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Encyclopedia > Arch bridge
Arch Bridge
Double arch stone bridge, Japan
Double arch stone bridge, Japan
Ancestor: Clapper bridge
Related: None
Descendant: Truss arch bridge, moon bridge (masonry)
Carries: Pedestrians, vehicles, light rail, heavy rail, water
Span range: short, but often set end-to-end to form a large total length
Material: masonry, concrete, wrought iron, cast iron, timber, structural steel
Movable: No
Design effort: Low
Falsework required: Yes

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct (a long bridge) may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are typically used today. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata NagasakiMeganebashi. ... A Clapper bridge is an ancient form of bridge found on the moors of Devon (Dartmoor and Exmoor) in the United Kingdom. ... A truss arch bridge combines elements of a truss and an arch. ... A decorative bridge in the Japanese tea garden at Golden Gate Park. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The term heavy rail is often used for regular railways, to distinguish from systems such as trams/light rail and metro. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... This article is about the construction material. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and strength. ... Falseworks are temporary structures used in the building of bridges and other arched structures in order to hold the item in place until its building is sufficiently far advanced to support itself. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... An Abutment is the end supports of a bridge superstructure. ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Torontos Bloor Street Viaduct bridges the Don valley; road traffic uses the upper deck, rail traffic uses the lower deck. ...

Contents

History

Roman bridge at Alcántara, Spain (built 103-106 AD)
Roman bridge at Alcántara, Spain (built 103-106 AD)

Possibly the oldest existing arch bridge is the Mycenaean Arkadiko bridge in Greece from about 1300 BC. The stone corbel arch bridge is still used by the local populace.[1] Although true arches were already known by the Etruscans and ancient Greeks, the Romans were - as with the vault and the dome - the first to fully realize the potential of arches for bridge construction.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 606 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 606 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Roman bridge of Alcántara For other uses, see Alcántara (disambiguation). ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... A corbel arch (or corbeled / corbelled arch) is an arch-like construction method which uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The engineer Colin O'Connor lists 330 Roman stone bridges for traffic, 34 timber bridges and 54 aequeduct bridges, a substantial part still standing and even used to carry vehicles.[3]


Roman arch bridges were usually semicircular, although a few were segmental (such as Alconétar Bridge). Generally, Roman bridge featured wedge-shaped primary arch stones (voussoirs) of the same in size and shape. The Romans built both single spans and lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the Pont du Gard and Segovia Aqueduct. A semicircle of radius r. ... In geometry, a circular segment (also circle segment) is an area of a circle informally defined as an area which is cut off from the rest of the circle by a secant or a chord. ... The Alconétar bridge may be the oldest surviving Roman stone segmental arch bridge in the world, predating other examples such as the Zhaozhou Bridge in China and Ponte Vecchio in Europe. ... An element in an arch. ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ... The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the south of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located near Remoulins, in the Gard département. ... The Aqueduct of Segovia (or more precisely, the aqueduct bridge) is one of the most significant and best-preserved monuments left by the Romans on the Iberian Peninsula. ...

Segovia Aqueduct (ca. 100 AD)
Segovia Aqueduct (ca. 100 AD)

Roman engineers were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to construct bridges with concrete, which they called Opus caementicium. The outside was usually covered with brick or ashlar, as in the Alcántara bridge. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1217 KB) Description: Aqueduct City: Segovia Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : March 21th, 2004 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1217 KB) Description: Aqueduct City: Segovia Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : March 21th, 2004 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... The Aqueduct of Segovia (or more precisely, the aqueduct bridge) is one of the most significant and best-preserved monuments left by the Romans on the Iberian Peninsula. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Opus caementicium was the Roman technique of constructing structures using concrete. ...


Although rarely built, the Romans also introduced segmental arch bridges into bridge construction. The 330 m long Limyra bridge in southwestern Turkey features 26 segmental arches with an average span-to-rise ratio of 5.3:1,[4] giving the bridge an unusually flat profile unsurpassed for more than a millenium. Trajan's bridge over the Danube featured open-spandrel segmental arches made of wood (standing on 40 m high concrete piers). This was to be the longest arch bridge for a thousand years both in terms of overall and individual span length. Drawings of the still-standing pillars Trajans Bridge was the first bridge built on the lower Danube river, east from the Iron Gates, near what is now the city of Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Romania and Kladovo, Serbia. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


Roman bridges featured from an early time onwards flood openings in the piers, e.g. in the Pons Fabricius in Rome (62 BC), one of the world's oldest major bridges still standing. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

Devil's bridge, Céret, France (1341)
Devil's bridge, Céret, France (1341)

In medieval Europe, bridge builders improved on the Roman structures by using narrower piers, thinner arch barrels and lower span-rise ratios on bridges. Gothic pointed arches were also introduced, reducing lateral thrust, and spans increased as with the eccentric Puente del Diablo (1282). Céret is a small village and commune of the Pyrénées-Orientales département, in the foothills of the Pyrénées mountains, in southwestern France. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For the type of foundation, see Deep foundation. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ...


