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Encyclopedia > Archaeology
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The 2000-year-old remains of Ancient Rome, Italy, are being excavated and mapped by these archaeologists
The 2000-year-old remains of Ancient Rome, Italy, are being excavated and mapped by these archaeologists

Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archaios, combining form in Latin archae-, "ancient"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes. Because archaeology's aim is to understand humankind, it is a humanistic endeavor[1]. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 590 pixelsFull resolution (1948 × 1436 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 590 pixelsFull resolution (1948 × 1436 pixel, file size: 3. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1516x1009, 700 KB) Description Antiquité égyptienne, Théâtre romain, Alexandrie, (Égypte). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1516x1009, 700 KB) Description Antiquité égyptienne, Théâtre romain, Alexandrie, (Égypte). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... In archaeology, a biofact or ecofact is an object, found at an archaeological site and carrying archaeological significance, but (unlike an artifact) not altered by human hands. ... The Dresden Elbe Valley World Heritage Site is according to the UNESCO an outstanding example of land use, representing an exceptional development of a major Central-European city having almost half a million inhabitants // [edit] Cultural landscape is defined as the human-modified environment, including fields, houses, church, highways, planted...


The goals of archaeology vary, and there is debate as to what its aims, and responsibilities are. Some goals include the documentation and explanation of the origins and development of human cultures, understanding culture history, chronicling cultural evolution, and studying human behavior and ecology, for both prehistoric and historic societies[citation needed]. Archaeologists are also concerned with the study of methods used in the discipline, and the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings underlying the questions archaeologists ask of the past. The tasks of surveying areas in order to find new sites, excavating sites in order to recover cultural remains, classification, analysis, and preservation are all important phases of the archaeological process. These are all important sources of information. Given the broad scope of the discipline there is a great deal of cross-disciplinary research in archaeology. It draws upon history, art history, classics, geography[2], geology[3][4][5], paleontology, paleozoology, paleoethnobotany, and paleobotany. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Cultural-history archaeology or simply Culture history is a form of archaeological theory. ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Paleozoology (Greek: paleon = old and zoon = animal) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of animal remains from archeological (or even geological) contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and economies. ... Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British) academic circles, is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ...

Contents

Origins and definitions

In parts of Europe and the Old World, the discipline has its roots in antiquarianism and the study of Latin and Ancient Greek, and so has a natural affinity with the field of history. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ...


In North America archaeology is one of the four sub-fields, or branches of anthropology. The other three branches are cultural anthropology, which focuses on the study of living cultures and societies; linguistics, which studies language, including the origins of language and language groups; and physical anthropology, which includes the study of human evolution and physical and genetic characteristics. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Importance and applicability

Often archaeology provides the only means to learn of the existence and behaviors of people of the past. Many thousands of cultures and societies and millions of people have come and gone across the millennia of which there is little or no written record – no history – or for which written records may be misrepresentative or incomplete. Writing as it is known today did not exist anywhere in the world until the 4th millennium BC, in a relatively small number of technologically advanced civilizations. In contrast Homo sapiens has existed for at least 200,000 years, and other species of Homo for millions of years (see Human evolution). These civilizations are, not coincidentally, the best-known; they have been open to the inquiry of historians for centuries, while the study of pre-historic cultures has arisen only recently. Even within a civilization that is literate at some levels, many events and important human practices are not officially recorded. Any knowledge of the formative early years of human civilization – the development of agriculture, cult practices of folk religion, the rise of the first cities – must come from archaeology. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Download high resolution version (1752x1196, 311 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1752x1196, 311 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Write redirects here. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... Central New York City. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Central New York City. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...

Ten Indus glyphs discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira (perhaps 5000 years old)
Ten Indus glyphs discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira (perhaps 5000 years old)

Even where written records do exist, they are often incomplete and invariably biased to some extent. In many societies, literacy was restricted to the elite classes, such as the clergy or the bureaucracy of court or temple. The literacy even of an aristocrat has sometimes been restricted to deeds and contracts. The interests and world-view of elites are often quite different from the lives and interests of the populace. Writings that were produced by people more representative of the general population were unlikely to find their way into libraries and be preserved there for posterity. Thus, written records tend to reflect the biases, assumptions, cultural values and possibly deceptions of a limited range of individuals, usually only a fraction of the larger population. Hence, written records cannot be trusted as a sole source. The material record is closer to a fair representation of society, though it is subject to its own inaccuracies, such as sampling bias and differential preservation. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. ... For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... In general, a sample is a part of the total, such as one individual or a set of individuals from a population (of people or things), a small piece or amount of something larger, a number of function values of a function, or part of a song. ...


In addition to their scientific importance, archaeological remains sometimes have political or cultural significance to descendants of the people who produced them, monetary value to collectors, or simply strong aesthetic appeal. Many people identify archaeology with the recovery of such aesthetic, religious, political, or economic treasures rather than with the reconstruction of past societies. Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ...


This view is often espoused in works of popular fiction, such as Raiders of the Lost Ark, The Mummy, and King Solomon's Mines. When such unrealistic subjects are treated more seriously, accusations of pseudoscience are invariably levelled at their proponents (see Pseudoarchaeology, below). However, these endeavours, real and fictional, are not representative of modern archaeology. This article is about the film. ... The Mummy is a 1999 movie written and directed by Stephen Sommers and starring Brendan Fraser and Rachel Weisz, with Arnold Vosloo as the reanimated mummy of the title. ... King Solomons Mines, first published in 1885, is a perennially popular novel by the Victorian adventure writer and fabulist, H. Rider Haggard. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ...


History of archaeology

Gilt-metal and jade-inlaid pot. Qianlong reign in the Qing dynasty of China (c. 1700)
Gilt-metal and jade-inlaid pot. Qianlong reign in the Qing dynasty of China (c. 1700)
Main article: History of archaeology

The history of archaeology has been one of increasing professionalisation, and the use of an increasing range of techniques, to obtain as much data on the site being examined as possible. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1311, 1117 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1311, 1117 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The history of archaeology has been one of increasing professionalisation, and the use of an increasing range of technqiues, to obtain as much data on the site being examined as possible. ...


Excavations of ancient monuments and the collection of antiquities have been taking place for thousands of years, but these were mostly for the extraction of valuable or aesthetically pleasing artifacts.


It was only in the 19th century that the systematic study of the past through its physical remains began to be carried out. A notable early development was the founding in Rome in 1829, by Eduard Gerhard and others, of the Institute for Archaeological Correspondence (Instituto di corrispondenza archeologica or Institut für archäologisches Korrespondenz). Archaeological methods were developed by both interested amateurs and professionals, including Augustus Pitt Rivers and William Flinders Petrie. Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard Gerhard (November 29, 1795 - May 12, 1867), German archaeologist was co-founder and secretary of the first international archaeological society. ... Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers (14th April, 1827– 4 May 1900) was an English army officer, ethnologist, and archaeologist. ... Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ...


