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Encyclopedia > Arch and Tomb of Galerius
The Arch of Galerius and the Rotunda with its minaret
The Arch of Galerius and the Rotunda with its minaret

The Arch of Galerius (Modern Greek: τόξο του Γαλερίου or Aψίδα του Γαλερίου) and the Tomb of Galerius (Τάφος του Γαλερίου) are neighboring monuments in the city of Thessaloniki, in the province of Central Macedonia in northern Greece. The Tomb of Galerius is better known as the Rotunda, the Church of Agios Georgios or (in English) the Rotunda of St. George. Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Central Macedonia is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece, being the central part of Greek Macedonia. ... The famous Rotunda church in Thessaloniki, Greece. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ...

Contents

History

The 4th century Roman Emperor Galerius commissioned these two structures as elements of an imperial precinct linked to his Thessaloniki palace, substantial remains of which were found to the southwest.[1] These three monuments were connected by a road that ran through the arch, which also straddled the major east-west road of the city. By sitting at the crux of these major axes, the Arch of Galerius emphasized the power of the emperor and linked his assembly of monumental structures with the fabric of 4th century Thessaloniki. The arch was composed of a masonry core faced with marble sculptural panels celebrating a victory over the Sassanid Persians. Less than half of the arch is preserved. The Rotunda was a massive circular structure with a masonry core that had an oculus like the Pantheon in Rome. It has gone through multiple periods of use and modification as a polytheist temple, a Christian basilica, a Muslim mosque, and again a Christian church (and archaeological site). A minaret is preserved from its use as a mosque, and there are ancient remains exposed on its southern side. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Oculus is the Latin word for eye. ... Facade of the Pantheon For other uses, see Pantheon (disambiguation). ...


Arch of Galerius

Location and description of the Arch

The Arch of Galerius
The Arch of Galerius

The Arch of Galerius, (Modern Greek: Καμάρα) stands on what is now Dimitrios Gounari Street. The arch was built in 298 to 299 CE and dedicated in 303 CE to celebrate the victory of the tetrarch Galerius over the Sassanid Persians and capture of their capital Ctesiphon in 298.[2] The structure was an octopylon (eight-pillared gateway) forming a tripe arch that was built of a rubble masonry core faced first with brick and then with marble panels with sculptural relief. The central arched opening was 9.7 m wide and 12.5 m high and the secondary openings on other side were 4.8 m wide and 6.5 m high. The central arch spanned the portion of the Via Egnatia (primary east-west Roman road from Dyrrhacium to Byzantium) that passed through the city as a Decumanus (east-west major street). A road connecting the Rotunda (125m northeast) with the Palace complex (235m southwest) passed through the arch along its long axis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 751 KB) The Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki, Greece, seen from the east. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 751 KB) The Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki, Greece, seen from the east. ... Events Diocletian launched the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; Hierocles was said to have been the instigator of the fierce persecution of the Christians under February 24 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Ancient Via Egnatia route Via Egnatia (Greek: Εγνατία Οδός) was a road constructed by the Romans around 146 BC. It was named after Gnaeus Egnatius, proconsul of Macedonia, who ordered its construction. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Latin: , ) was an ancient Greek city, which was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


At present, only the northwestern three of the eight pillars and parts of the masonry cores of the arches above survive: i.e. the entire eastern side (4 pillars) and the southernmost one of the western pillars are lost. [3] Extensive consolidation with modern brick has been performed on the exposed masonry cores to protect the monument. The two pillars flanking the central arched passageway retain their sculpted marble slabs, which depict the wars of Galerius against the Persians in broadly panegyric terms. This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... -1...


Sculptural program of the Arch

Galerius (L) attacks Narses (R)
Galerius (L) attacks Narses (R)
The imperial family at the sacrifice of thanksgiving.
The imperial family at the sacrifice of thanksgiving.
The tetrarchs arrayed in unison with a Victoria holding a victory wreath to the Augusti.
The tetrarchs arrayed in unison with a Victoria holding a victory wreath to the Augusti.

Understanding of the sculptural program of the arch is necessarily limited by the loss of the majority of the marble panels, but what remains gives an impression of the whole. There were four vertically stacked registers of sculpted decoration on each pillar, each separated by elaborate moldings. The presence of a label for the Tigris river indicates that there were likely labels on others representations as the builders deemed necessary. It is clear that a certain degree of artistic license was taken in the representations, since the Caesar Galerius is shown in personal combat with the Sassanid Shah Narses in one of the panels; in fact, they never met in battle. The panel on the arch has a mounted Galerius attacking a similarly mounted Narses with a lance as an eagle flies down upon Galerius bearing a victory wreath in its talons. The Caesar sits securely on his rearing horse, while the Persian king appears at the point of being unhorsed. Terrified Persians cower under the hooves of the Caesar’s horse in the chaos of battle. The message of the panel is a competence and power of the Caesar Galerius. The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


The relief of the imperial family conjoined in a sacrifice of thanksgiving owes its distant prototype to the Augustan reliefs on the Ara Pacis in Rome. The presence at his side of Galerius' wife, Diocletian's daughter Valeria, served to authenticate his links to his predessor. Here as elsewhere all the faces have been carefully chiselled off, whether as damnatio memoriae or in Christian intolerance of images. Ara Pacis:Detail of the processional frieze showing members of the Julio-Claudian family (north face) The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, Altar of Majestic Peace; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar to Peace, envisioned as a Roman goddess. ... Tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. ...


