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Encyclopedia > Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell
Archibald Percival Wavell
May 5, 1883May 24, 1950

Sir Archibald Wavell in Field Marshals uniform
Place of birth Colchester
Place of death London
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1900 - 1943
Rank Field Marshal
Commands Middle East Command
ABDA
Battles/wars Second Boer War
World War I
World War II:
-North African campaign
-Pacific War
Awards - GCB
- GCSI
- GCIE
- CMG
- MC
- PC
Other work Viceroy of India (1943 - 1947)

Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC (May 5, 1883May 24, 1950) was a British field marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. He was the penultimate Viceroy of India from 1943-47. May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image File history File links Archibald_Wavell. ... Colchester is a town and is the main settlement of the Essex borough of Colchester in the East of England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Field Marshal Viscount Slim in his Field Marshals uniform, holding a marshals baton. ... During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Redvers Buller Frederick Roberts Herbert Kitchener Paul Kruger Martinus Steyn Louis Botha Christiaan de Wet Casualties 22,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Combatants Republic of China (from 1937) Chinese Communist Party (from 1937) U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) British India (1941) Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Mongolia (from 1945) Empire of Japan Nanjing... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ...


Life

Wavell was born in Colchester but spent much of his childhood in India. Wavell's father was a major-general in the British Army and Wavell followed his father's career choice. Colchester is a town and is the main settlement of the Essex borough of Colchester in the East of England. ...


Wavell attended Winchester College and Sandhurst. He joined the Black Watch in 1900 and fought in the second Boer War. In 1903, he was transferred to India and fought in the Bazar Valley campaign of 1908. In 1911, Wavell spent a year as a military observer with the Russian Army. Winchester College is a well-known boys independent school, and an example of a British public school, in the city of Winchester in Hampshire, England. ... New College, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst New Colours are presented to RMAS, June 2005. ... The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (3 SCOTS) is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Redvers Buller Frederick Roberts Herbert Kitchener Paul Kruger Martinus Steyn Louis Botha Christiaan de Wet Casualties 22,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as...


Wavell was working as a staff officer when World War I began. He was transferred to a combat unit and was wounded in the Battle of Ypres in 1915, losing an eye. Following his recovery, he was assigned as a liaison-officer to the Russian Army in 1916, this time in the field in Turkey. In 1918, he was transferred to Sir Edmund Allenby's staff in Palestine. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... There were four Battles of Ypres during World War I: First Battle of Ypres ( October 19 – November 22, 1914) Second Battle of Ypres ( April 22 – May 15, 1915) Third Battle of Ypres ( July 31 – November 6, 1917) (also known as Passchendaele) Fourth Battle of Ypres ( September 28... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Wavell was given a number of assignments between the world wars. In 1937, he was transferred back to Palestine, where there was a growing uprising. In August 1939, he was named as the head of Middle East Command and was in that post when World War II began. During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Middle Eastern theatre was quiet for the first few months of the war until Italy's declaration of war in June 1940. The Italian forces in North Africa greatly outnumbered the British. Wavell however was able to not only defend against the Italian attacks but to defeat the Italians and occupy their colonies in Ethiopia and Somaliland. By February 1941, the British appeared to be on the verge of overrunning the last Italian forces in Libya, which would have ended all Axis control in Africa. Motto: لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله  (Arabic) Lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadun rasÅ«lu-llāhi  (transliteration) There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah And also : Justice, Peace, Freedom, Democracy and Success for All Anthem: Saamo ku waar Capital Hargeisa (1941-1960, 1991 - present) Official languages Somali, Arabic...

Wavell meets Lt. General Quinan, commander of British and Indian Army forces in Iraq in April 1941.
Wavell meets Lt. General Quinan, commander of British and Indian Army forces in Iraq in April 1941.

But at this same time the Germans and Italians were attacking Greece. Wavell was ordered to halt his advance into Libya and send troops to Greece. He disagreed with this decision but followed his orders. The result was a disaster. The Germans had an opportunity to reinforce the Italians in North Africa, the British were unable to set up an adequate defense on the Greek mainland and were forced to withdraw to Crete with heavy losses, and a pro-Axis faction took over the government of Iraq leading to the brief Anglo-Iraqi War. Image File history File linksMetadata Wavell_quinan_1941. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wavell_quinan_1941. ... General Sir Edward Quinan in Iraq General Sir Edward Pellew Quinan, KCB, KCIE, DSO, OBE (January 1885–November 1960), was a British army commander during World War II. Edward Pellew Quinan was of Anglo-Irish descent but born in Calcutta. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist...


Wavell was replaced as Commander of British forces in the Middle East by Sir Claude Auchinleck in July 1941. He was then transferred to India, where he served as Commander-in-Chief. He once again had the misfortune of being placed in charge of an undermanned theatre which became a warzone when the Japanese declared war on the United Kingdom in December 1941. He was made Commander-in-Chief of ABDA (American-British-Dutch-Australian) Command, but was forced to evacuate his headquarters from Java following the break-up of ABDA. Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - March 23, 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ...