This process was continued in the 20th century by such people as Mortimer Wheeler, whose highly disciplined approach to excavation greatly improved the quality of evidence that could be obtained. Brigadier Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler Kt, CH, CIE, MC (10 September 1890–22 July 1976), was one of the best-known British archaeologists of the twentieth century. ...


During the 20th century, the development of urban archaeology and then rescue archaeology have been important factors, as has the development of archaeological science, which has greatly increased the amount of data that it is possible to obtain. Urban archaeology is a sub discipline of archaeology specialising in the material past of towns and cities where long-term human habitation has often left a rich record of the past. ... Rescue archaeology was a movement of the early 1970s, particularly in Britain which sought to lobby to help stop the loss of archaeological evidence, where it was threatened by building development work in the historic cities, and by agriculture. ... Archaeological science (also known as Archaeometry) is the application of scientific techniques and methodologies to archaeology. ...


Another branch, archaeoastronomy, is not as well known as archaeology, but deals with the study of ancient or traditional astronomies in cultural context. The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ...


Archaeological theories

Main article: Archaeological theory

There is no single theory of archaeology, and even definitions are disputed. Until the mid-20th century, there was a general consensus that archaeology was closely related to both history and anthropology. Archaeological theory covers the debates over the practice of archaeology and the interpretation of archaeological results. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ...


The first major phase in the history of archaeological theory in the United States developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is commonly referred to as cultural, or culture, history. It is best known for its emphasis on historical particularism.[6] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cultural history. ... Historical Particularism (coined by Marvin Harris in the 1960s) is widely considered the first American anthropological school of thought. ...


In the 1920's in the American Southwest cultural historical archaeology was intimately tied with the direct historical approach[6]. This approach continues to be pursued in the American Southwest, the American Northwest Coast, Mesoamerica, the Andes, Oceania, Siberia, and other world areas where there appears to be continuity between living, indigenous populations and archaeological remains of past groups. In pursuing the direct historical approach, ethnohistorical and early historical records play an important role in articulating the connections between modern people and the archaeological past. Literary sources can be used in other contexts as well, for example, in the case of Hadrian's Wall. The direct historical approach was an archaeological and anthropological technique invented by the American scholar William Duncan Strong during the 1920s and 1930s. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Ethnohistory uses both historical and ethnographic data as its foundation. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ...


In the 1960s, a number of primarily American archaeologists, such as Lewis Binford and Kent Flannery, rebelled against the paradigms of cultural history.[7][8] They proposed a "New Archaeology", which would be more "scientific" and "anthropological", with hypothesis testing and the scientific method very important parts of what became known as processual archaeology.[6] Lewis Roberts Binford (born 1930) is an American archaeologist, known as the leader of the New Archaeology movement of the 1950s/60s. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Processual archaeology is a form of archaeological theory which arguably had its genesis in 1958 with Willey and Phillips work, Method and Theory in American Archeology in which the pair stated that American archeology is anthropology or it is nothing (Willey and Phillips, 1958:2). ...


In the 1980s, a new postmodern movement arose led by the British archaeologists Michael Shanks[9][10][11][12], Christopher Tilley[13], Daniel Miller[14][15], and Ian Hodder[16][17][18][19][20][21]. It questioned processualism's appeals to scientific positivism and impartiality, and emphasised the importance of a more self-critical theoretical reflexivity[citation needed]. This approach is termed post-processual archaeology. However, this approach has been criticized by processualists as lacking scientific rigor. The validity of both processualism and post-processualism is still under debate. Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Further information: Shanks_(disambiguation) Michael Shanks is a British archaeologist who has been at the forefront of thinking and practice in archaeology (usually placed under the banner of post-processualism or interpretive archaeology). ... Christopher Y. Tilley is a British archaeologist and a leading proponent of post-processual archaeology. ... Daniel Miller (1954-) is an anthropologist most closely associated with studies in material culture and consumption. ... Ian R. Hodder (born 23 November 1948 in Bristol) is a British archaeologist and pioneer of postprocessualist theory in archaeology. ... Postprocessual archaeology is related to the broader process of postmodernism during the 1980s. ...


Historical Processualism is an emerging paradigm that seeks to incorporate a focus on process and post-processual archaeology's emphasis of reflexivity and history.[22]


Archaeological theory now borrows from a wide range of influences, including neo-Darwinian evolutionary thought, phenomenology, postmodernism, agency theory, cognitive science, Functionalism, gender-based and Feminist archaeology, and Systems theory. This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Cognitive archaeology is a sub-discipline of archaeology which focuses on the ways that ancient societies thought and the symbolic structures that can be perceived in past material culture. ... This article is about functionalism in sociology. ... Gender archaeology is a method of studying ancient societies by closely examining the roles played by men and women in the past as exhibited through the archaeological record. ... Feminist archaeology is an approach to studying ancient societies by critiquing what its practitioners perceive as an androcentric bias both in many past civilisations and also in modern archaeological study. ... Systems theory is not native to archaeology. ...


Methods

Survey

Main article: Archaeological survey
Monte Alban archaeological site
Monte Alban archaeological site

A modern archaeological project often begins with a survey. Regional survey is the attempt to systematically locate previously unknown sites in a region. Site survey is the attempt to systematically locate features of interest, such as houses and middens, within a site. Each of these two goals may be accomplished with largely the same methods. Archaeological field survey is the methodological process by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) collect information about the location, distribution and organisation of past human cultures across a large area (e. ... Image File history File links Monte_Albán_archeological_site,_Oaxaca. ... Image File history File links Monte_Albán_archeological_site,_Oaxaca. ... Monte Albán is a large archeological site in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. ... Archaeological field survey is the methodological process by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) collect information about the location, distribution and organisation of past human cultures across a large area (e. ... A midden, also known as kitchen middens, is a dump for domestic waste. ...


Survey was not widely practiced in the early days of archaeology. Cultural historians and prior researchers were usually content with discovering the locations of monumental sites from the local populace, and excavating only the plainly visible features there. Gordon Willey pioneered the technique of regional settlement pattern survey in 1949 in the Viru Valley of coastal Peru[23][24], and survey of all levels became prominent with the rise of processual archaeology some years later[25]. Gordon Willey (b. ... The Viru Valley is on the north east coast of Peru The Viru Valley Project In 1946 the first attempt to study settlement patterns in the Americas took place in the Viru Valley, led by Gordon Willey. ...


Survey work has many benefits if performed as a preliminary exercise to, or even in place of, excavation. It requires relatively little time and expense, because it does not require processing large volumes of soil to search out artifacts. (Nevertheless, surveying a large region or site can be expensive, so archaeologists often employ sampling methods.)[26] As with other forms of non-destructive archaeology, survey avoids ethical issues (of particular concern to descendant peoples) associated with destroying a site through excavation. It is the only way to gather some forms of information, such as settlement patterns and settlement structure. Survey data are commonly assembled into maps, which may show surface features and/or artifact distribution. Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ...


