FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Archaeopteryx" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx
Fossil range: Late Jurassic
A model of Archaeopteryx lithographica on display at the Oxford University Museum
A model of Archaeopteryx lithographica
on display at the Oxford University Museum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Archaeopterygiformes
Family: Archaeopterygidae
Genus: Archaeopteryx
Meyer, 1861
Species

A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ... Download high resolution version (700x636, 54 KB)Model of Archaeopteryx lithographica in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Archaeopterygidae Yandangornithidae Scansoriopterygidae Troodontidae Microraptoria Dromaeosauridae The Archaeopterygiformes were an order of early birds that lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. ... Binomial name Archaeopteryx lithographica Meyer, 1861 Synonyms see text Archaeopteryx (pronounced ) meaning ancient feather (Greek archaio = ancient + pteryx = variously translated as wing, feather, or more specifically pinion (wing feather), from the Late Jurassic of Germany, is the earliest and most primitive known bird. ... Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer (September 3, 1801 - April 2, 1869), German palaeontologist, was born at Frankfurt am Main. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... In zoological nomenclature, a type is a specimen or a taxon. ...

Synonyms

See below In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ...

Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος archaios meaning 'ancient' and πτέρυξ pteryx meaning 'feather' or 'wing'; pronounced "Ar-kay-op-ter-iks" [ɑː(ɹ)kɪˈɒptəɹɪks]) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. It lived in the late Jurassic Period around 155–150 million years ago in what is now southern Germany. In German, Archaeopteryx is also known as the Urvogel, a word meaning "original bird" or "first bird". Although the name originated in Germany, it is also used in English-speaking countries. Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... A geologic period is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an era into smaller timeframes. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


At the time Archaeopteryx lived, Europe was an archipelago of islands in a shallow warm tropical sea, much closer to the equator than it is now. Archaeopteryx had feathers and wings, but it also had teeth and a skeleton similar to a small carnivorous dinosaur; therefore, it had both bird and theropod dinosaur features. World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... WING ESPN 1410 is a commercial AM radio station in Dayton, Ohio operating with 5,000 watts at 1410 kHz with studios, offices and transmitter located on David Road in Kettering. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Families See text Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal, primarily carnivorous dinosaurs, belonging to the saurischian (lizard-hip) family. ...


Similar in size and shape to a European Magpie, it bore broad, rounded wings and a long tail. Archaeopteryx could grow to about half a metre (1.6 ft) in length. Its feathers resembled the flight feathers of modern birds, suggesting not only capacity for flight, but also homoiothermy. Otherwise, its features were reptilian, with jaws lined with sharp teeth, three 'fingers' ending in curved claws and a long bony tail. These features, which are consistent with theropod dinosaurs, made Archaeopteryx the first clear candidate for a transitional fossil . The first complete specimen was announced in 1862, only two years after Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species, and became a key piece of evidence in debate over evolution.[1][2][3] Binomial name Pica pica Linnaeus, (1758) The European Magpie (Pica pica) is a resident breeding bird throughout Europe, much of Asia, and northwest Africa. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... Warm-blooded animals maintain thermal homeostasis; which is keeping your body temperature at a constant level. ... Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... Families See text Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal, primarily carnivorous dinosaurs, belonging to the saurischian (lizard-hip) family. ... A transitional fossil or transitional form is the fossilized remains of a life form that illustrates an evolutionary transition. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


The eleven fossils currently classified as Archaeopteryx are the oldest evidence of feathers on the planet and the only ones dated from Jurassic times. Furthermore, their advanced nature and placement suggest their origins must have been even earlier.[4] The majority of experts regard all the remains that have been discovered as belonging to a single species, though this is still debated.

Contents

Description

Eight Archaeopteryx specimens compared to a human foot in scale
Eight Archaeopteryx specimens compared to a human foot in scale

Archaeopteryx was a primitive bird that lived during the Kimmeridgian stage of the Jurassic Period, around 155–150 million years ago.[5] The only specimens of Archaeopteryx that have been discovered come from the area that is now Germany.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... The Kimmeridgian is a stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. ... Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ...


Archaeopteryx was roughly the size of a medium-sized, modern-day bird, with broad wings that were rounded at the ends and a long tail compared to its body length. In all, Archaeopteryx could reach up to 500 millimetres (1.6 feet) in body length. Archaeopteryx feathers, although less documented than its other features, were similar in structure and design to modern-day bird feathers.[5] However, despite the presence of numerous avian features,[6] Archaeopteryx had many theropod dinosaur characteristics. Unlike modern birds, Archaeopteryx had small teeth[5] as well as a long bony tail, features which Archaeopteryx shared with other dinosaurs of the time.[7] A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ...


Because it displays a number of features common to both birds and dinosaurs, Archaeopteryx has often been considered a link between them—possibly the first bird in its change from a land dweller to a bird.[5] In the 1970s, John Ostrom, following T. H. Huxley's lead in 1868, argued that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx was a critical piece of evidence for this argument; it preserves a number of avian features, such as a wishbone, flight feathers, wings and a partially reversed first toe, and a number of dinosaur and theropod features. For instance, it has a long ascending process of the ankle bone, interdental plates, an obturator process of the ischium, and long chevrons in the tail. In particular, Ostrom found that Archaeopteryx was remarkably similar to the theropod family Dromaeosauridae.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] John Ostrom John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or saurians), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... FIG. 270– Left talus, from above. ... The interdental plate refers to the bone-filled mesial-distal region between the teeth. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Human male pelvis, viewed from front Human female pelvis, viewed from front The pelvis is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end). ... Genera Achillobator Adasaurus Atrociraptor Bambiraptor Buitreraptor Cryptovolans Deinonychus Dromaeosaurus Dromaeosauroides Graciliraptor Microraptor Neuquenraptor Pyroraptor Rahonavis Saurornitholestes Sinornithosaurus Tsaagan Unenlagia Utahraptor Variraptor Velociraptor Dromaeosaurids, raptors or members of the family Dromaeosauridae (running lizards from Greek dromeus (δρομευς) meaning runner and sauros (σαυρος) meaning lizard) are theropod dinosaurs. ...


The first remains of Archaeopteryx were discovered just two years after Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species in 1862. Archaeopteryx seemed to confirm Darwin's theories and has since become a key piece of evidence in the origin of birds, transitional fossils debate and the confirmation of evolution. Indeed, further research on dinosaurs from the Gobi Desert and China has since provided more evidence of a link between Archaeopteryx and the dinosaurs, such as the Chinese feathered dinosaurs. Archaeopteryx is close to the ancestry of modern birds, and it shows most of the features one would expect in an ancestral bird. However, it may not be the direct ancestor of living birds, and it is uncertain how much evolutionary divergence was already present among other birds at the time. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... A model of Archaeopteryx lithographica on display at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History The current scientific consensus holds that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs. ... A transitional fossil or transitional form is the fossilized remains of a life form that illustrates an evolutionary transition. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The Gobi Desert lies in the territory of the Peoples Republic of China and the Country of Mongolia. ... Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs (see Dinosaur-bird connection). ...