The 14th century in particular saw bridge building reaching new heights. Span lengthes of 40 m, previously unheard of in the history of masonry arch construction, were now reached in places as diverse as Spain (Puente de San Martín), Italy (Castelvecchio Bridge) and France (Devil's bridge and Pont Grand) and with arch types as different as semi-circular, pointed and segmental arches. The bridge at Trezzo sull'Adda, destroyed in the 15th century, even featured a span length of 72 m, not matched until 1796.[5] Site of the former Trezzo sullAdda Bridge with the Visconti castle once protecting access. ...

Constructions such as the acclaimed Florentine segmental arch bridge Ponte Vecchio (1345) combined sound engineering (span-to-rise ratio of over 5.3 to 1) with aesthetical appeal, while the three elegant arches of the Renaissance Ponte Santa Trinita (1569) constitute the oldest elliptic arch bridge worldwide. Such low rising structures required massive abutments, which at the Venetian Rialto bridge and the Fleischbrücke in Nuremberg (span-to-rise ratio 6.4:1) were founded on thousands of wooden piles, partly rammed obliquely into the grounds to counteract more effectively the lateral thrust. Ponte Vecchio Ponte Vecchio at night View of the Ponte Vecchio from above The Ponte Vecchio (IPA pronunciation: ) (Italian for Old Bridge)[1] is a Medieval bridge over the Arno River, in Florence, Italy, noted for having shops (mainly jewellers) built along it. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Ponte Vecchio Ponte Vecchio at night View of the Ponte Vecchio from above The Ponte Vecchio (IPA pronunciation: ) (Italian for Old Bridge)[1] is a Medieval bridge over the Arno River, in Florence, Italy, noted for having shops (mainly jewellers) built along it. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Ponte Santa Trinita. ... An Abutment is the end supports of a bridge superstructure. ... Venetian could mean Of Venice/Venetia. ... The Rialto Bridge Rialto Bridge The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) spans the Grand Canal in Venice. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ...


In China, the oldest existing bridge is the Zhaozhou Bridge of 605 AD (although bridges were built since the ancient Zhou Dynasty), which combined a very low span-to-rise ratio of 5.2:1, with the use of spandrel arches (buttressed with iron brackets). The Zhaozhou Bridge is the world's first wholly-stone open-spandrel segmental arch bridge.[6] The Zhaozhou Bridge (Chinese: 赵州桥; Pinyin: ) is the worlds oldest open-spandrel segmental arch bridge located in Hebei Province, China. ... Events Aj Ne Ohl Mat becomes ruler of Palenque As a result of quarrel between Numan III, the Lakhmid ruler, and the Persian Chosroes the Persian border with Arabia is no long guarded. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


In more modern times, stone and brick arches continued to be built by many civil engineers, including Thomas Telford, Isambard Kingdom Brunel and John Rennie. A key pioneer was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, who used much narrower piers, revised calculation methods and exceptionally low span-to-rise ratios. Different materials, such as cast iron, steel and concrete have been increasingly used in the construction of arch bridges. Thomas Telford (August 9, 1757 - September 2, 1834) was born in Westerkirk, Scotland. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... Portrait of John Rennie, 1810, by Sir Henry Raeburn. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the construction material. ...


Simple compression arch bridges

Falsework centering in the center arch of Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Washington. 1911.
Falsework centering in the center arch of Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Washington. 1911.

Nickname: Location of Spokane in Spokane County and Washington Coordinates: , Country United States State Washington County Spokane Government  - Mayor Dennis P. Hession Area  - City  58. ...

