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Encyclopedia > Archetype

An archetype (pronounced: /ˈarkətaɪp/) is a generic, idealized model of a person, object, or concept from which similar instances are derived, copied, patterned, or emulated. In psychology, an archetype is a model of a person, personality, or behavior. This article is about personality archetypes, as described in literature analysis and the study of the psyche. Look up archetype in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ...


In the analysis of personality, the term archetype is often broadly used to refer to

  1. a stereotype—personality type observed multiple times, especially an oversimplification of such a type; or
  2. an epitome—personality type exemplified, especially the "greatest" such example.
  3. a literary term to express details.

However, in a strict linguistic sense, an archetype is merely a defining example of a personality type. The accepted use of archetype is to refer to a generic version of a personality. In this sense "mother figure" can be considered an archetype and instances can be found in various female characters with distinct (non-generic) personalities. For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... The fallacy of the single cause, also known as joint effect or causal oversimplification, is a logical fallacy of causation that occurs when it is assumed that there is one, simple cause of an outcome when in reality it may have been caused by a number of only jointly sufficient... An epitome (Greek epitemnein—to cut short) is a summary or miniature form, also used as a synonym for embodiment. ...


Archetypes have been present in folklore and literature for thousands of years and appear to be present in prehistoric artwork. The use of archetypes to analyze personality was advanced by Carl Jung early in the 20th century. The value in using archetypal characters in fiction derives from the fact that a large group of people are able to unconsciously recognize the archetype, and thus the motivations, behind the character's behavior. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jung redirects here. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

The word archetype appeared in European texts as early as 1545.[1] It derives from the Latin noun archetypum via the Greek noun arkhetypon and adjective arkhetypos, meaning "first-moulded". The Greek and roman roots are arkhe- ("first" or "original") + typos ("model", "type", "blow", "mark of a blow"). For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Pronunciation note: The "ch" in archetype is a transliteration of the Greek chi (χ) and is most commonly articulated in English as a "k".[2] Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...


Jungian archetypes

Main article: Jungian archetypes

The concept of psychological archetypes was advanced by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, c. 1919. In Jung's psychological framework archetypes are innate, universal prototypes for ideas and may be used to interpret observations. A group of memories and interpretations associated with an archetype is a complex, e.g. a mother complex associated with the mother archetype. Jung treated the archetypes as psychological organs, analogous to physical ones in that both are morphological constructs that arose through evolution. [3] According to Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and his school of analytical psychology, archetypes are innate universal pre-conscious psychic dispositions that form the substrate from which the basic themes of human life emerge. ... Jung redirects here. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... In psychology a complex is generally an important group of unconscious associations, or a strong unconscious impulse lying behind an individuals otherwise mysterious condition: the detail varies widely from theory to theory. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Jung outlined four main archetypes:

  • The Self, the regulating center of the psyche and facilitator of individuation
  • The Shadow, the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with but possesses nonetheless
  • The Anima, the feminine image in a man's psyche; or:
  • The Animus, the masculine image in a woman's psyche
  • The Persona

Although the number of archetypes is limitless, there are a few particularly notable, recurring archetypal images: Jungs archetype self is the perfect personality. ... Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Anima, in Jungian psychology: 1. ... Animus is considered to be that natural and primitive part of the minds activity and processes remaining after dispensing with persona, which is the mask displayed in interactions with others and which has been shaped by socialization. ...

Look up Syzygy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The child archetype is portrayed in literature in various ways. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... The Great Mother manifests itself in myth as a host of archaic images. ... A wise old man: Philosopher in Meditation by Rembrandt The wise old man (or Senex) is an archetype as described by Carl Jung. ... For other uses, see Trickster (disambiguation). ... Puer Aeternus is Latin for Eternal Boy. ... In Jungian theory, the Cosmic Man is an archetypical figure that appears in creation myths of a wide variety of mythology. ... The Artist-scientist is one of the Jungian archetypes in mythology. ...