Paleobiology

Plumage

A model of Archaeopteryx lithographica
A model of Archaeopteryx lithographica

Specimens of Archaeopteryx were most notable for their well-developed flight feathers. They were markedly asymmetrical and showed the structure of flight feathers in modern birds, with vanes given stability by a barb-barbule-barbicel arrangement. The tail feathers were less asymmetrical, again in line with the situation in modern birds and also had firm vanes. The thumb however, did not bear a separately movable tuft of stiff feathers yet. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Remiges are a birds flight feathers which are attached to the rear portion of the wing bones. ... Barbs are a series of branches fused to the rachis of a feather. ... Barbules are a part of the tree formed by feathers : the trunk, or axis, being the rachis and the barbs the main boughs, barbules are the secondary branches. ... The thumb is one of the five fingers. ... The alula, or bastard wing, is a small, feathered projection on the anterior edge of the wing of modern birds. ...


The body plumage of Archaeopteryx is less well documented and has only been properly researched in the well-preserved Berlin specimen. Thus, as more than one species seems to be involved, the research into the Berlin specimen's feathers does not necessarily hold true for the rest of the species of Archaeopteryx. In the Berlin specimen, there are "trousers" of well-developed feathers on the legs; some of these feathers seem to have a basic contour feather structure but are somewhat decomposed (they lack barbicels as in ratites),[20] but in part they are firm and thus capable of supporting flight.[21] Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ...


There was a patch of pennaceous feathers running along the back which was quite similar to the contour feathers of the body plumage of modern birds in being symmetrical and firm, though not as stiff as the flight-related feathers. Apart from that, the feather traces in the Berlin specimen are limited to a sort of "proto-down" not dissimilar to that found in the dinosaur Sinosauropteryx, being decomposed and fluffy, and possibly even appeared more like fur than like feathers in life (though not in their microscopic structure). These occur on the remainder of the body, as far as such structures are both preserved and not obliterated by preparation, and the lower neck.[20] Pennaceous feathers are also known as contour feathers and are present in most modern birds and in some species of maniraptoran dinosaurs. ... The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. ... Binomial name Sinosauropteryx prima Ji Q. & Ji S., 1996 Sinosauropteryx prima (first Chinese lizard-feather) was the first non-avian dinosaur found with the fossilized impressions of feathers. ...


However, there is no indication of feathering on the upper neck and head; while these may conceivably have been nude as in many closely related feathered dinosaurs for which good specimens are available, this may still be an artifact of preservation: it appears that most Archaeopteryx specimens became embedded in anoxic sediment after drifting some time on their back in the sea - the head and neck and the tail are generally bent downwards which suggests that the specimens had just started to rot when they were embedded, with tendons and muscle relaxing so that the characteristic shape of the fossil specimens was achieved. This would mean that the skin was already softened and loose, which is bolstered by the fact that in some specimens, the flight feathers were starting to detach at the point of embedding in the sediment. So it is hypothesized that the pertinent specimens moved along the sea bed in shallow water for some time before burial, the head and upper neck feathers sloughing off, while the more firmly attached tail feathers remained.[22] Oxygen saturation is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium. ...


Flight

As in the wings of modern birds, the flight feathers of Archaeopteryx were highly asymmetrical, and the tail feathers are rather broad. This implies that the wings and tail were used for lift generation. However, it is unclear whether Archaeopteryx was simply a glider or capable of flapping flight. The lack of a bony breastbone suggests that Archaeopteryx was not a very strong flier, but flight muscles might have attached to the thick, boomerang-shaped wishbone, the platelike coracoids, or perhaps to a cartilaginous sternum. The sideways orientation of the glenoid (shoulder) joint between scapula, coracoid and humerus—instead of the dorsally angled arrangement found in modern birds—suggests that Archaeopteryx was unable to lift its wings above its back, a requirement for the upstroke found in modern flapping flight. Thus, it seems likely that Archaeopteryx was indeed unable to use flapping flight as modern birds do, but it may well have utilized a downstroke-only flap-assisted gliding technique.[23] In human beings, the coracoid process is a small hook-like structure that comes off the scapula to point forward. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... Left scapula - front view () Left scapula - rear view () In anatomy, the scapula, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). ... In human beings, the coracoid process is a small hook-like structure that comes off the scapula to point forward. ... The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. ...


Archaeopteryx wings were relatively large, which would have resulted in a low stall speed and reduced turning radius. The short and rounded shape of the wings would have increased drag, but could also have improved Archaeopteryx' ability to fly through cluttered environments such as trees and brush (similar wing shapes are seen in birds which fly through trees and brush, such as crows and pheasants). The presence of "hind wings", asymmetrical flight feathers stemming from the legs similar to those seen in dromaeosaurids such as Microraptor, would also have added to the aerial mobility of Archaeopteryx. The first detailed study of the hind wings by Longrich in 2006 suggested that the structures formed up to 12% of the total airfoil. Considering that it is not certain to what extent such feathers capable of supporting flight were present on the legs, this would have reduced stall speed by up to 6% and turning radius by up to 12%, in addition to the stall and turning radius reduction provided by the primary wing and tail feathers.[21] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Microraptor was a small, bird-like dinosaur related to the dromaeosaurs. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 2004, scientists analyzing a detailed CT scan of Archaeopteryx's braincase, concluded that its brain was significantly larger than that of most dinosaurs, indicating that it possessed the brain size necessary for flying. The overall brain anatomy was reconstructed using the scan. The reconstruction showed that the regions associated with vision took up nearly one-third of the brain. Other well-developed areas involved hearing and muscle coordination.[24] The skull scan also revealed the structure of the inner ear. The structure more closely resembles that of modern birds than the inner ear of reptiles. These characteristics taken together suggest that Archaeopteryx had the keen sense of hearing, balance, spatial perception and coordination needed to fly.[25] It has been suggested that Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy, X-ray tomography be merged into this article or section. ... A hippopotamus skull The skull or cranium is a bony structure found in many animals which serves as the general framework for the head. ...