In another panel, the tetrarchs are all arrayed in the toga as a Victoria holds a victory wreath out to the heads of the two Augusti. A third panel celebrates the unity and strength of the tetrarchy with a depiction of the tetrarchs standing in unison; the depersonalized manner in which the tetrarchs are portrayed is reminiscent of the schematic statues of the tetrarchs in porphyry at St. Mark's Basilica in Venice. In this instance, only Galerius is dressed in armor, and he makes the offering upon the altar. The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco in Venezia) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ...


More than simply depicting the victory of the Caesar Galerius, what remains of the arch asserts the glory of the tetrarchy and the prominence of Galerius within that system. The arch celebrates the relevance to the Roman Empire as a whole of Galerius’ victory over the Sassanid king.


Rotunda of Galerius

Location and description of the Rotunda

Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika
Rotunda of St. George
*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Rotunda of Galerius
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Reference 456
Region** Europe and North America
Coordinates 40°37′N 22°57′E / 40.617, 22.95
Inscription history
Inscription 1988  (12th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

The Rotunda of Galerius is 125m northeast of the Arch of Galerius at 40°37'59.77"N, 22°57'9.77"E. It is now the Greek Orthodox Church of Agios Georgios, better known as the Church of the Rotunda (or simply The Rotunda). The cylindrical structure was built in 306 on the orders of the tetrarch Galerius, who was thought to have intended it to be his mausoleum. It was more likely intended as a temple; it is not known to what god it would have been dedicated. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... I took this myself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Church of Greece (Greek: EkklÄ“sía tês Helládos, IPA: /eklisia tis elaðos/) is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches which make up the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... St. ...


The Rotunda has a diameter of 24.5 m. Its walls are more than 6 m thick, which is one reason why it has withstood Thessalonika's earthquakes. The walls are interrupted by eight rectangular bays, with the south bay forming the entrance. A flat brick dome, 30 m high at the peak, crowns the cylindrical structure. In its original design, the dome of the Rotunda had an oculus like the Pantheon in Rome. Facade of the Pantheon For other uses, see Pantheon (disambiguation). ...


Uses of the Rotunda

Mosaics in one of the bays of the interior.
Mosaics in one of the bays of the interior.

After Galerius's death in 311 (he was buried at Gamzigrad/Felix Romuliana near Zajecar), however, the structure stood empty until the Emperor Constantine I ordered it converted into a Christian church in the 4th century. The church was embellished with very high artistic quality mosaics. Only fragments survived of the original decoration, for example a band depicting saints with hands raised in prayer, in front of complex architectural phantasies. Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 - Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his part of the Roman Empire. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ...


The building functioned as a church for over 1,200 years until the city fell to the Ottomans. In 1590 it was then converted into a mosque, the Mosque of Suleyman Hortaji Effendi, and a minaret was added to the structure. It remained a mosque until 1912, when the Greeks captured the city during the Balkan War. It was then formally re-consecrated into a church, but the minaret was not demolished. The structure was damaged during an earthquake in 1978 but was subsequently restored. As of 2004, the minaret was still being stabilized with scaffolding. The building is now a historical monument under the Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities of the Greek Ministry of Culture though the Greek Orthodox Church tries to reclaim it back for Orthodoxy every so often. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in 1912-1913 in the course of which the Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria) first conquered Ottoman-held Macedonia and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils, Bulgaria suffering defeat at the... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hellenic Ministry of Culture (official name) or Greek Ministry of Culture, located in Athens, Greece, was founded in September 1971. ...


The Rotunda is the oldest of Thessalonika's churches, and some publications in Greece claim that it is the oldest Christian church in the world, although there are a number of other claimants to that title. It is certainly the most important surviving example of a church from the early Christian period of the Greek-speaking part of the Roman Empire.


References

  1. ^ The palace of Galerius was built on a massive scale using primarily local materials, perhaps over the destruction layer of a fire that cleared an area for the complex. Expansive areas of mosaic are preserved in several areas. A structure linked to the palace and called the Octagonal Room is at the southwest end of the excavated area at 40°37'48.53"N, 22°56'55.99"E; this was thought at one point to be a mausoleum, but may have actually been a monumental entryway to the palace. Beside the palace to the northeast was a Hippodrome.
  2. ^ At this point Galerius was a Caesar (subordinate emperor); he became one of the two Augusti (head emperors) in 305 CE, when Diocletian abdicated.
  3. ^ The other parts of the structure were destroyed at an unknown date, probably during one of many earthquakes which have damaged Thessalonika throughout its history.

For other uses, see Hippodrome (disambiguation). ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...