Advantage in use of simple materials

Stone, brick and other such materials are strong in compression and somewhat so in shear, but cannot resist much force in tension. As a result, masonry arch bridges are designed to be constantly under compression, so far as is possible. Each arch is constructed over a temporary falsework frame, known as a centering. In the first compression arch bridges, a keystone in the middle of the bridge bore the weight of the rest of the bridge. The more weight that was put onto the bridge, the stronger its structure became. Masonry arch bridges use a quantity of fill material (typically compacted rubble) above the arch in order to increase this dead-weight on the bridge and prevent tension from occurring in the arch ring as loads move across the bridge. Other materials that were used to build this type of bridge were brick and unreinforced concrete. When masonry (cut stone) is used the angles of the faces are cut to minimize shear forces. Where random masonry (uncut and unprepared stones) is used they are mortared together and the mortar is allowed to set before the falsework is removed. Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... Shearing in continuum mechanics refers to the occurrence of a shear strain, which is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... Falseworks are temporary structures used in the building of bridges and other arched structures in order to hold the item in place until its building is sufficiently far advanced to support itself. ...


Traditional masonry arches are generally durable, and somewhat resistant to settlement or undermining. However, relative to modern alternatives, such bridges are very heavy, requiring extensive foundations. They are also expensive to build wherever labour costs are high. Timber frame building showing considerable, but tolerable settlement Settlement in construction refers to the distortion or disruption of parts of a building due to either; unequal compression of its foundations, shrinkage such as that which occurs in timber framed buildings as the frame adjusts its moisture content, or by undue... A foundation is a structure that transmits loads from a building or road to the underlying ground. ...


Construction sequence

The remains of the Frere Bridge over Orange River in Aliwal North. Note the lifting holes visible on some of the stones.
  • Where the arches are founded in a stream bed the water is diverted and the gravels excavated to a good footing. From this the foundation piers are raised to the base of the arches, a point known as the springing.
  • Falsework centering is fabricated, typically from timbers and boards. Since each arch of a multi-arch bridge will impose a thrust upon its neighbors, it is necessary either that all arches of the bridge be raised at the same time, or that very wide piers are used. The thrust from the end arches is taken into the earth by footings at the canyon walls, or by large inclined planes forming ramps to the bridge, which may also be formed of arches.
  • The several arches are constructed over the centering. Once the basic arch barrel is constructed, the arches are stabilized with infill masonry between the arches, which may be laid in horizontal running bond courses. These may form two walls, known as the spandrels, which are then infilled with loose material and rubble.
  • The road is paved and parapet walls protectively confine traffic to the bridge.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 688 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 688 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This image shows only the last 100 kilometers or so of the Orange River. ... Aliwal North is a town on the Orange River, in central South Africa. ... For the type of foundation, see Deep foundation. ... A parapet is a barrier at the edge of a roof or structure to prevent persons or vehicles from falling over the edge. ...

Types of arch bridge

Aqueducts and canal viaducts

  • In some locations it is necessary to span a wide gap at a relatively high elevation, such as when a canal or water supply must span a valley. Rather than building extremely large arches, or very tall supporting columns (difficult using stone), a series of arched structures are built one atop another, with wider structures at the base. Roman civil engineers developed the design and constructed highly refined structures using only simple materials, equipment, and mathematics. This type is still used in canal viaducts and roadways as it has a pleasing shape, particularly when spanning water, as the reflections of the arches form a visual impression of circles or ellipses.

The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ...

Supported deck arch bridge

This type of bridge comprises an arch which supports a deck by means of a number of vertical columns. The Alexander Hamilton Bridge is a supported deck arch bridge. Three of the bridges that cross the Harlem River are visible in this photo of the river: the High Bridge (closed to traffic) in the foreground; the Alexander Hamilton Bridge (part of Interstate 95); and the Washington Bridge furthest away. ...


Suspended deck arch bridge

This type of bridge comprises an arch which supports the deck by means of suspension cables or tie bars. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a suspended deck arch bridge which uses a truss type arch. For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... The Sydney Harbour Bridge is the main way to cross Sydney Harbour carrying rail, vehicular, and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district (CBD) and the North Shore. ...


These suspended deck bridges are in contrast to suspension bridges which use the catenary to which the aforementioned cables or tie bars are attached and suspended. While in fact all proper arches use predominantly the compressive strength of materials, this type of bridge is also referred to as the Compression arch suspended-deck bridge. For the railroad term see Overhead lines For its use in ring theory, see Catenary ring. ... The Tyne Bridge, in green, with many of the Tynes other bridges pictured behind it. ...