The simplest survey technique is surface survey. It involves combing an area, usually on foot but sometimes with the use of mechanized transport, to search for features or artifacts visible on the surface. Surface survey cannot detect sites or features that are completely buried under earth, or overgrown with vegetation. Surface survey may also include mini-excavation techniques such as augers, corers, and shovel test pits. Study of a man using an auger, for The Seven Sorrows of the Virgin, Albrecht Dürer, ca 1496 An auger is a device for moving material or liquid by means of a rotating helical flighting. ... Shovel Test Pits (STP) are a means used during archaeological survey and testing to examine for the presence or absence of archaeological material (i. ...


Aerial survey is conducted using cameras attached to airplanes, balloons, or even kites. A bird's-eye view is useful for quick mapping of large or complex sites. Aerial photographs are used to document the status of the archaeological dig. Aerial imaging can also detect many things not visible from the surface. Plants growing above a buried man made structure, such as a stone wall, will develop more slowly, while those above other types of features (such as middens) may develop more rapidly. Photographs of ripening grain, which changes colour rapidly at maturation, have revealed buried structures with great precision. Aerial photographs taken at different times of day will help show the outlines of structures by changes in shadows. Aerial survey also employs infrared, ground-penetrating radar wavelengths, and thermography. Aerial survey is a method of collecting information by utilising aerial photography or from remote sensing technology using other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as infrared, gamma, or ultraviolet. ... This article is about the photographing device. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... A midden, also known as kitchen middens, is a dump for domestic waste. ... Grain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the infrared imaging technique. ...


Archaeological geophysics can be the most effective way to see beneath the ground. Magnetometers detect minute deviations in the Earth's magnetic field caused by iron artifacts, kilns, some types of stone structures, and even ditches and middens. Devices that measure the electrical resistivity of the soil are also widely used. Archaeological Features whose electrical resistivity contrasts with that of surrounding soils can be detected and mapped. Some archaeological features (such as those composed of stone or brick) have higher resistivity than typical soils , while others (such as organic deposits or unfired clay) tend to have lower resistivity. Electrical resistance map of ancient Aphrodisias Archaeological geophysics most often refers to geophysical survey techniques used for archaeological imaging or mapping. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... Stone structures have been erected and built by mankind for thousands of years. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ...


Although some archaeologists consider the use of metal detectors to be tantamount to treasure hunting, others deem them an effective tool in archaeological surveying. Examples of formal archaeological use of metal detectors include musketball distribution analysis on English Civil War battlefields, metal distribution analysis prior to excavation of a nineteenth century ship wreck, and service cable location during evaluation. Metal detectorists have also contributed to the archaeological record where they have made detailed records of their results and refrained from raising artifacts from their archaeological context. In the UK, metal detectorists have been solicited for involvement in the Portable Antiquities Scheme. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inductive sensor. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The archaeological record is a term used in archaeology to denote the physical remains of past human activities which archaeologists seek out and record in an attempt to analyise and reconstruct the past. ... The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) is a voluntary programme run by the United Kingdom government to record the increasing numbers of small finds of archaeological interest found by members of the public. ...


Regional survey in underwater archaeology uses geophysical or remote sensing devices such as marine magnetometer, side-scan sonar, or sub-bottom sonar. Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ... Diagram of sidescan sonar Side scan sonar (also sometimes called side-scan sonar, sidescan sonar, side looking sonar and side-looking sonar) is a category of sonar system that is used to efficiently create an image of large areas of the sea floor. ...


Excavation

Main article: Excavation
Archeological excavation which discovered prehistorical caves in Vill, Austria
Archeological excavation which discovered prehistorical caves in Vill, Austria

Archaeological excavation existed even when the field was still the domain of amateurs, and it remains the source of the majority of data recovered in most field projects. It can reveal several types of information usually not accessible to survey, such as stratigraphy, three-dimensional structure, and verifiably primary context. The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 514 KB) Description: This pictures shows the result of an archeological excavation which discovered prehistorical caves in Vill, Austria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 514 KB) Description: This pictures shows the result of an archeological excavation which discovered prehistorical caves in Vill, Austria. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, studies rock layers and layering (stratification). ...


Modern excavation techniques require that the precise locations of objects and features, known as their provenance or provenience, be recorded. This always involves determining their horizontal locations, and sometimes vertical position as well (also see Primary Laws of Archaeology). Similarly, their association, or relationship with nearby objects and features, needs to be recorded for later analysis. This allows the archaeologist to deduce what artefacts and features were likely used together and which may be from different phases of activity. For example, excavation of a site reveals its stratigraphy; if a site was occupied by a succession of distinct cultures, artefacts from more recent cultures will lie above those from more ancient cultures. Provenance is the origin or source from which anything comes. ... The Harris Matrix or Harris-Winchester Matrix is a method of recording and interpreting archaeological sites. ... Association in archaeology refers to a close relationship between two or more objects. ... An archaeological relationship is the position in space and by implication, in time, of an object or context with respect to another. ... In archaeology, the term feature is generally used to refer to any nonportable remnant of human activity, such as a hearth, road, or house remains, later found or recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... An artifact (also artefact) is a term coined by Sir Julian Huxley meaning any object or process resulting from human activity. ... A three phased sequence Archaeological phase and phasing refers to the logical reduction of contexts recorded during excavation to near contemporary archaeological horizons that represent a distinct phase of previous land use. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, studies rock layers and layering (stratification). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Excavation is the most expensive phase of archaeological research. Also, as a destructive process, it carries ethical concerns. As a result, very few sites are excavated in their entirety. Sampling is even more important in excavation than in survey. It is common for large mechanical equipment, such as backhoes (JCBs), to be used in excavation, especially to remove the topsoil (overburden), though this method is increasingly used with great caution. Following this rather dramatic step, the exposed area is usually hand-cleaned with trowels or hoes to ensure that all features are apparent. For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. ... It has been suggested that Backhoe fade be merged into this article or section. ... JCB is a family business named after its founder J.C.Bamford, producing distinctive yellow-and-black engineering vehicles, diggers (Backhoes) and excavators. ... Topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, usually the top six to eight inches. ... Overburden is the term used in mining to describe material that lies above the area of economic interest. ... A gardening trowel Trowel used by the Hon. ... Agricultural square bladed hoe. ...