Wavell, despite his abilities, did not have the resources to defend the territory he was responsible for and was unable to prevent the Japanese from capturing Singapore, Malaya, and Burma. Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...

Wavell as Viceroy of India (centre), with the C-in-C of the Indian Army Auchinleck (right) and Montgomery.

Wavell was again replaced in his military post by Auchinleck, who by this point had also experienced setbacks in North Africa. In 1943, Wavell was created a viscount and was named Viceroy of India. His mandate there was to maintain the status quo in India during the war and he remained in this post until he was replaced by Lord Mountbatten of Burma in 1947. Wavell is generally considered the best Viceroy and Governor General of India, for not only he had done all his homework before he became viceroy, but he is also considered one of those British personalities who touched Indian souls and understood them. His understanding of the Indian situation and the ignoring of his requests and proposals by Winston Churchill had made him quite frustrated. He was relieved to see Clement Attlee replace Churchill as Prime Minister in July 1945; however, he was unhappy with Attlee's slowness to make decisions. He had himself requested several times to be removed from his post, but his requests were turned down by London. However, had Wavell not been there, the communal tension and civic strife could have been prolonged and more bloody. Wavell was against the Partition of India, as he knew this would lead to bloodshed which neither Indians nor the British would be able to control. He wanted to be prepared for anything and had worked on preparations for a situation in which India were to be partitioned. When it was decided that the British policy was to partition India, it was Wavell who laid the foundations for the work of Border Commission chairman Sir Cyril Radcliffe; this work eventually became the Radcliffe Line. Image File history File links Monty,_wavvel,_auk. ... Image File history File links Monty,_wavvel,_auk. ... A group of native Indian muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Churchill redirects here. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, FRS, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from 1945 to 1951. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the the United Kingdom. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... Cyril John Radcliffe Cyril John Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe GBE PC (1899 - 1977) was a British lawyer and law lord most famous for his partitioning of the British Imperial territory of India. ... The Radcliffe line was the line which drew borders between newly created India and Pakistan. ...


Wavell returned to England and was made High Steward of Colchester in 1947. He died in 1950. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Wavell was well-known to be a great lover of poetry. He made the selections for an anthology of great poetry, Other Men's Flowers, which was published in 1944; the last poem in the anthology he wrote himself. He had a great memory for poetry and often quoted it at length. He is depicted in Evelyn Waugh's novel "Officers and Gentlemen", part of the Sword of Honour trilogy, reciting poetry in public. The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ... The Sword of Honour trilogy by Evelyn Waugh is his look at the Second World War. ... The Sword of Honour trilogy by Evelyn Waugh is his look at the Second World War. ...


Wavell Heights, a suburb in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, was named after him in 1941, after a request by the Brisbane City Council to rename an area previously known as West Nundah. Brisbane (pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Queensland, as well as the third largest city in Australia, with a greater metropolitan population of just under two million. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (June Quarter Released Statistics 2006)  - Population  4,053,444 (3rd)  - Density  2. ...


Quotes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Archibald Wavell
  • "I think he (Benito Mussolini) must do something, if he cannot make a graceful dive he will at least have to jump in somehow; he can hardly put on his dressing-gown and walk down the stairs again."
  • "After the 'war to end war' they seem to have been pretty successful in Paris at making a 'Peace to end Peace.'" (commenting on the treaties ending World War I; this quote was the basis for the title of Fromkin, David (1989), A Peace to End All Peace, New York: Henry Holt, ISBN 0-8050-6884-8)
Military Offices
Preceded by
Commander-in-Chief of British Forces in the Middle East
1939–1941
Succeeded by
Sir Claude Auchinleck
Preceded by
Sir Claude Auchinleck
Commander-in-Chief, India
1941–1942
Succeeded by
Sir Alan Hartley
Preceded by
Commander of ABDACOM
1942
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Sir Alan Hartley
Commander-in-Chief, India
1942–1943
Succeeded by
Sir Claude Auchinleck
Political offices
Preceded by
The Marquess of Linlithgow
Viceroy of India
1943–1947
Succeeded by
The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Earl Wavell
1947–1950
Succeeded by
Archibald Wavell
Viscount Wavell
1943–1950

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - March 23, 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from... Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - March 23, 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - March 23, 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from... Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow (24 September 1887 - 5 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801. ... The title of Earl Wavell was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1947 for Lord Wavell, the former Viceroy of India. ... The title of Earl Wavell (pronounced Way-vell) was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1947 for Lord Wavell, the former Viceroy of India. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1043 words)
Wavell however was able to not only defend against the Italian attacks but to defeat the Italians and occupy their colonies in Ethiopia and Somaliland.
Wavell was replaced as Commander of British forces in the Middle East by Sir Claude Auchinleck in July 1941.
Wavell, despite his abilities, did not have the resources to defend the territory he was responsible for and was unable to prevent the Japanese from capturing Singapore, Malaya, and Burma.
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (854 words)
Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 - May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II.
Wavell was replaced as Commander of British forces in the Middle East by Claude Auchinleck in July 1941.
Wavell was against Partition of India, as he knew this would lead to bllodshed which neither Indians nor Britishers would be able to control.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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