Notes

The arch

  • Dyggve, E. (Copenhagen, 1945). Recherches sur le palais imperial de Thessalonique.
  • Engemann, J. (JAC 22, 1979). “Akklamationsrichtung, Sieger- und Besietenrichtung auf dem Galeriusbogn in Saloniki.”
  • Garrucci, P. (W. Wylie, trans.). (NC 10, 1870). “Brass Medallion Representing the Persian Victory of Maximianus Galerius.”/
  • Hébrard, E. (BCH 44, 1920). “L’Arc de Galère et l’église Saint-Georges à Salonique.”
  • Kinch, K. F. (Paris, 1890). L’arc de triomphe de Salonique.
  • Laubscher, H. P. (Berlin, 1975). Der Reliefschmuck des Galeriusbogens in Thessaloniki.
  • Makaronas, C. J. (Salonica, 1970). The Arch of Galerius at Thessaloniki.
  • Meyer, H. (JdI 95, 1980). “Die Frieszyklen am sogenannten Triumphbogen des Galerius in Thessaloniki.”
  • Pond Rothman, M. S. (AJA 81, 1977). “The Thematic Organization of the Panel Reliefs on the Arch of Galerius.”
  • Pond Rothman, M. S. (Byzantine Studies/Etudes Byzantines 2:1, 1975). “The Panel of the Emperors Enthroned on the Arch of Galerius.”
  • Sutherland, C. H. V. (London, 1967), RIC IV: From Diocletian’s Reform (A.D. 294) to the Death of Maximinus (A. D. 313),
  • Velenis, G. (AA, 1979). “Architektonische Problems des Galeriusbogen in Thessaloniki.”
  • Velenis, G. (AA, 1983). “Nachtragliche Beobachtungen am Oberbau des Galeriusbogens in Thessaloniki.”
  • Vermeule, C. C. (Cambridge, Mass., 1968). Roman Imperial Art in Greece and Asia Minor.
  • von Schönebeck, H. (BZ 37, 1937). “Die zyklische Ordnung der Triumphalreliefs am Galeriusbogen in Saloniki.”
  • von Schönebeck, H. (JbBerlMus 58, 1937). (Preserves image of the now lost head of Galerius, possibly from the large Arch of Galerius. The relief head was in Berlin.)

The palace

  • Αθανασιου, Φ. et al. (ΑΕΜΘ 8, 1994). “Νεα στοιχεια για το Οκταγωνο του γαλεριανου συγκροτηματος.”
  • Αθανασιου, Φ. et al. (Θεσσαλονικεων πολις 3, 1981). “τα ανακτορα του Γαλεριου στη Θεσσαλονικη, Μεθοδολογια αποκαταστασης.”
  • Αθανασιου, Φ. et al. (Θεσσαλονικεων πολις 4, 2001). “Το λουτρα του ανακτορικου συγκροτηματος του Γαλεριου.”
  • Dyggve, E. (Copenhagen, 1945). Recherches sur le palais imperial de Thessalonique.
  • Dyggve, E. (Dissertationes Pannonicae ser. 2, 11, 1941). “Kurzer vorläufiger Bericht über die Ausgrabungen im Palastviertel von Thessaloniki.”
  • Hébrard, E. (BCH 44, 1920). “Les Travaux du Service archéologique d’Armée d’Orient a l’arc de triomphe de Galère et à l’arc de triomphe de Galère et à l’église Saint-Georges de Salonique.”
  • Καραμπερη, Μ. (AAA 23-28, 1990-1995). “Ο πολος του Οκταγωνο στο γαλεριανο συγκροτημα και η σχεση του με το νοτιο μεγαλο περιστυλιο.”
  • Καραμπερη, Μ. (Θεσσαλονικεων πολις 3, 2000). “Η αυτοκρατορικη εδρα Θεσσαλονικη.”
  • Sasel, J. (ed.). Tabula Imperii Romani (Sheet K34).
  • Vichers, M. (BSA 66, 1971). “A note on the Byzantine Palace at Thessaloniki.”
  • Ward-Perkins, J. B. (New York, 1981). Roman Imperial Architecture.

General reference

  • Bianchi-Bandinelli, R. (New York, 1971). Rome: The Late Empire.
  • Brilliant, R. (L’Arte 10, 1970). “Temporal Aspects in Late Roman Art.”
  • Brown, P. (New York, 1971). The World of Late Antiquity.
  • Cameron, A. (Cambridge, Mass., 1993). The Later Roman Empire, A. D. 284-430.
  • Kleiner, D. E. E. (New Haven, 1992). Roman Sculpture.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Arch of Galerius
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  • Hellenic Ministry of Culture

Coordinates: 40°37′59.97″N, 22°57′10.61″E Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Arch and Tomb of Galerius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (627 words)
The Arch of Galerius (Greek: τόξο του Γαλερίου or Aψίδα του Γαλερίου) and the Tomb of Galerius (Τάφος του Γαλερίου) are neighbouring monuments in the city of Thessaloniki, in the province of Central Macedonia in northern Greece.
The Tomb of Galerius is better known as the Rotonda, the Church of Agios Georgios or (in English) the Rotunda of St.
About 200 metres north of the Arch of Galerius is the Tomb of Galerius, now the Greek Orthodox Church of Agios Giorgios, better known as the Church of the Rotonda (or simply The Rotonda).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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