pritzker Prize RIBA Royal Gold Medal (first awarded 1848) International prizes Aga Khan Award for Architecture (for Islamic architecture) Emporis Skyscraper Award European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture National prizes UK RIAS...


See also

An Urban planner is a professional who works in the field of urban planning. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Landscape architecture. ... A real estate developer (American English) or property developer (British English) makes improvements of some kind to real property, thereby increasing its value. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... The Architectural Technologist , also known as a Building Technologist, provides building design services and solutions and is trained in architectural technology, building design and construction. ... An architectural designer is an architect that is primarily involved in the design of buildings or urban landscapes, as opposed to the construction documents and management required to construct it. ... Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction... The following is a list of famous architects. ...

Further reading

  • Roger K. Lewis, Architect? A Candid Guide to the Profession. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1998.
  • David Chappell, J. Andrew Willis, The Architect in Practice. Blackwell Publishing, London, 2005.
  • Blythe Camenson, Careers in Architecture. McGraw-Hill; New York, 2001.
  • Lee W. Waldrep, Becoming an Architect: A Guide to Careers in Design, John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
  • American Institute of Architects, The Architect's Handbook of Professional Practice, Student Edition, John Wiley, Chichester, 2001.
  • Peter Piven, Bradford Perkins, Architect's Essentials of Starting a Design Firm (The Architect's Essentials of Professional Practice), John Wiley, Chichester, 2003.
  • James R. Franklin, Architect's Professional Practice Manual. McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 2000.
  • James P. Cramer; Scott Simpson, The Next Architect: A New Twist on the Future of Design. Greenway Communications, 2006
  • James P. Cramer, How Firms Succeed: A Field Guide to Design Management. Greenway Communications; 2nd Illus edition, 2004.
  • Gerald Morosco, Edward Massery, How to Work With an Architect, Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2006.
  • Pat Guthrie, Architect's Portable Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional; 3 edition, 2003.
  • Charlotte Baden-Powell, Architect's Pocket Book. Architectural Press, London, 2001.
  • Dr. Eisenmenger, Mathias, Architect's er Architekt: Das zukünftige Berufsbild unter Berücksichtigung seiner Verantwortung als Baumeister. kassel university press, Kassel, 2007, (PDF-Version)

References

  1. ^ Online Etymology of the term "architect"
  2. ^ Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design: How attitudes, orientations, and underlying assumptions shape the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Design. ISBN 8254701741.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ NETWORK
  6. ^ [3]
  7. ^ [4]
  8. ^ The profession database of Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy

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