Archetypes in literature

Archetypes can be found in nearly all forms of literature; with their motifs being predominantly rooted in folklore. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


William Shakespeare is known for creating many archetypal characters that hold great Eurocentric (chiefly British) social importance such as Hamlet, the self-doubting hero and the initiation archetype with the three stages of separation, transformation, and return; Falstaff, the bawdy, rotund comic knight; Romeo and Juliet, the ill-fated ("star-crossed") lovers; Richard II, the hero who dies with honor; and many others. Although Shakespeare based many of his characters on existing archetypes from fables and myths (e.g., Romeo and Juliet on Pyramus and Thisbe), Shakespeare's characters stand out as original by their contrast against a complex, social literary landscape. For instance, in The Tempest, Shakespeare borrowed from a manuscript by William Strachey that detailed an actual shipwreck of the Virginia-bound 17th-century English sailing vessel Sea Venture in 1609 on the islands of Bermuda. Shakespeare also borrowed heavily from a speech by Medea in Ovid's Metamorphoses in writing Prospero's renunciative speech; nevertheless, the unique combination of these elements in the character of Prospero created a new interpretation of the sage magician as that of a carefully plotting hero, quite distinct from the wizard-as-advisor archetype of Merlin or Gandalf (both of which may be derived from priesthood authority archetypes from the Bible such as Abraham, Moses, Isaiah, Elijah, etc). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Adolf Schrödter: Falstaff and his page Sir John Falstaff is a fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare as a companion to Prince Hal, the future King Henry V. A fat, vainglorious, and cowardly knight, Falstaff leads the apparently wayward Prince Hal into trouble, but he... °Å#REDIRECT Romeo and Juliet gsgfhasfhhfdhjsehewbbshhhdbfsh ... Juliet is: The fictional character Juliet Capulet in William Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For the river of Asia Minor, see Pyramus (river). ... For other uses, see The Tempest (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The coat of arms of Bermuda features a representation of the wreck of the Sea Venture The Sea Venture was a 17th-century English sailing ship, the wrecking of which in Bermuda is widely thought to have been the inspiration for Shakespeares The Tempest. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the poem Metamorphoses written by the poet Ovid. ... Prospero and Miranda by William Maw Egley Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Prospero Prospero is the protagonist in The Tempest, a play by William Shakespeare. ... Merlin dictating his poems, as illustrated in a French book from the 13th century For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Certain common methods of character depiction employed in dramatic performance rely on the pre-existence of literary archetypes. Stock characters used in theatre or film are based on highly generic literary archetypes. A pastiche is an imitation of an archetype or prototype in order to pay homage to the original creator. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ...


In the superhero genre, two main archetypes are Spider-Man and Superman. Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ...

The young, flawed, and brooding antihero [Spider-Man] became the most widely imitated archetype in the superhero genre since the appearance of superman.
Bradford W. Wright, Comic Book Nation: The transformation of Youth Culture in America 212
Superman on the Couch by Danny Fingeroth 151 In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ...

See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism (ARAS) is an encyclopedic collection of archetypal images consisting of photographs of works of art, ritual images, and artifacts of sacred traditions and contemporary art from around the world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Perennial Philosophy (Latin philosophia perennis) is the idea that a universal set of truths common to all people and cultures exists. ... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... Simulacrum (plural: simulacra), from the Latin simulare, to make like, to put on an appearance of, originally meaning a material object representing something (such as a cult image representing a deity, or a painted still-life of a bowl of fruit). ... Wounded healer is an archetypal dynamic that psychologist Carl Jung used to describe a phenomena that may take place in the relationship between analyst and patient. ...

References

  1. ^ Douglas Harper. Online Etymology Dictionary - Archetype.
  2. ^ Pronunciation Challenges: Confusions and Controversy.
  3. ^ Boeree, C. George. Carl Jung. Retrieved on 2006-03-09.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Campbell, Joseph, The Masks of God: Vol. I, Premitive Mythology. (1991 reprint revised ed.), New York: Penguin Group Inc.
  • Jung, C. G., (1934–1954). The Archetypes and The Collective Unconscious. (1981 2nd ed. Collected Works Vol.9 Part 1), Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. ISBN 0-691-01833-2
  • Arrien, Angeles (1992). Signs Of Life: The Five Universal Shapes And How To Use Them. Sonoma, CA, USA: Arcus Publishing Company. ISBN 0-916955-10-9
  • Pearson, Carol (1989). The hero within: six archetypes we live by. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-254862-x. 

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Archetype Publications (192 words)
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