Archaeopteryx continues to play an important part in scientific debates about the origin and evolution of birds. Some scientists see it as a semi-arboreal climbing animal, following the idea that birds evolved from tree-dwelling gliders (the "trees down" hypothesis for the evolution of flight proposed by O.C. Marsh). Other scientists see Archaeopteryx as running quickly along the ground, supporting the idea that birds evolved flight by running (the "ground up" hypothesis proposed by Samuel Wendell Williston). Still others suggest that Archaeopteryx might have been at home both in the trees and on the ground, like modern crows, and this latter view is what today is considered best-supported by morphological characters. Altogether, it appears that it was a species which was neither particularly specialized for running on the ground, nor for perching. Considering the current knowledge of flight-related morphology, a scenario as outlined by Elżanowski in 2002, namely that Archaeopteryx used its wings mainly to escape predators by glides punctuated with shallow downstrokes to reach successively higher perches, and alternatively to cover longer distances by (mainly) gliding down from cliffs or treetops, appears quite reasonable.[22] Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... Samuel Wendell Williston Samuel Wendell Williston (July 10, 1852 – August 30, 1918) was a noted educator and paleontologist. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Paleoecology

The richness and diversity of the Solnhofen limestones in which all specimens of Archaeopteryx have been found have shed light on an ancient Jurassic Bavaria strikingly different from the present day. The latitude was similar to Florida, though the climate was likely to have been drier as evidenced by fossils of plants with adaptations for arid conditions and lack of terrestrial sediments characteristic of rivers. Evidence of plants, though scarce, include cycads and conifers while animals found include a large number of insects, small lizards, pterosaurs and Compsognathus.[26] Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Binomial name Compsognathus longipes Wagner, 1859 Compsognathus // meaning elegant jaw (Greek kompsos/κομψος meaning elegant, refined or dainty and gnathos/γναθος meaning jaw) was a small bipedal carnivorous theropod dinosaur, the size of a chicken that lived in the late Jurassic Period of what is now Europe, with fossil finds from Germany...


The excellent preservation of Archaeopteryx fossils and other terrestrial fossils found at Solnhofen indicates that they did not travel far before becoming preserved.[27] The Archaeopteryx specimens found are likely therefore to have lived on the low islands surrounding the Solnhofen lagoon rather than been corpses that drifted in from further away. Archaeopteryx skeletons are considerably less numerous in the deposits of Solnhofen than those of pterosaurs such as Rhamphorhynchus, the group which dominated the niche currently occupied by seabirds, yet are common enough that it is unlikely that the specimens found are vagrants from the larger islands 50 km (31 miles) to the north.[28] Species (Goldfuss, 1831) (type) Lydekker, 1890 Peck, 1931 Synonyms Ornithopterus von Meyer, 1860 Pteromonodactylus Teriaev, 1967 Rhamphorhynchus was a long-tailed pterosaur of the Jurassic period. ... In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Vagrancy is a phenomenon in biology whereby individual animals appear well outside their normal range; individual animals which exhibit vagrancy are known as vagrants. ...


The islands that surrounded the Solnhofen lagoon were low lying, semi-arid and sub-tropical with a long dry season and little rain.[29] The flora of these islands was adapted to these dry conditions and consisted mostly of low (3 m [10 ft]) shrubs.[28] Contrary to reconstructions of Archaeopteryx climbing large trees, these seem to have been mostly absent from the islands; few trunks have been found in the sediments and fossilised tree pollen is also absent. Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...


The lifestyle of Archaeopteryx is difficult to reconstruct and there are several theories regarding it. It has been suggested by some researchers that it was primarily adapted to life on the ground,[30] while other researchers suggest that it was principally arboreal. The absence of trees does not preclude Archaeopteryx from an arboreal lifestyle; several species of extant bird live exclusively in low shrubs. Various aspects of the morphology of Archaeopteryx point to either an arboreal or ground existence, the length of its legs, the elongation in its feet; and some authorities consider it likely to have been a generalist capable of feeding in both shrubs, open ground and even alongside the shores of the lagoon.[28] It most likely hunted small prey, seizing it with its jaws if it were small enough or with its claws if it were larger.


History of discovery

Timeline of Archaeopteryx discoveries. (Click to enlarge)
Timeline of Archaeopteryx discoveries. (Click to enlarge)

Over the years, ten body fossil specimens of Archaeopteryx and a feather that may belong to it have been found. All of the fossils come from the limestone deposits, quarried for centuries, near Solnhofen, Germany.[31][26] The initial discovery, a single feather, was unearthed in 1860 and described a year later by Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer. It is currently located at the Humbolt Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. This is generally assigned to Archaeopteryx and was the initial holotype, but whether it actually is a feather of this species or another, as yet undiscovered, proto-bird is unknown. There are some indications it is indeed not from the same animal as most of the skeletons (the "typical" A. lithographica).[32] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... -1... Solnhofen is a town in the district of Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen in the region of Franconia in the Land of Bavaria in Germany. ... Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer (September 3, 1801 - April 2, 1869), German palaeontologist, was born at Frankfurt am Main. ... The Museum für Naturkunde (in English, the Museum of Natural History), widely known as the Humboldt Museum of Berlin, is the first national museum in the world, with a massive collection of more than 25 million zoological, paleontological, and minerological specimens, including more than ten thousand type specimens. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... A holotype is one of several possible types. ...


Soon after, the first skeleton, known as the London Specimen (BMNH 37001) was unearthed in 1861 near Langenaltheim, Germany and given to a local physician Karl Häberlein in return for medical services. He then sold it to the British Museum of Natural History in London, where it remains.[26] Missing most of its head and neck, it was described in 1863 by Richard Owen as Archaeopteryx macrura, who assumed it did not belong to the same species as the feather. In a subsequent edition of his Origin of Species (chap. 10, pp.335–336), Charles Darwin acclaimed Owen's discovery as linking lizard-like reptiles with modern birds. Langenaltheim is a municipality in the Middle Franconian district of Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen in Germany. ... The Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ... Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... A transitional fossil or transitional form is the fossilized remains of a life form that illustrates an evolutionary transition. ... Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


It appears as if the ambiguity of the Ancient Greek πτερυξ was realized by von Meyer. At the time of the original description, he referred to a single feather which appeared like a modern bird's remex (wing feather), but he had heard of and been shown a rough sketch of the London specimen, to which he referred to as a "Skelet eines mit Federn bedeckten Thiers" ("skeleton of an animal covered in feathers"). In German, this ambiguity is amply resolved by the term Schwinge which confers exactly the same ambiguity as πτερυξ - Urschwinge was the favored translation of Archaeopteryx among German scholars in the late 19th century; in English, "ancient pinion" would be the best possible approximation. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Remiges are a birds flight feathers which are attached to the rear portion of the wing bones. ...