The next task is to form a site plan and then use it to help decide the method of excavation. Features dug into the natural subsoil are normally excavated in portions in order to produce a visible archaeological section for recording. A feature, for example a pit or a ditch, consists of two parts: the cut and the fill. The cut describes the edge of the feature, where the feature meets the natural soil. It is the feature's boundary. The fill is, understandably, what the feature is filled with, and will often appear quite distinct from the natural soil. The cut and fill are given consecutive numbers for recording purposes. Scaled plans and sections of individual features are all drawn on site, black and white and colour photographs of them are taken, and recording sheets are filled in describing the context of each. All this information serves as a permanent record of the now-destroyed archaeology and is used in describing and interpreting the site. Archaeological plan In an archaeological excavation, a plan is a drawn record of features (and artifacts) in the horizontal plane. ... Natural in Archaeology is a term to denote a horizon in the stratigraphic record representing the point from which there is no man made activity on site and the archaeological record ends. ... Half-section through a Saxon pit In archaeology a section is a view of an excavated archaeological trench or feature showing the contents of that feature in two dimensions (vertical and horizontal) and thereby illustrating its profile and stratigraphy. ... Fig 1. ... In archaeology fills are contexts representing material that has accumalated or has been deposited into a cut feature such as ditch or pit of some kind. ... Half-section through a Saxon pit In archaeology a section is a view of an excavated archaeological trench or feature showing the contents of that feature in two dimensions (vertical and horizontal) and thereby illustrating its profile and stratigraphy. ... Typical context sheets Single context recording was developed in the 1970s by the museum of london amongst others and has become the defacto recording system in many parts of the world and is especially suited to the complexities of deep urban archaeology and the process of Stratification. ... In archaeology, not only the context (physical location) of a discovery a significant fact but the formation of the context is as well. ...


Analysis

Main article: Post excavation

Once artifacts and structures have been excavated, or collected from surface surveys, it is necessary to properly study them, to gain as much data as possible. This process is known as post-excavation analysis, and is normally the most time-consuming part of the archaeological investigation. It is not uncommon for the final excavation reports on major sites to take years to be published. In archaeology once the archaeological record of given site has been excavated, or collected from surface surveys, it is necessary to gain as much data as possible and organize it into a coherent body of information. ...


At its most basic, the artifacts found are cleaned, catalogued and compared to published collections, in order to classify them typologically and to identify other sites with similar artifact assemblages. However, a much more comprehensive range of analytical techniques are available through archaeological science, meaning that artifacts can be dated and their compositions examined. The bones, plants and pollen collected from a site can all be analyzed (using the techniques of zooarchaeology, paleoethnobotany, and palynology), while any texts can usually be deciphered. The word typology literally means the study of types. ... Archaeological science (also known as Archaeometry) is the application of scientific techniques and methodologies to archaeology. ... Zooarchaeology (or Archaeozoology) is the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. ... Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British) academic circles, is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost. ...


These techniques frequently provide information that would not otherwise be known and therefore contribute greatly to the understanding of a site.


Academic sub-disciplines

Main article: Archaeological sub-disciplines

As with most academic disciplines, there are a very large number of archaeological sub-disciplines characterised by a specific method or type of material (e.g. lithic analysis, music, archaeobotany), geographical or chronological focus (e.g. Near Eastern archaeology, Medieval archaeology), other thematic concern (e.g. maritime archaeology, landscape archaeology, battlefield archaeology), or a specific archaeological culture or civilisation (e.g. Egyptology). As with most academic disciplines, there are a number of archaeological sub-disciplines typically characterised by a focus on a specific method or type of material, geographical or chronological focus, or other thematic concern. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... As with most academic disciplines, there are a number of archaeological sub-disciplines typically characterised by a focus on a specific method or type of material, geographical or chronological focus, or other thematic concern. ... In archaeology, lithic analysis is the analysis of stone tools using basic scientific techniques. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British) academic circles, is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. ... Near Eastern Archaeology (sometimes known as Middle Eastern archaeology) is a regional branch of the wider, global discipline of Archaeology. ... The study of humankind through its material culture, specialising in the period of the European Middle Ages. ... Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ... Landscape archaeology refers to a body of method and theory for the study of past people and their material culture within the context of their interactions in the wider social and natural environment they inhabited. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ...


Historical archaeology

Historical archaeology is the study of cultures with some form of writing. Historical archaeology is a branch of archaeology that concerns itself with historical societies, i. ...


In England, archaeologists have uncovered the long-lost layouts of medieval villages abandoned after the crises of the 14th century and the equally lost layouts of 17th century parterre gardens swept away by a change in fashion.[citation needed] In downtown New York City archaeologists have exhumed the 18th century remains of the African burial ground.[citation needed] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Ethnoarchaeology

Ethnoarchaeology is the archaeological study of living people[27][28][29][30][31][32]. The approach gained notoriety during the emphasis on middle range theory that was a feature of the processual movement of the 1960's. Early ethnoarchaeological research focused on hunting and gathering or foraging societies. Ethnoarchaeology continues to be a vibrant component of post-processual and other current archaeological approaches[33][34][35][36]. Ethnoarchaeology is the ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons, usually focusing on the material remains of a society, rather than its culture. ...


Experimental Archaeology

Experimental archaeology represents the application of the experimental method to develop more highly controlled observations of processes that create and impact the archaeological record.[37][38][39][40][41] In the context of the context of the logical positivism of processualism with its goals of improving the scientific rigor of archaeological epistemologies the experimental method gained importance. Experimental techniques remain a crucial component to improving the inferential frameworks for interpreting the archaeological record. Experimental archaeology employs a number of different methods, techniques, analyses, and approaches in order to generate and test hypotheses or an interpretation, based upon archaeological source material, like ancient structures or artifacts. ...


Archaeometry

Archaeometry is a field of study that aims to systematize archaeological measurement. It emphasizes the application of analytical techniques from physics, chemistry, and engineering. It is a lively field of research that frequently focuses on the definition of the chemical composition of archaeological remains for source analysis[42]. Archaeological science (also known as Archaeometry) is the application of scientific techniques and methodologies to archaeology. ...


Cultural resources management

Cultural resources management (CRM) also called heritage management in Britain[43], is a branch of archaeology that accounts for most research done in the United States and much of that in western Europe as well. In the United States, CRM archaeology has been a growing concern since the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and most of the archaeology done in that country today proceeds from either direct or related requirements of that measure. In the United States, the vast majority of taxpayers, scholars, and politicians believe that CRM has helped to preserve much of that nation's history and prehistory that would have otherwise been lost in the expansion of cities, dams, and highways. Along with other statutes, this mandates that no construction project on public land or involving public funds may damage an unstudied archaeological site. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... In the broadest sense, Cultural Resources Management (CRM) is the vocation and practice of managing cultural resources, such as the arts and heritage. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is a piece of legislation in the United States of America concerned with sites of historic and archaeological interest. ... In all modern states, some land is held by central or local governments. ... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ...


