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Encyclopedia > Archduchess

The title of Archduke (in German Erzherzog) was invented in the Privilegium Maius, a forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. Originally, it was meant to denote the ruler of the Archduchy of Austria, in any effort to put that ruler on par with the electorships, as Austria had been passed over in the Golden Bull of 1356, where the electorships had been assigned. Emperor Charles IV refused to recognize the title. Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title "Archduke." This title was only officially recognized in 1453 by Emperor Frederick III, when the Habsburgs had (permanently) gained control of the office of the Holy Roman Emperor. The title of Archduke ( in German Erzherzog) was invented in the Privilegium Maius, a forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. ... The Privilegium Maius was a document forged at the behest of Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (1358-1365), which was essentially a modified version of the Privilegium Minus of 1156, which had elevated Austria to a Duchy. ... Rudolf IV der Stifter (the Founder) (born November 1, 1339 in Vienna, died July 27, 1365 in Milan) was a member of the House of Habsburg and Duke and self-proclaimed Archduke of Austria from 1358 to 1365. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Charles IV, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ( May 14, 1316 – 29 November 1378), of the House of Luxembourg, King of the Romans (as Charles (Karl) IV, 1368 – 1378), Holy Roman Emperor (Charles IV, 1355 – 1378), King of Bohemia (Charles (Karel) I 1346 – 1378), Count of Luxemburg (1346 – 1353), Margrave... Ernest the Iron (born 1377 in Bruck an der Mur; died June 10, 1424 in the same place) was a Duke of Austria from the Habsburg dynasty, and as a member of the Leopoldinian Line the ruler of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (born September 21 in Innsbruck, 1415; died August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...

From the 16th century onward, Archduke or its female form, Archduchess, came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg, similar to the title Prince in many other royal houses. For example, Queen Marie Antoinette of France was born an Archduchess of Austria. This practice was maintained in the Austrian Empire (1804-1867) and the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867-1918). (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... A prince (from the Latin princeps) is a male member of royalty or a royal family. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire until 1867 and of the Austrian part of Austria_Hungary until 1918. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

With the abolition of the monarchy, titles and the peerage system were also abolished in Austria. Thus, those members of the extended Habsburg family who are citizens of the Republic of Austria, are simply known by their respective first name and their surname Habsburg-Lothringen. The use of aristocratic titles such as archduke is in fact illegal in Austria. However, some members of the family who are citizens of other countries such as Germany, where aristocratic titles have become part of the name, may use the title.

Note that Archduke (Erzherzog) is a title distinct from Grand Duke (Grossherzog) used in the Russian and some other German royal houses.

See also list of rulers of Austria. This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ...

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Definition of archduchess - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (60 words)
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Sabine, Princess of Bavaria, of the Royal House of Wittelsbach, Archduchess of Wuerttemberg, Consort to Ulrich VI, Archduke of Wuerttemberg, of the Royal House of Wuerttemberg-Moempelgard
He regained his ducal crown in 1534 after a bloodless coup rumoured to have been supported by Henry VIII of England, and resulting in George’s being named Count of Wuerttemberg (highly unusual since his act against his brother was treason and should have been punished by death) and Ulrich as Archduke of Wuerttemberg.
The Archduchess was an avid hunting companion of Henry’s second queen consort, Anne Boleyn, as well as a bit of a gambler at cards, having once lost and then regained her wedding band from one of Henry's nobles.
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