The London Archaeopteryx, 1863, detail: note the feathers
The Berlin Archaeopteryx, 1881
The Thermopolis Specimen

Since then nine specimens have been recovered: Image File history File links SArchaeopteryxLondon. ... Image File history File links SArchaeopteryxLondon. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 711 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of a fossil Archaeopteryx Lithographica, taken on 2007-05-18 in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde in Karlsruhe, Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 711 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of a fossil Archaeopteryx Lithographica, taken on 2007-05-18 in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde in Karlsruhe, Germany. ...


The Berlin Specimen (HMN 1880) was discovered in 1876 or 1877 on the Blumenberg near Eichstätt, Germany, by Jakob Niemeyer. He exchanged this precious fossil for a cow, with Johann Dörr. Placed on sale in 1881, with potential buyers including O.C. Marsh of Yale University's Peabody Museum, it was bought by the Humbolt Museum für Naturkunde, where it is now displayed. The transaction was financed by Ernst Werner von Siemens, founder of the famous company that bears his name.[26] Described in 1884 by Wilhelm Dames, it is the most complete specimen, and the first with a complete head. Once classified as a new species, A. siemensii, a recent evaluation supports the A. siemensii species definition.[22] Eichstätt (not to be confused with Eichstädt) is a city in the federal state of Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district of Eichstätt. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... Werner von Siemens Ernst Werner von Siemens (known as Werner von Siemens) (December 13, 1816 – December 6, 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist. ... Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest companies and Europes largest engineering firm. ... Wilhelm Dames (1843–98) was a German paleontologist of the Berlin University, who described the first complete specimen of the early bird Archaeopteryx. ...


Composed of a torso, the Maxberg Specimen (S5) was discovered in 1956 or 1958 near Langenaltheim and described in 1959 by Heller. It is currently missing, though it was once exhibited at the Maxberg Museum in Solnhofen. It belonged to Eduard Opitsch, who loaned it to the museum. After his death in 1991, the specimen was discovered to be missing and may have been stolen or sold. The specimen is missing its head and tail, although the rest of the skeleton is mostly intact. Heller may mean: People Ágnes Heller, Hungarian philosopher André Heller, Austrian artist, musician, entertainer Arnold Krumm-Heller, Gnostic Archbishop Bruno Heller, British television and film writer. ... The Maxberg Museum is a German museum situated in Mornsheim in the natural park of Altmuhtal, near Solnhofen. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Haarlem Specimen (TM 6428, also known as the Teyler Specimen) was discovered in 1855 near Riedenburg, Germany and described as a Pterodactylus crassipes in 1875 by von Meyer. It was reclassified in 1970 by John Ostrom and is currently located at the Teyler Museum in Haarlem, the Netherlands. It was the very first specimen, despite the classification error. It is also one of the least complete specimens, consisting mostly of limb bones and isolated cervical vertebrae and ribs. Riedenburg is a town in the district of Kelheim, in Bavaria, Germany. ... Species (Holotype) Pterodactylus (TER-o-DACK-ti-lus) was a pterosaur or flying reptile, with a wingspan of about 50–75 cm (20–30 inches), that lived on lake shores during the late Jurassic era. ... John Ostrom John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or saurians), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry... Categories: Stub | Haarlem | Museums in the Netherlands | Natural history museums ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ...


The Eichstätt Specimen (JM 2257) was discovered in 1951 or 1955 near Workerszell, Germany and described by Peter Wellnhofer in 1974. Currently located at the Jura Museum in Eichstätt, Germany, it is the smallest specimen and has the second best head. It is possibly a separate genus (Jurapteryx recurva) or species (A. recurva). Peter Wellnhofer is a German paleontologist at the Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Paläontologie in Munich. ... The Jura Museum situated in Eichstätt, Germany is a Natural History Museum that has an extensive exhibit of Jurassic fossils from the quarry of Solnhofen, including marine reptiles, pterosaurs, and one specimen of the early bird Archaeopteryx. ... Eichstätt (not to be confused with Eichstädt) is a city in the federal state of Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district of Eichstätt. ...


The Solnhofen Specimen (BSP 1999) was discovered in the 1960s near Eichstätt, Germany and described in 1988 by Wellnhofer. Currently located at the Bürgermeister-Müller-Museum in Solnhofen, it was originally classified as Compsognathus by an amateur collector. It is the largest specimen known and may belong to a separate genus and species, Wellnhoferia grandis. It is missing only portions of the neck, tail, backbone, and head. Eichstätt (not to be confused with Eichstädt) is a city in the federal state of Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district of Eichstätt. ... The Bürgermeister-Müller-Museum is a German natural history museum situated in Solnhofen, Germany. ... Binomial name Compsognathus longipes Wagner, 1859 Compsognathus // meaning elegant jaw (Greek kompsos/κομψος meaning elegant, refined or dainty and gnathos/γναθος meaning jaw) was a small bipedal carnivorous theropod dinosaur, the size of a chicken that lived in the late Jurassic Period of what is now Europe, with fossil finds from Germany... Binomial name Wellnhoferia grandis Elżanowski, 2001 Wellnhoferia is a genus of dinosaur closely related to Archaeopteryx. ...

The Munich Specimen
The Munich Specimen

The Munich Specimen (S6, formerly known as the Solnhofen-Aktien-Verein Specimen) was discovered in 1991 near Langenaltheim and described in 1993 by Wellnhofer. It is currently located at the Paläontologische Museum München in Munich. What was initially believed to be a bony sternum turned out to be part of the coracoid,[33] but a cartilaginous sternum may have been present. Only the front of its face is missing. It may be a new species, A. bavarica. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1062x828, 173 KB) Summary Archaeopteryx bavarica, Paläontologisches Museum, München Photograph: Luidger (2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1062x828, 173 KB) Summary Archaeopteryx bavarica, Paläontologisches Museum, München Photograph: Luidger (2. ... The Paläontologische Museum München (Palaeontological Museum Munich) is a German national natural history museum situated in Munich, Bavaria. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... In human beings, the coracoid process is a small hook-like structure that comes off the scapula to point forward. ... Cartilage is type of dense connective tissue. ...


An eighth, fragmentary specimen, the Bürgermeister-Müller Specimen was discovered in 1997 and it is currently kept at the Bürgermeister-Müller Museum. Other than the above remains discovered, a further fragmentary fossil was found in 2004.