The application of CRM in the United Kingdom is not limited to government-funded projects. Since 1990 PPG 16[44] has required planners to consider archaeology as a material consideration in determining applications for new development. As a result, numerous archaeological organisations undertake mitigation work in advance of (or during) construction work in archaeologically sensitive areas, at the developer's expense. PPG 16 is short for Planning Policy Guidance 16 Archaeology and Planning, a document produced by the British Government to advise local planning authorities on the treatment of archaeology within the planning process. ... A material consideration in UK planning is an issue which planners are obliged to consult certain affected parties on, and take their views into account in any planning decision. ... Rescue archaeology was a movement of the early 1970s, particularly in Britain which sought to lobby to help stop the loss of archaeological evidence, where it was threatened by building development work in the historic cities, and by agriculture. ... It has been suggested that Polluter Pays be merged into this article or section. ...


In England, ultimate responsibility of care for the historic environment rests with the Department for Culture, Media and Sport[45] in association with English Heritage[46]. In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the same responsibilities lie with Historic Scotland[47], Cadw[48] and the Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland)[49] respectively. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... DCMS Logo DCMS headquarters in Cockspur Street The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (sometimes abbreviated DCMS) is a department of the British government. ... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Historic Scotland is the Scottish agency looking after historic monuments. ... Cadw is a semi-autonomous publicly-funded body which with the mission to protect, conserve, and to promote the built heritage of Wales — the Welsh equivalent of English Heritage and Historic Scotland. ... The Environment and Heritage Service is the United Kingdom Governments conservation agency for Northern Ireland. ...


Among the goals of CRM are the identification, preservation, and maintenance of cultural sites on public and private lands, and the removal of culturally valuable materials from areas where they would otherwise be destroyed by human activity, such as proposed construction. This study involves at least a cursory examination to determine whether or not any significant archaeological sites are present in the area affected by the proposed construction. If these do exist, time and money must be allotted for their excavation. If initial survey and/or test excavation indicates the presence of an extraordinarily valuable site, the construction may be prohibited entirely. CRM is a thriving entity, especially in the United States and Europe where archaeologists from private companies and all levels of government engage in the practice of their discipline. The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ...


Cultural resources management has, however, been criticized. CRM is conducted by private companies that bid for projects by submitting proposals outlining the work to be done and an expected budget. It is not unheard-of for the agency responsible for the construction to simply choose the proposal that asks for the least funding. CRM archaeologists face considerable time pressure, often being forced to complete their work in a fraction of the time that might be allotted for a purely scholarly endeavour. Compounding the time pressure is the vetting process of site reports which are required (in the US) to be submitted by CRM firms to the appropriate State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). From the SHPO's perspective there is to be no difference between a report submitted by a CRM firm operating under a deadline, and a multi-year academic project. The end result is that for a Cultural Resource Management archaeologist to be successful, they must be able to produce academic quality documents at a corporate world pace. The State Historic Preservation Office is a federally mandated office that is funded by the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF). ...


The annual ratio of open academic archaeology positions (inclusive of Post-Doc, temporary, and non tenure track appointments) to the annual number of archaeology MA/MSc and PhD students is grossly disproportionate. This dearth of academic positions causes a predictable excess of well educated individuals who join the ranks of the following year's crop of non-academically employed archaeologists. Cultural Resource Management, once considered an intellectual backwater for individuals with "strong backs and weak minds"[50] has reaped the benefit of this massive pool of well educated professionals. This results in CRM offices increasingly staffed by advance degreed individuals with a track record of producing scholarly articles but who have the notches on their trowels to show they have been in the trenches as a shovelbum. A postdoctoral (colloquially, post-doc) appointment is a usually temporary academic job held by a person who has completed his or her doctoral studies. ... -1...


Popular views of archaeology

Largest archaeology site in the Middle East. Bet She'an, Israel
Largest archaeology site in the Middle East. Bet She'an, Israel

Early archaeology was largely an attempt to uncover spectacular artifacts and features, or to explore vast and mysterious abandoned cities. Such pursuits continue to fascinate the public. Books, films, and video games, such as King Solomon's Mines, The Mummy, Raiders of the Lost Ark, and Tomb Raider all testify to the public's interest in the discovery aspect of archaeology. Image File history File links Beit_shean1. ... Image File history File links Beit_shean1. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of the Decapolis showing the location of Bet Shean (here called by its Greek name, Scythopolis) Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... King Solomons Mines, first published in 1885, is a perennially popular novel by the Victorian adventure writer and fabulist, H. Rider Haggard. ... The Mummy is a 1999 movie written and directed by Stephen Sommers and starring Brendan Fraser and Rachel Weisz, with Arnold Vosloo as the reanimated mummy of the title. ... This article is about the film. ... For the movie staring Angelina Jolie, see Lara Croft: Tomb Raider. ...


Much thorough and productive research has indeed been conducted in dramatic locales such as Copán and the Valley of the Kings, but the bulk of activities and finds of modern archaeology are not so sensational. Archaeological adventure stories tend to ignore the painstaking work involved in carrying out modern survey, excavation, and data processing. Some archaeologists refer to such portrayals as "pseudoarchaeology". Location of Copán The Pre-Columbian city now known as Copán is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the Copán Department, near to the Guatemalan border. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Archaeological field survey is the methodological process by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) collect information about the location, distribution and organisation of past human cultures across a large area (e. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... Pseudoarchaeology is an aspect of pseudohistory. ...


Archaeology has been portrayed in the mainstream media in sensational ways. This has its advantages and disadvantages. Many practitioners point to the childhood excitement of Indiana Jones films and Tomb Raider games as the inspiration for them to enter the field[citation needed]. Archaeologists are also very much reliant on public support, the question of exactly who they are doing their work for is often discussed[citation needed]. Without a strong public interest in the subject, often sparked by significant finds and celebrity archaeologists, it would be a great deal harder for archaeologists to gain the political and financial support they require. Dr. Henry Walden Jones, Jr. ... Tomb Raider logo. ...


Public outreach

Motivated by a desire to halt looting, curb pseudoarchaeology, and to secure greater public funding and appreciation for their work, archaeologists are mounting public-outreach campaigns. [1] They seek to stop looting by combatting artifact collectors, and by alerting people who live near archaeological sites of the threat of looting and the danger that it poses to science and their own heritage. Common methods of public outreach include press releases, and the encouragement of school field trips to sites under excavation by professional archaeologists[citation needed].


One audience for archaeologists' work is the public. They increasingly realize that their work can benefit non-academic and non-archaeological audiences, and that they have a responsibility educate and inform the public about archaeology. Local heritage awareness is aimed at increasing civic and individual pride through projects such as community excavation projects, and better public presentations of archaeological sites and knowledge[citation needed].