Tied arch bridge

This type of arch bridge incorporates a tie between two opposite ends of the arch. The tie is capable of withstanding the horizontal thrust forces which would normally be exerted on the abutments of an arch bridge.


Use of modern materials

Most modern compression arch bridges are made from reinforced concrete. This type of bridge is suitable where a temporary centering may be erected to support the forms, reinforcing steel, and uncured concrete. When the concrete is sufficiently set the forms and falseworks are then removed. It is also possible to construct a reinforced concrete arch from precast concrete, where the arch is built in two halves which are then leaned against each other. Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ... Precast concrete is an ancient type of construction material made with concrete cast in a reusable mold or form and cured in a controlled environment, then transported to the construction site and lifted into place. ...


Many modern bridges, made of steel or reinforced concrete, often bear some of their load by tension within their structure. This reduces or eliminates the horizontal thrust against the abutments and allows their construction on weaker ground. Structurally and analytically they are not true arches but rather a beam with the shape of an arch. See truss arch bridge for more on this type. A statically determinate beam, bending under an evenly distributed load. ... A truss arch bridge combines elements of a truss and an arch. ...


A modern evolution of the arch bridge is the compression arch suspended-deck bridge (through arch bridge). This has been made possible by the use of light materials that are strong in tension such as steel, reinforced concrete, and post-tensioned concrete. The Tyne Bridge, in green, with many of the Tynes other bridges pictured behind it. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tied arch bridge. ...


See also

List of arch bridges by length of main arch: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... A truss arch bridge combines elements of a truss and an arch. ... The Tyne Bridge, in green, with many of the Tynes other bridges pictured behind it. ... Fremont Bridge (Portland) A tied arch bridge is an arch bridge in which the outward-directed horizontal forces of the arch are borne by the bridge deck, rather than the ground or the bridge foundations. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Mycenaean bridge at Kazarma
  2. ^ Robertson, D.S.: Greek and Roman Architecture, 2nd edn., Cambridge 1943, p.231:

    "The Romans were the first builders in Europe, perhaps the first in the world, fully to appreciate the advantages of the arch, the vault and the dome."

  3. ^ Colin O'Connor: "Roman Bridges", Cambridge University Press 1993, p. 187ff. ISBN 0-521-39326-4
  4. ^ Colin O'Connor: "Roman Bridges", Cambridge University Press 1993, p. 126 ISBN 0-521-39326-4
  5. ^ Troyano, Leonardo Fernández, "Bridge Engineering - A Global Perspective", Thomas Telford Publishing, 2003
  6. ^ Needham, Joseph. The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0521292867. Pages 145-147.

External links

General

Software

This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... A moveable bridge is a bridge that moves to allow passage for (usually) boats or barges. ... A steel pedestrian footbridge over the a busy road in Swansea, typical of many beam bridges A beam bridge is a direct descendant of the log bridge now made from steel I beams, box beams (hollow rectangular tubes), reinforced concrete, or post-tensioned concrete (concrete with tubes for cable tendons). ... For the dentistry term, see Bridge (dentistry). ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ... A truss bridge is a bridge composed of connected elements (typically straight) which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 3035 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Central bank Federal Reserve System Golden Gate Bridge Tax Bank for International Settlements Income tax Tax, tariff and... The Golden Gate Bridge spans Golden Gate, San Francisco Bay - one of the most admired and possibly most famous bridges in the world. ... Donghai Bridge, longest cross-sea bridge This is a list of the worlds bridges longer than 1 km (3281 ft) sorted by their full length above land or water. ... The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... The Tatara Bridge has the largest span among cable-stayed bridges This list of the largest cable-stayed bridges ranks the worlds cable-stayed bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... The Howrah Bridge is the busiest cantilever bridge in the world This list of cantilever bridges ranks the worlds cantilever bridges by the length of their main span. ... This list of the largest arch bridges ranks the worlds arch bridges by the length of main span. ... A list of worlds tallest bridges. ... . ...

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arch bridge: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (938 words)
An arch bridge (sometimes deck arch bridge to distinguish it from a through arch bridge) is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch.
Masonry arch bridges use a quantity of fill (typically compacted rubble) above the arch in order to increase this dead-weight on the bridge and prevent tension from occurring in the arch ring as loads move across the bridge.
The thrust from the end arches is taken into the earth by footings at the canyon walls, or by large inclined planes forming ramps to the bridge, which may also be formed of arches.
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