Long in a private collection, the Thermopolis Specimen (WDC CSG 100) was discovered in Germany and described in 2005 by Mayr, Pohl, and Peters. Donated to the Wyoming Dinosaur Center in Thermopolis, Wyoming, it has the best-preserved head and feet; most of the neck and the lower jaw have not been preserved. The "Thermopolis" specimen was described in the December 2, 2005 Science journal article as "A well-preserved Archaeopteryx specimen with theropod features", shows that the Archaeopteryx lacked a reversed toe—a universal feature of birds—limiting its ability to perch on branches and implying a terrestrial or trunk-climbing lifestyle.[34] This has been interpreted as evidence of theropod ancestry. The specimen also has a hyperextendible second toe. "Until now, the feature was thought to belong only to the species' close relatives, the deinonychosaurs."[35] This tenth and latest specimen was assigned to Archaeopteryx siemensii in 2007.[36] The specimen itself, currently on loan to the Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg in Frankfurt, is considered the most complete and well preserved Archaeopteryx remains yet.[36] The Wyoming Dinosaur Center is located in Thermopolis, WY, and is one of the few dinosaur museums in the world to have its own excavation localities within driving distance of its laboratory and curation facility. ... Thermopolis is a town located in Hot Springs County, Wyoming. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Families Dromaeosauridae Troodontidae The Deinonychosauria were a successful clade of theropods in the Cretaceous period. ... T. Rex The Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt is the largest museum of natural history in Germany. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ...


Some reports claim that they provide evidence to prove that Archaeopteryx is a fake.[37] However, such reports are not confirmed.[38][39] The issue is further discussed below.


Taxonomy

Today, the fossils are usually assigned to a single species A. lithographica, but the taxonomic history is complicated. Dozens of names have been published for the handful of specimens, most of which are simply spelling errors (lapsus). Originally, the name A. lithographica only referred to the single feather described by von Meyer. In 1960, Swinton proposed that the name Archaeopteryx lithographica be officially transferred from the feather to the London specimen.[40] The ICZN did suppress the plethora of alternative names initially proposed for the first skeleton specimens,[41] which mainly resulted from the acrimonious dispute between von Meyer and his opponent Johann Andreas Wagner (whose Griphosaurus problematicus—"problematic riddle-lizard"—was a vitriolic sneer at von Meyer's Archaeopteryx).[42] In addition, descriptions of Archaeopteryx fossils as pterosaurs before their true nature was realized were also suppressed.[43] Johann Andreas Wagner (1797 – 1861) was a German palaeontologist, zoologist and archaeologist. ... A riddle is a statement or question having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ...


The relationships of the specimens are problematic. Most subsequent specimens have been given their own species at one point or another. The Berlin specimen has been designated as Archaeornis siemensii, the Eichstätt specimen as Jurapteryx recurva, the Munich specimen as Archaeopteryx bavarica and the Solnhofen specimen was designated as Wellnhoferia grandis.


Recently, it has been argued that all the specimens belong to the same species.[44] However, significant differences exist among the specimens. In particular, the Munich, Eichstätt, Solnhofen and Thermopolis specimens differ from the London, Berlin, and Haarlem specimens in being smaller or much larger, having different finger proportions, having more slender snouts, lined with forward-pointing teeth and possible presence of a sternum. These differences are as large as or larger than the differences seen today between adults of different bird species. However, it is also possible that these differences could be explained by different ages of the living birds.


Finally, it is worth noting that the feather, the first specimen of Archaeopteryx described, does not agree too well with the flight-related feathers of Archaeopteryx. It certainly is a remix of a contemporary species, but its size and proportions indicate that it probably belongs to an as of yet undiscovered species of feathered theropod. As the feather was the original type specimen, this has created quite some nomenclatorial confusion. Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as the missing link between birds and dinosaurs. ... Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ...


Synonyms

If two names are given, the first denotes the original describer of the "species", the second the author on whom the given name combination is based. As always in zoological nomenclature, putting an author's name in parentheses denotes that the taxon was originally described in a different genus. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...

  • Pterodactylus crassipes Meyer, 1857 [suppressed in favor of A. lithographica 1977 per ICZN Opinion 1070]
  • Rhamphorhynchus crassipes (Meyer, 1857) (as Pterodactylus (Rhamphorhynchus) crassipes) [suppressed in favor of A. lithographica 1977 per ICZN Opinion 1070]
  • Archaeopteryx lithographica Meyer, 1861 [nomen conservandum]
  • Scaphognathus crassipes (Meyer, 1857) Wagner, 1861 [suppressed in favor of A. lithographica 1977 per ICZN Opinion 1070]
  • Archaeopterix lithographica Anon., 1861 [lapsus]
  • Griphosaurus problematicus Wagner, 1861 [nomen oblitum 1961 per ICZN Opinion 607]
  • Griphornis longicaudatus Woodward, 1862 [nomen oblitum 1961 per ICZN Opinion 607]
  • Griphosaurus longicaudatum (Woodward, 1862) [lapsus]
  • Griphosaurus longicaudatus (Owen, 1862) [nomen oblitum 1961 per ICZN Opinion 607]
  • Archaeopteryx macrura Owen, 1862 [nomen oblitum 1961 per ICZN Opinion 607]
  • Archaeopterix macrura Owen, 1862 [lapsus]
  • Archaeopterix macrurus Egerton, 1862 [lapsus]
  • Archeopteryx macrurus Owen, 1863 [unjustified emendation]
  • Archaeopteryx macroura Vogt, 1879 [lapsus]
  • Archaeopteryx siemensii Dames, 1897
  • Archaeopteryx siemensi Dames, 1897 [lapsus]
  • Archaeornis siemensii (Dames, 1897) Petronievics, 1917[36]
  • Archaeopteryx oweni Petronievics, 1917 [nomen oblitum 1961 per ICZN Opinion 607]
  • Gryphornis longicaudatus Lambrecht, 1933 [lapsus]
  • Gryphosaurus problematicus Lambrecht, 1933 [lapsus]
  • Archaeopteryx macrourus Owen, 1862 fide Lambrecht, 1933 [lapsus]
  • Archaeornis siemensi (Dames, 1897) fide Lambrecht, 1933? [lapsus]
  • Archeopteryx macrura Ostrom, 1970 [lapsus]
  • Archaeopteryx crassipes (Meyer, 1857) Ostrom, 1972 [suppressed in favor of A. lithographica 1977 per ICZN Opinion 1070]
  • Archaeopterix lithographica di Gregorio, 1984 [lapsus]
  • Archaeopteryx recurva Howgate, 1984
  • Jurapteryx recurva (Howgate, 1984) Howgate, 1985
  • Archaeopteryx bavarica Wellnhofer, 1993
  • Wellnhoferia grandis Elżanowski, 2001

The last 4 taxa may be valid genera and species. Binomial name Wellnhoferia grandis Elżanowski, 2001 Wellnhoferia is a genus of dinosaur closely related to Archaeopteryx. ...