In the UK, popular archaeology programs such as Time Team and Meet the Ancestors have resulted in a huge upsurge in public interest[citation needed]. Where possible, archaeologists now make more provisions for public involvement and outreach in larger projects than they once did, and many local archaeological organizations operate within the Community archaeology framework to expand public involvement in smaller-scale, more local projects. Archaeological excavation, however, is best undertaken by well-trained staff that can work quickly and accurately. Often this requires observing the necessary health and safety and indemnity insurance issues involved in working on a modern building site with tight deadlines. Certain charities and local government bodies sometimes offer places on research projects either as part of academic work or as a defined community project[citation needed]. There is also a flourishing industry selling places on commercial training excavations and archaeological holiday tours[citation needed]. Time Team is a popular British television series explaining the process of archaeology for the layman in the UK. Broadcast by Channel 4, the programme was first shown in 1994, and is presented by Tony Robinson. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Occupational safety and health is the discipline concerned with preserving and protecting human and facility resources in the workplace. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Training excavations are normally run by University departments or large contractors and employ professional archaeologists in several disciplines to teach the basics of archaeological methodology, including photography, stratigraphy, illustration and draughtsmanship as well as survey, finds treatment and a host of other subjects. ...


Archaeologists prize local knowledge and often liaise with local historical and archaeological societies, which is one reason why Community archaeology projects are starting to become more common. Anyone looking to participate in archaeological opportunities should contact one of these local societies or organizations. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Pseudoarchaeology

Main article: Pseudoarchaeology

Pseudoarchaeology is an umbrella term for all activities that claim to be archaeological but in fact violate commonly accepted archaeological practices. It includes much fictional archaeological work (discussed above), as well as some actual activity. Many non-fiction authors have ignored the scientific methods of processual archaeology, or the specific critiques of it contained in post-processualism. Pseudoarchaeology is an aspect of pseudohistory. ... Pseudoarchaeology is an aspect of pseudohistory. ... Processual archaeology is a form of archaeological theory which arguably had its genesis in 1958 with Willey and Phillips work, Method and Theory in American Archeology in which the pair stated that American archeology is anthropology or it is nothing (Willey and Phillips, 1958:2). ... Postprocessual archaeology is related to the broader process of postmodernism during the 1980s. ...


An example of this type is the writing of Erich von Däniken. His Chariots of the Gods (1968), together with many subsequent lesser-known works, expounds a theory of ancient contacts between human civilisation on Earth and more technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilisations. This theory, known as palaeocontact theory, or Ancient astronaut theory, is not exclusively Däniken's nor did the idea originate with him. Works of this nature are usually marked by the renunciation of well-established theories on the basis of limited evidence, and the interpretation of evidence with a preconceived theory in mind. Erich Anton Paul von Däniken (b. ... Book cover for Chariots of the Gods? Chariots of the Gods?: Unsolved Mysteries of the Past is a controversial book written in 1968 by Erich von Däniken. ... Paintings from Val Camonica, Italy, c. ... // Paintings from Val Camonica, Italy, c. ...


Cryptoarchaeology claims to be a valid form of archaeology, in that it may follow commonly accepted best practices and the scientific method of processual archaeology, though it focuses on anomalous discoveries and other such remains that do not adhere to orthodox theory and thought. Cryptoarchaeology is a valid, though not fully accepted, form of Archaeology, in that it does follow commonly accepted best practices, scientific method, though it focuses on anomalous discoveries. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Processual archaeology is a form of archaeological theory which arguably had its genesis in 1958 with Willey and Phillips work, Method and Theory in American Archeology in which the pair stated that American archeology is anthropology or it is nothing (Willey and Phillips, 1958:2). ...


Looting

Looter's pit the morning following its excavation. Several small holes left by looters' prospecting probes, as well as looters' footprints are visible in the photograph. The site of Rontoy, Huaura Valley, Peru. June 2007
Looter's pit the morning following its excavation. Several small holes left by looters' prospecting probes, as well as looters' footprints are visible in the photograph. The site of Rontoy, Huaura Valley, Peru. June 2007
Stela of a king named Adad-Nirari. Object stolen from the Iraq National Museum in the looting in connection with the Iraq war of 2003.
Stela of a king named Adad-Nirari. Object stolen from the Iraq National Museum in the looting in connection with the Iraq war of 2003.

Looting of archaeological sites by people in search of hoards of buried treasure is an ancient problem. For instance, many of the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs were looted in antiquity[citation needed]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 640 pixel, file size: 564 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Looters pit the morning following its excavation. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 640 pixel, file size: 564 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Looters pit the morning following its excavation. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (392x718, 41 KB) Summary Stela of a king named Adad-Nirari, possibly w:Adad-Nirari I. Object stolen from the w:Iraq National Museum in the looting in connection with the Iraq war of 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (392x718, 41 KB) Summary Stela of a king named Adad-Nirari, possibly w:Adad-Nirari I. Object stolen from the w:Iraq National Museum in the looting in connection with the Iraq war of 2003. ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For the software, see hoard memory allocator. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


Archaeology stimulates interest in ancient objects, but it can also attract unwelcome attention by looters to these places[citation needed]. The commercial demand for artifacts encourages looting and the illicit antiquities trade, which smuggles items abroad to private collectors. Looters damage or destroy archaeological sites, deny archaeologists valuable information that would be recovered from excavation, and ultimately rob people of the opportunity to know their past.[51] Illicit antiquities are artefacts of archaeological interest, found in illegal or unregulated excavations, and traded covertly. ...


Popular consciousness often associates looting with poor Third World countries[citation needed], but this is a false assumption [51]. A lack of financial resources and political will are chronic worldwide problems inhibiting more effective protection of archaeological sites. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


In 1937 W. F. Hodge the Director of the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles CA, released a statement that the museum would no longer purchase or accept collections from looted contexts.[52] The first conviction of the transport of artifacts illegally removed from private property under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA; Public Law 96-95; 93 Statute 721; 16 U.S.C. 470aamm) was in 1992 in the State of Indiana. [53] Southwest Museum from Sycamore-Grove Park The Southwest Museum is a museum, library, and archive. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Descendant peoples

In the United States, examples such as the case of Kennewick Man have illustrated the tensions between Native Americans and archaeologists which can be summarized as a conflict between a need to remain respectful towards burials sacred sites and the academic benefit from studying them. For years, American archaeologists dug on Indian burial grounds and other places considered sacred, removing artifacts and human remains to storage facilities for further study. In some cases human remains were not even thoroughly studied but instead archived rather than reburied. Furthermore, Western archaeologists' views of the past often differ from those of tribal peoples. The West views time as linear; for many natives, it is cyclic. From a Western perspective, the past is long-gone; from a native perspective, disturbing the past can have dire consequences in the present. To an archaeologist, the past is long-gone and must be reconstructed through its material remains; to indigenous peoples, it is often still alive. The reconstructed face of the Kennewick Man. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


As a consequence of this, American Indians attempted to prevent archaeological excavation of sites inhabited by their ancestors, while American archaeologists believed that the advancement of scientific knowledge was a valid reason to continue their studies. This contradictory situation was addressed by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA, 1990), which sought to reach a compromise by limiting the right of research institutions to possess human remains. Due in part to the spirit of postprocessualism, some archaeologists have begun to actively enlist the assistance of indigenous peoples likely to be descended from those under study. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (or NAGPRA) is a United States federal law passed in 1990 requiring that Native Americans cultural items be returned to their respective peoples if and when they have been excavated, and allows archeological teams a short time for analysis before the remains... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


Archaeologists have also been obliged to re-examine what constitutes an archaeological site in view of what native peoples believe to constitute sacred space. To many native peoples, natural features such as lakes, mountains or even individual trees have cultural significance. Australian archaeologists especially have explored this issue and attempted to survey these sites in order to give them some protection from being developed. Such work requires close links and trust between archaeologists and the people they are trying to help and at the same time study.