"Archaeopteryx" vicensensis (Anon. fide Lambrecht, 1933) is a nomen nudum for what appears to be an undescribed pterosaur. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ...


Controversies

Authenticity

Beginning in 1985, a group including astronomer Fred Hoyle and physicist Lee Spetner published a series of papers claiming that the feathers on the Berlin and London specimens of Archaeopteryx were forged.[45][46][47][48] Their claims were repudiated by Alan J. Charig and others at the British Museum of Natural History.[49] Most of their evidence for a forgery was based on unfamiliarity with the processes of lithification; for example, they proposed that based on the difference in texture associated with the feathers, feather impressions were applied to a thin layer of cement,[46] without realizing that feathers themselves would have caused a textural difference.[49] They also expressed disbelief that slabs would split so smoothly, or that one half of a slab containing fossils would have good preservation, but not the counterslab.[47][45] These, though, are common properties of Solnhofen fossils because the dead animals would fall onto hardened surfaces which would form a natural plane for the future slabs to split along, leaving the bulk of the fossil on one side and little on the other.[49] They also misinterpreted the fossils, claiming that the tail was forged as one large feather,[46] when this is visibly not the case.[49] In addition, they claimed that the other specimens of Archaeopteryx known at the time did not have feathers,[46][45] which is untrue; the Maxberg and Eichstätt specimens have obvious feathers.[49] Finally, the motives they suggested for a forgery are not strong, and contradictory; one is that Richard Owen wanted to forge evidence in support of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, which is unlikely given Owen's views toward Darwin and his theory. The other is that Owen wanted to set a trap for Darwin, hoping the latter would support the fossils so Owen could discredit him with the forgery; this is unlikely because Owen himself wrote a detailed paper on the London specimen, so such an action would certainly backfire.[39] An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... Sir Frederick Hoyle, FRS, (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, he was educated at Bingley Grammar School and notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Dr. Lee M. Spetner is a biophysicist, author, and critic of the theory of evolution. ... Alan Jack Charig (July 1, 1927 - July 15, 1997) was an English palaeontologist and writer who popularised his subject on television and in books at the start of the wave of interest in dinosaurs in the 1970s. ... There are many Museums of Natural History around the world, including: American Museum of Natural History, in New York City. ... Lithification (from the Greek word lithos meaning rock and the Latin-derived suffix -ific) is the process whereby sediments compact under pressure, expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Charig et al. pointed to the presence of hairline cracks in the slabs running through both rock and fossil impressions, and mineral growth over the slabs that had occurred before discovery and preparation, as evidence that the feathers were original.[49] Spetner et al. then attempted to show that the cracks would have naturally propagated through their postulated cement layer,[50] but neglected to account for the fact that the cracks were old and had been filled with calcite, and thus were not able to propagate.[39] They also attempted to show the presence of cement on the London specimen through X-ray spectrometry, and did find something that was not rock.[50] However, it was not cement, either, and is most probably from a fragment of silicone rubber left behind when molds were made of the specimen.[39] Their suggestions have not been taken seriously by paleontologists, as their evidence was largely based on misunderstandings of geology, and they never discussed the other feather-bearing specimens, which have increased in number since then. Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for determining the electronic structure of materials by using x-ray excitation. ...


Archaeopteryx and Protoavis

In 1984, Sankar Chatterjee discovered fossils which he claimed in 1991 belonged to a fossil bird far older than Archaeopteryx. These fossils, believed to be around 210 to 225 million years old, have been assigned the name Protoavis.[51] The fossils are too badly preserved to allow an estimate of flying ability; although Chatterjee's reconstructions usually show feathers, many paleontologists, including Paul (2002) and Witmer (2002) have rejected the claims that Protoavis was an earlier bird (or, alternately, that it existed at all).[28][52] The fossils were found disarticulated, and were collected from different locations. Because the fossils are in poor condition, Archaeopteryx remains the earliest universally recognized bird.[53] Sankar Chatterjee is a paleontologist, and is the Paul W. Horn Professor of Geosciences at Texas Tech University and Curator of Paleontology at the Museum of Texas Tech University. ... Binomial name Protoavis texensis Chatterjee, 1991 Protoavis texensis (First bird from Texas) is the name given to archosaurian fossil bones from the Late Triassic found near Post, Texas. ...


In popular culture

Archaeopteryx is the best known early bird, and has thus received widespread attention. Its easily recognizable appearance and the intense public interest in dinosaurs have caused Archaeopteryx to become a feature of worldwide popular culture.

  • A main belt asteroid discovered in 1991, 9860 Archaeopteryx, was named in honor of the genus.[54][55]
  • Alfred Jarry's play Ubu cocu, ou l'Archéopteryx ('Ubu cuckolded, or the Archaeopteryx') has an Archaeopteryx as an important character.[56]
  • Track 11 on the Lemon Demon album Dinosaurchestra is entitled "Archaeopteryx". The song is about a person with an intense dislike of birdkind based on a jealousy of their flight ability. The person then travels back in time and kills the original Archaeopteryx, thus killing off all future birds.
  • The second book in the Time Machine series, Search for Dinosaurs, takes the reader on a journey to the Mesozoic to find and photograph an Archaeopteryx.[57]
  • An archaeopteryx was a recurring character in the comic strip "B.C."
  • During the "Rite of Spring" sequence of the Disney film Fantasia, an archaeopteryx is briefly featured.

The asteroid belt is a region of the solar system falling roughly between the planets Mars and Jupiter where the greatest concentration of asteroid orbits can be found. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... Alfred Jarry Alfred Jarry (September 8, 1873 – November 1, 1907) was a French writer born in Laval, Mayenne, France, not far from the border of Brittany; he was of Breton descent on his mothers side. ... Neil Cicierega (born August 23, 1986), a. ... Time Machine was a series of childrens books published by Bantam Books from 1984 to 1989, similar to their more successful Choose Your Own Adventure line of interactive novels. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Dinosaurs Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... A model of Archaeopteryx lithographica on display at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History The current scientific consensus holds that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs. ... Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs (see Dinosaur-bird connection). ...

Further reading

  • de Beer, G.R. (1954). Archaeopteryx lithographica: a study based upon the British Museum specimen. Trustees of the British Museum, London.
  • Chambers, P. (2002). Bones of Contention: The Fossil that Shook Science. John Murray, London. ISBN 0-7195-6059-4.
  • Feduccia, A. (1996). The Origin and Evolution of Birds. Yale University Press, New Haven. ISBN 0-300-06460-8.
  • Heilmann, G. (1926). The Origin of Birds. Witherby, London.
  • Huxley T.H. (1871). Manual of the anatomy of vertebrate animals. London.
  • von Meyer, H. (1861). Archaeopteryx litographica (Vogel-Feder) und Pterodactylus von Solenhofen. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde. 1861: 678–679, plate V [Article in German] Fulltext at Google Books.