While this cooperation presents a new set of challenges and hurdles to fieldwork, it has benefits for all parties involved. Tribal elders cooperating with archaeologists can prevent the excavation of areas of sites that they consider sacred, while the archaeologists gain the elders' aid in interpreting their finds. There have also been active efforts to recruit aboriginal peoples directly into the archaeological profession.


Repatriation

A new trend in the heated controversy between First Nations groups and scientists is the repatriation of native artifacts to the original descendants. An example of this occurred June 21, 2005, when community members and elders from a number of the 10 Algonquian nations in the Ottawa area convened on the Kitigan Zibi reservation in Kanawagi, Quebec, to inter ancestral human remains and burial goods — some dating back 6,000 years. First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...


The ceremony marked the end of a journey spanning thousands of years and many miles. The remains and artifacts, including beads, tools and weapons, were originally excavated from various sites in the Ottawa Valley, including Morrison and the Allumette Islands. They had been part of the Canadian Museum of Civilization’s research collection for decades, some since the late 1800s. Elders from various Algonquin communities conferred on an appropriate reburial, eventually deciding on traditional redcedar and birchbark boxes lined with redcedar chips, muskrat and beaver pelts. A bead is a small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. ... For other uses, see Tool (disambiguation). ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... The Ottawa Valley is the valley surrounding the Ottawa River for the west-east portion of its path through the Canadian Shield from Mattawa to Ottawa. ... // Morrison may refer to: Morrisons, a chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom Morrisons Cafeteria, a chain of cafeteria-style restaurants located in the southeastern United States Morrison & Foerster, an American law firm Morrison & Sinclair, a ship building company based in Sydney, Australia Gran Morrison, a chain of stores... Categories: Museums in Canada | Ottawa buildings | Canadian federal departments and agencies ... Redcedar is an alternative name for two North American species in the cypress family Cupressaceae: Eastern Redcedar or Eastern Juniper (Juniperus virginiana) Western Redcedar (Thuja plicata) It is also the name of an Australian species in the mahogany family Meliaceae: Australian Redcedar (Toona australis) Neither is a true Cedar (Cedrus... Birch bark or birchbark is generally understood to be the bark of the Paper Birch tree (Betula papyrifera), or sometimes of related species such as Gray (Wire) Birch (Betula populifolia). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Muskrat range (native range in red, introduced range in green) Muskrat Tucker hole, middle Patuxent River marsh, Maryland The Muskrat or Musquash (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra, is a large aquatic rodent native to North America, and introduced in parts of Europe. ...


Now, an inconspicuous rock mound marks the reburial site where close to 90 boxes of various sizes are buried. Although negotiations were at times tense between the Kitigan Zibi community and museum, they were able to reach agreement.[54]


Kennewick Man is another repatriation candidate that has been the source of heated debate. The reconstructed face of the Kennewick Man. ...


See also

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Lists

Main list: List of basic archaeology topics

Archaeology is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation, and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Names for archaeological periods vary enormously from region to region. ... This is a list of archaeological sites sorted by country. ... Archaeology is a discipline that was virtually unknown until the 19th century. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Related topics

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... GIS or Geographic Information Systems has over the last 10 years become an important tool in archaeology. ... A Virtual artifact (VA) is an immaterial object that exists in the human mind or in a digital environment, for example the Internet, intranet, virtual reality, etc. ... As with most academic disciplines, there are a number of archaeological sub-disciplines typically characterised by a focus on a specific method or type of material, geographical or chronological focus, or other thematic concern. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Renfrew and Bahn (1991)
  2. ^ Aldenderfer and Maschner (1996)
  3. ^ Gladfelter (1977)
  4. ^ Watters (1992)
  5. ^ Watters (2000)
  6. ^ a b c Trigger (1989)
  7. ^ Binford (1962)
  8. ^ Flannery (1967)
  9. ^ Shanks and Tilley (1987)
  10. ^ Shanks and Tilley (1988)
  11. ^ Shanks (1991)
  12. ^ Shanks (1993)
  13. ^ Tilley (1993)
  14. ^ Miller and Tilley1984
  15. ^ Miller et al. (1989)
  16. ^ Hodder (1982)
  17. ^ Hodder (1985)
  18. ^ Hodder (1987)
  19. ^ Hodder (1990)
  20. ^ Hodder (1991)
  21. ^ Hodder (1992)
  22. ^ Pauketat (2001)
  23. ^ Willey (1953)
  24. ^ Willey (1968)
  25. ^ Billman and Feinman (1999)
  26. ^ Redman (1974)
  27. ^ Gould (1971a)
  28. ^ Gould (1971b)
  29. ^ Yellen (1972)
  30. ^ Yellen (1977)
  31. ^ Gould and Yellen 1987
  32. ^ Yellen (1991)
  33. ^ Sillet et al. (2006)
  34. ^ Schott and Sillitoe (2005)
  35. ^ Ogundele (2005)
  36. ^ Kuznar (2001)
  37. ^ Ascher (1961)
  38. ^ Saraydar and Shimada (1971)
  39. ^ Saraydar and Shimada (1973)
  40. ^ Gifford-Gonzalez (1985)
  41. ^ Frison (1989)
  42. ^ Glascock et al. 1994
  43. ^ http://www.sogaer.ex.ac.uk/archaeology/modules/arc3600.shtml
  44. ^ http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/planningpolicyguidance9
  45. ^ http://www.culture.gov.uk/what_we_do/Historic_environment/
  46. ^ http://www.english-heritage.org.uk
  47. ^ http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/
  48. ^ http://www.cadw.wales.gov.uk/default.asp
  49. ^ http://www.ehsni.gov.uk/built.htm
  50. ^ Flannery (1982)
  51. ^ a b Sheets (1973)
  52. ^ Hodge (1937)
  53. ^ Munson et al. (1995)
  54. ^ Canadian Geographic Online.