Gerhard Heilmann (1859–1946) was a Danish artist, paleontologist and writer of the the Origin of Birds,[1] an influential account of bird evolution. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Archaeopteryx at The Grave Yard - Jamie Headden, Scott Hartman, and Rutger Jansma's skeletal restorations of most of the specimens. Eight scaled to each other at this site (both retrieved 2007-01-22)
  2. ^ Archaeopteryx: An Early Bird - University of California, Berkeley Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 2006-OCT-18
  3. ^ Archaeopteryx lithographica - Nick Longrich, University of Calgary. Discusses how many wings an Archaeopteryx had and other questions.
  4. ^ Wellnhofer P (2004). "The Plumage of Archaeopteryx", in Currie PJ, Koppelhus EB, Shugar MA, Wright JL: Feathered Dragons. Indiana University Press, 282–300. ISBN 0-253-34373-9. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Lambert, David (1993). The Ultimate Dinosaur Book. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 38–81. ISBN 1-56458-304-X. 
  6. ^ Holtz, Thomas, Jr. (1995). Archaeopteryxs Relationship With Modern Birds. Journal of Dinosaur Paleontology. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  7. ^ Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 130 (1997) 275-292
  8. ^ Bühler, P. & Bock, W.J. (2002). Zur Archaeopteryx-Nomenklatur: Missverständnisse und Lösung. Journal of Ornithology. 143(3): 269–286. [Article in German, English abstract] doi:10.1046/j.1439-0361.2002.02006.x (HTML abstract)
  9. ^ Feduccia, A. (1993). Evidence from claw geometry indicating arboreal habits of Archaeopteryx. Science. 259(5096): 790–793.HTML abstract
  10. ^ Feduccia, A. & Tordoff, H.B. (1979). Feathers of Archaeopteryx: Asymmetric vanes indicate aerodynamic function. Science. 203(4384): 1021–1022. HTML abstract
  11. ^ Huxley T.H. (1868). On the animals which are most nearly intermediate between birds and reptiles. Geol. Mag. 5, 357–65; Annals & Magazine of Nat Hist 2, 66–75; Scientific Memoirs 3, 3–13.
  12. ^ Huxley T.H. (1868) Remarks upon Archaeopteryx lithographica. Proc Roy Soc 16, 243–48; Sci Memoirs 3, 340-45.
  13. ^ Huxley T.H. (1870) Further evidence of the affinity between the dinosaurian reptiles and birds. Quart J Geol Soc 26, 32–50; Sci Mem 3, 487–509.
  14. ^ Kennedy, Elaine (2000). Solnhofen Limestone: Home of Archaeopteryx. Geoscience Reports. 30: 1–4. Retrieved 2006-10-18.
  15. ^ Nedin, C. (1999). All About Archaeopteryx. talk.origins archive. Version of June 10, 2002; retrieved 2006-10-18.
  16. ^ Olson, S.L. & Feduccia, A. (1979). Flight capability and the pectoral girdle of Archaeopteryx. Nature. 278(5701). 247–248. doi:10.1038/278247a0 (HTML abstract)
  17. ^ Ostrom, J.H. (1976). Archaeopteryx and the origin of birds. Biol. J. Linn. Soc.. 8: 91–182.
  18. ^ Ostrom, J.H. (1985). Introduction to Archaeopteryx. In: Hecht, M.K.O.; Ostrom, J.H.; Viohl, G. & Wellnhofer, P. (eds.) The Beginnings of Birds: Proceedings of the International Archaeopteryx Conference: 9–20. Eichstätt, Freunde des Jura-Museums Eichstätt.
  19. ^ Owen, R. (1863). On the Archaeopteryx of Von Meyer, with a description of the fossil remains of a long-tailed species from the lithographic stone of Solnhofen. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. 153: 33–47. First page image
  20. ^ a b Christensen P, Bonde N. (2004). Body plumage in Archaeopteryx: a review, and new evidence from the Berlin specimen. Comptes Rendus Palevol. 3: 99–118. PDF fulltext
  21. ^ a b Longrich N. (2006): Structure and function of hindlimb feathers in Archaeopteryx lithographica. Paleobiology. 32(3): 417–431. doi:10.1666/04014.1 (HTML abstract)
  22. ^ a b c Elżanowski A. (2002): Archaeopterygidae (Upper Jurassic of Germany). In: Chiappe, L. M. & Witmer, L. M (eds.), Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs: 129–159. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  23. ^ Senter, P. (2006). Scapular orientation in theropods and basal birds and the origin of flapping flight. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 51(2): 305–313. PDF fulltext
  24. ^ Witmer, L. M. (2004). Palaeontology: Inside the oldest bird brain. Nature. 430(7000): 619–620. PMID 15295579 doi:10.1038/430619a
  25. ^ Alonso, P. D., Milner, A. C., Ketcham, R. A., Cookson, M. J. & Rowe, T. B. (2004). The avian nature of the brain and inner ear of Archaeopteryx. Nature. 430(7000): 666–669. PMID 15295597. doi:10.1038/nature02706. PDF fulltext Supplementary info
  26. ^ a b c d Chiappe, Luis M. (2007). Glorified Dinosaurs. Sydney: UNSW Press, 118–146. ISBN 0-471-24723-5. 
  27. ^ Davis, P.; and Briggs, D. (1998). "The impact of decay and disarticulation on the preservation of fossil birds". Palaios 13 (1): 3–13. Retrieved on 2007-03-25. 
  28. ^ a b c d Paul, Gregory S. (2002). Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of Flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6763-0. 
  29. ^ Buisonje, P.H. de (1985). "Climatological conditions during deposition of the Solnhofen limestones", in Hecht, M.K.; Ostrom, J.H.; Viohl, G.; and Wellnhofer, P. (eds.): The beginnings of Birds: Proceedings of the International Archaeopteryx Conference, Eichstatt, 1984. Eichstätt: Freunde des Jura-Museums Eichstätt, 45–65. ISBN 978-3980117807. 
  30. ^ Ostrom, J.H. (1976). "Archaeopteryx and the origin of birds". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 8: 91–182. 
  31. ^ National Geographic News- Earliest Bird Had Feet Like Dinosaur, Fossil Shows - Nicholas Bakalar, December 1, 2005, Page 1. Retrieved 2006-10-18.
  32. ^ Griffiths, P. J. (1996). The Isolated Archaeopteryx Feather. Archaeopteryx 14: 1–26.
  33. ^ Wellnhofer, P. & Tischlinger, H. (2004). Das "Brustbein" von Archaeopteryx bavarica Wellnhofer 1993 - eine Revision. Archaeopteryx. 22: 3–15. [Article in German]
  34. ^ Mayr G, Pohl B & Peters DS. (2005). A well-preserved Archaeopteryx specimen with theropod features. Science. 310(5753): 1483–1486. doi:10.1126/science.1120331 See commentary on article
  35. ^ National Geographic News- Earliest Bird Had Feet Like Dinosaur, Fossil Shows - Nicholas Bakalar, December 1, 2005, Page 2. Retrieved 2006-10-18.
  36. ^ a b c Mayr, G., Phol, B., Hartman, S. & Peters, D.S. (2007). The tenth skeletal specimen of Archaeopteryx. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149, 97–116.
  37. ^ Trop, M. (September 1983). "Is Archaeopteryx a fake?". Creation Res. Soc. Quart.: 121-122. 
  38. ^ Archaeopteryx is a fake. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
  39. ^ a b c d Nedin, Chris (2007-12-15). On Archaeopteryx, Astronomers, and Forgery. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  40. ^ Swinton, W. E. (1960). Opinion 1084, Proposed addition of the generic name Archaeopteryx VON MEYER, 1861 and the specific name Lithographica, VON MEYER, 1861, as published in the binomen Archaeopteryx Lithographica to the official lists (Class Aves). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 17(6–8): 224–226.
  41. ^ ICZN. (1961). Opinion 607, Archaeopteryx VON MEYER, 1861 (Aves); Addition to the Official list. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 18(4): 260–261.
  42. ^ Wagner A (1861) Über ein neues, angeblich mit Vogelfedern versehenes Reptil aus dem Solnhofener lithographischen Schiefer. Sitzungberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-physikalisch Classe 146–154
  43. ^ ICZN. (1977). Opinion 1070. Conservation of Archaeopteryx lithographica VON MEYER 1861 (Aves). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 33: 165–166.
  44. ^ Archaeopteryx turns out to be singular bird of a feather. New Scientist 2443:17. 17 April 2004. See commentary on article.
  45. ^ a b c Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.; and Watkins, R.S. (1985). "Archaeopteryx". British Journal of Photography 132: 693–694. 
  46. ^ a b c d Watkins, R.S.; Hoyle, F.; Wickrmasinghe, N.C.; Watkins, J.; Rabilizirov, R.; and Spetner, L.M. (1985). "Archaeopteryx - a photographic study". British Journal of Photography 132: 264–266. 
  47. ^ a b Watkins, R.S.; Hoyle, F.; Wickrmasinghe, N.C.; Watkins, J.; Rabilizirov, R.; and Spetner, L.M. (1985). "Archaeopteryx - a further comment". British Journal of Photography 132: 358–359, 367. 
  48. ^ Watkins, R.S.; Hoyle, F.; Wickrmasinghe, N.C.; Watkins, J.; Rabilizirov, R.; and Spetner, L.M. (1985). "Archaeopteryx - more evidence". British Journal of Photography 132: 468–470. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f Charig, A.J.; Greenaway, F.; Milner, A.N.; Walker, C.A.; and Whybrow, P.J. (1986). "Archaeopteryx is not a forgery". Science 232: 622–626. 
  50. ^ a b Spetner, L.M.; Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.; and Magaritz, M. (1988). "Archaeopteryx - more evidence for a forgery". The British Journal of Photography 135: 14–17. 
  51. ^ Chatterjee, S. (1991). Cranial anatomy and relationships of a new Triassic bird from Texas. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 332: 277–342.
  52. ^ Witmer, L. (2002). The debate on avian ancestry. In: Witmer, L. and Chiappe, L. (eds)., Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press. 3–30.
  53. ^ Ostrom, J. H. (1996). "The questionable validity of Protoavis." Archaeopteryx 14: 39–42.
  54. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 9860 Archaeopteryx (1991 PW9). NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  55. ^ Williams, Gareth. Minor Planet Names: Alphabetical List. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  56. ^ Buffetaut, E. (1985). The strangest interpretation of Archaeopteryx In: Hecht, M.K.O.; Ostrom, J.H.; Viohl, G. & Wellnhofer, P. (eds.) The Beginnings of Birds: Proceedings of the International Archaeopteryx Conference: 369-370. Eichstätt, Freunde des Jura-Museums Eichstätt.
  57. ^ Bischoff, David; Search for Dinosaurs (Time Machine, No. 2); published 1984 by Bantam Books; introduction

Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Arch marking entrance to campus The University of Calgary is a public university located in the north-western quadrant of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... talk. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Biological Journal of the Linnean Society is a scientific journal published by The Linnean Society of London. ... Cover of Cover of the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... Comptes rendus de lAcadémie des Sciences, or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1835. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregory S. Paul (born 1954) is a freelance paleontologist, author and illustrator. ... John Ostrom John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or saurians), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Sir Frederick Hoyle, FRS, (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, he was educated at Bingley Grammar School and notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of... Alan Jack Charig (July 1, 1927 - July 15, 1997) was an English palaeontologist and writer who popularised his subject on television and in books at the start of the wave of interest in dinosaurs in the 1970s. ... Dr. Lee M. Spetner is a biophysicist, author, and critic of the theory of evolution. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Archaeopteryx
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Archaeopteryx
  • Journal of Dinosaur Paleontology - With many articles on dinosaur-bird links.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Archaeopteryx - LoveToKnow 1911 (727 words)
The name of Archaeopteryx litho graphica was based by Hermann von Meyer upon a feather (Gr.irrEpv, wing) found in 1861 in the lithographic slate quarries of Solenhofen in Bavaria, the geological horizon being that of the Kimmeridge clay of the Upper Oolite or Jurassic system.
Archaeopteryx was a bird, without any doubt, but still with so many low, essentially reptilian characters that it forms a link between these two classes.
The clawed slender fingers did not make Archaeopteryx any more quadrupedal or bat-like in its habits than is a kestrel hawk, with its equally large, or even larger thumb-claw.
ARCHAEOPTERYX - Zoom Dinosaurs (664 words)
Archaeopteryx (meaning "ancient wing") is a very early prehistoric bird, dating from about 150 million years ago during the Jurassic period, when many dinosaurs lived.
Paleontologists think that Archaeopteryx was a dead-end in evolution and that coelurosaurian theropods (a group of dinosaurs that included the Dromaeosaurs Deinonychus, Utahraptor, and Velociraptor) led to the birds.
Using the fossils of Archaeopteryx and Compsognathus, a bird-sized and bird-like dinosaur, Huxley argued that birds and reptiles were descended from common ancestors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m