References

  • Ascher, R. (1961), "Experimental Archeology", American Anthropologist 63: 793-816
  • Billman, B. R. & Feinman, G. (1999), written at Washington DC, Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas—Fifty Years Since Virú, Smithsonian Institution Press
  • Binford, L. (1962), "Archaeology as Anthropology", American Antiquity 28: 217-225
  • Flannery, K. V. (1967), "Culture History v. Culture Process: A Debate in American archaeology", Scientific American 217: 119-122
  • Flannery, K. V. (1982), "The Golden Marshalltown: A Parable for the Archaeology of the 1980s", American Anthropologist 84: 265-278
  • Frison, G. C. (1989), "Experimental Use of Clovis Weaponry and Tools on African Elephants", American Antiquity 54: 766-784
  • Glascock, M. D., Neff, H., Stryker, K. S. & Johnson, T. N. (1994), "Sourcing Archaeological Obsidian by an Abbreviated NAA Procedure", Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemisty 180: 29-35
  • Gifford-Gonzalez, D. P., Damrosch, D. B., Damrosch, D. R., Pryor, J. & Thunen, R. L. (1985), "The Third Dimension in Site Structure: An Experiment in Trampling and Vertical Dispersal", American Antiquity 50: 803-818
  • Gould, R. (1971a), "The Archaeologist as Ethnographer: A Case from the Western Desert of Australia", World Archaeology 3: 143-177
  • Gould, R., Koster, D. A. & Sontz, A. H. L. (1971b), "The Lithic Assemblage of the Western Desert Aborigines of Australia", American Antiquity 36: 149-169
  • Gould, R. & Yellen, J. (1987), "Man the Hunted: Determinants of Household Spacing in Desert and Tropical Foraging Societies", Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6
  • Hodder, I. (1982), written at Cambridge, Symbols in Action, Cambridge University Press
  • Hodder, I. (1985), "Post-Processual Archaeology", written at New York, in SCHIFFER, M. B., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Academic Press
  • Hodder, I., ed. (1987), written at New York, The Archaeology of Contextual Meaning, Cambridge Univesity Press
  • Hodder, I. (1990), "Style as Historical Quality", written at Cambridge, in HASTORF, M. C. A. C., The Uses of Style in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press
  • Hodder, I. (1991), "Interpretive Archaeology and Its Role", American Antiquity 56: 7-18
  • Hodder, I. (1992), written at London, Theory and Practice in Archaeology, Routeldge
  • Munson, C. A., Jones, M. M. & Fry, R. E. (1995), "The GE Mound: An ARPA Case Study", American Antiquity 60: 131-159
  • Kuznar, L, ed. (2001), written at Ann Arbor, Ethnoarchaeology of Andean South America, International Monographs in Prehistory
  • Miller, D. & Tilley, C. (1984), "Ideology, Power and Prehistory: An Introduction", written at Cambridge, in MILLER, D. & TILLEY , C., Ideology, Power, and Prehistory, Cambridge University Press
  • Miller, D., Rowlands, M., Tilley, C., ed. (1989), written at New York, Dominion and Resistance, Routledge
  • Munson, C. A., Jones, M. M. & Fry, R. E. (1995), "The GE Mound: An ARPA Case Study", American Antiquity 60: 131-159
  • Ogundele, S. O. (2005), "Ethnoarchaeology of Domestic Space and Spatial Behaviour Among the Tiv and Ungwai of Central Nigeria", African Archaeological Review 22: 25-54
  • Pauketat, T. R. (2001), "Practice and History in Archaeology: An Emerging Paradigm", Anthropological Theory 1: 73-98
  • Redman, C. L. (1974), written at Binghamton, Archaeological Sampling Strategies, State University of New York at Binghamton
  • Renfrew, C. & Bahn, P. G. (1991), written at London, Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice, Thames and Hudson Ltd
  • Saraydar, S. & Shimada, I. (1971), "A Quantitative Comparison of Efficency Between A Stone Axe and A Steel Axe", American Antiquity 36: 216-217
  • Saraydar, S. C. & Shimada, I. (1973), "Experimental Archaeology: A New Outlook", American Antiquity 38: 344-350
  • Sellet, F., Greaves, R. & Yu, P.-L. (2006), written at Gainesville, Archaeology and Ethnoarchaeology of Mobility, University Press of Florida
  • Shanks, M. & Tilley, C. (1987), written at New York, Reconstructing Archaeology, Cambridge university Press
  • Shanks, M. & Tilley, C. (1988), written at Albuquerque, Social Theory and Archaeology, University of New Mexico Press
  • Shanks, M. (1991), "Some recent approaches to style and social reconstruction in classical archaeology", Archaeological Review from Cambridge 10: 164-174
  • Shanks, M. (1993), "Style and the design of a perfume jar from an Archaic Greek city state", Journal of European Archaeology 1: 77-106
  • Sheets, P. D. (1973), "The Pillage of Prehistory", American Antiquity 38: 317-320
  • Shott, M. J. & Sillitoe, P. (2005), "Use life and curation in New Guinea experimental used flakes", Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 653-663
  • Taylor, W. W. (1948), written at Menasha, A Study of Archaeology, American Anthropological Association
  • Tilley, C., ed. (1993), written at Oxford, Interpretive Archaeology, Berg
  • Trigger, B. G. (1989), written at Cambridge, A History of Archaeological Thought, Cambridge University Press
  • Willey, G. R. (1953), written at Washington DC, Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Virú Valley, Perú
  • Willey, G. (1968), written at Palo Alto, Settlement Archaeology, National Press
  • Yellen, J. & Harpending, H. (1972), "Hunter-Gatherer Populations and Archaeological Inference", World Archaeology 4: 244-253
  • Yellen, J. (1977), written at New York, Archaeological Approaches to the Present, Academic Press

Further reading

  • Archaeology (magazine)
  • Lewis Binford - New Perspectives in Archaeology (1968) ISBN 0-202-33022-2
  • Glyn Daniel - A Short History of Archaeology (1991)
  • Kevin Greene - Introduction to Archaeology (1983)
  • Thomas Hester, Harry Shafer, and Kenneth L. Feder - Field Methods in Archaeology 7th edition (1997)
  • C. U. Larsen - Sites and Monuments (1992)
  • Colin Renfrew & Paul Bahn - Archaeology: theories, methods and practice 2nd edition (1996)
  • Robert J. Sharer & Wendy Ashmore - Archaeology: Discovering our Past 2nd edition (1993)
  • David Hurst Thomas - Archaeology 3rd. edition (1998)

Archaeology is a bimonthly mainstream magazine about archaeology, published by the Archaeological Institute of America; the editors estimate that less than one-half of one percent of their readers are professional archaeologists. ... Lewis Roberts Binford (born 1930) is an American archaeologist, known as the leader of the New Archaeology movement of the 1950s/60s. ... Glyn Edmund Daniel (23 April 1914–13 December 1986) was a British archaeologist who specialised in the European Neolithic and made some of the earliest efforts to popularise the subject on radio and television. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ... David Hurst Thomas ( - ) is an American academic, author and curator of anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Archaeology

The Archaeological section of the Canadian Museum of Civilization Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


The Society for American Archaeology


The World Archaeological Congress


The Archaeological Institute of America


The Archaeology Division of the American Anthropological Association


Archaeological News Updated Daily


Council for British Archaeology


Fasti Online - an online database of archaeological sites



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