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Encyclopedia > Arc de Triomphe
The arc from the street
The arc from the street

The Arc de Triomphe is a monument in Paris, France that stands in the center of the Place Charles de Gaulle, also known as the Place de l'Étoile (Star Square). It is at the western end of the Champs-Élysées. The arch honors the Napoleon kings. On the inside and the top of the arc there are all of the names of generals and wars fought. Underneath is the tomb of the unknown soldier from World War I. Races at Lonchamp - Édouard Manet, 1867 The Prix de LArc de Triomphe is a flat thoroughbred horse race of a 2400 metres (about 1 mile 4 furlongs) raced on turf for 3 year olds and up, Colts, horses, Fillies and mares (exclude geldings). ... Arc de Triomphe, Paris A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental gate, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Arc_De_Triumph_Flag. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Arc_De_Triumph_Flag. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Place de lÉtoile is a large Place in Paris, France, the meeting point of twelve avenues (hence the name Star Square) including the Champs-Élysées which continues to the east. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ...


The Arc is the linchpin of the historic axis (L'Axe historique) — a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a route which goes from the courtyard of the Louvre Palace to the outskirts of Paris. The monument was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, and its iconographic program pitted heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail and set the tone for public monuments, with triumphant nationalistic messages, until World War I. The Axe historique (historical axis) is a line of monuments, buildings and thoroughfares that extends from the centre of Paris, France, to the west. ... This article is about the museum. ... Chalgrins Arc de Triomphe Jean-François-Thérèse Chalgrin (1739–1811) was a French architect, best known for his design for the Arc de Triomphe, Paris. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Depictions of nudity refers to nudity in all the artistic disciplines including vernacular and historical depictions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The monument stands 49.5 metres (165 ft) in height, 45 metres (148 ft) wide and 22 meters (72 ft) deep. It is the second largest triumphal arch in existence (replaced in 1984 by a Korean arc of triumphe).[1] Its design was inspired by the Roman Arch of Titus. The Arc de Triomphe is so colossal that three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919, marking the end of hostilities in World War I, Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane through it, with the event captured in a newsreel.[2] A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental archway, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. ... The Arch of Titus This article deals with the main arch of Titus on the Via Sacra. ... Godefroy (Gothofredus), a French noble family, which numbered among its members several distinguished jurists and historians. ... Nieuport 17 C.1 fighter of World War I Nieuport is a French aeroplane company famous for racers before World War I (WWI) and fighter aircraft during WWI and between the wars. ...

Contents

History

There was a pre-Napoleonic (1758) proposal by Charles Ribart for an elephant-shaped building on the location of the current arch.
There was a pre-Napoleonic (1758) proposal by Charles Ribart for an elephant-shaped building on the location of the current arch.

The Arc de Triomphe is one of the most famous monuments in Paris. It was commissioned in 1806 after the victory at Austerlitz by Emperor Napoleon I at the peak of his fortunes. Laying the foundations alone took two years, and in 1810 when Napoleon entered Paris from the west with his bride Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria, he had a wooden mock-up of the completed arch constructed. The architect Jean Chalgrin died in 1811, and the work was taken over by Huyon. During the Restoration, construction was halted and would not be completed until the reign of King Louis-Philippe, in 1833–36 when the architects on site were Goust, then Huyot, under the direction of Héricart de Thury. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (748x794, 147 KB) // (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (748x794, 147 KB) // (All user names refer to en. ... Charles Ribart was an 18th century French architect. ... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Marie Louise (full name: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, later after 1817 in Italian Maria Luigia dAsburgo-Lorena, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla) (b. ... Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Louis-Philippe I, King of the French (October 6, 1773 – August 26, 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Louis-Étienne François Héricart-Ferrand, vicomte de Thury, (Paris 3 June 1776 — Rome 15 January 1854, was a French politician and man of science. ...


The design

Cast of the head of a figure from François Rude's sculpture "La Marseillaise"
Cast of the head of a figure from François Rude's sculpture "La Marseillaise"

Since the fall of Napoleon (1815), the sculpture representing Peace is interpreted as commemorating the Peace of 1815. Download high resolution version (500x666, 52 KB)Cast of the head of a figure from Francois Rudes sculpture La Marseillaise in the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. ... Download high resolution version (500x666, 52 KB)Cast of the head of a figure from Francois Rudes sculpture La Marseillaise in the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. ...


The astylar design is by Jean Chalgrin (1739–1811), in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture. Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe: Cortot; Rude; Étex; Pradier and Lemaire. The main sculptures are not integral friezes but are treated as independent trophies applied to the vast ashlar masonry masses, not unlike the gilt-bronze appliqués on Empire furniture. The four sculptural groups at the base of the Arc are The Triumph of 1810 (Jean-Pierre Cortot), Resistance and Peace (both by Antoine Étex) and the most renowned of them all, Departure of the Volunteers of '92 commonly called La Marseillaise (François Rude). The face of the allegorical representation of France calling forth her people on this last was used as the belt buckle for the seven-star rank of Marshal of France. Astylar (from Gr. ... Chalgrins Arc de Triomphe Jean-François-Thérèse Chalgrin (1739–1811) was a French architect, best known for his design for the Arc de Triomphe, Paris. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Academy (disambiguation). ... Jean-Pierre Cortot (1787 – 1843, both Paris) was a French sculptor. ... François Rude: 1888 engraving François Rude (June 4, 1784 - November 3, 1855) was a French sculptor. ... Antoine Étex (March 20, 1808 - July 14, 1888), French sculptor, painter and architect, was born in Paris. ... James Pradier, also known as Jean-Jacques Pradier (1790 - June 4, 1852) was a Swiss-born French sculptor best known for his work in the neoclassical style. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Ashlar is dressed stone work of any type of stone. ... Applique (or appliqué) is a technique in which pieces of fabric are sewn onto a foundation piece of fabric to create designs. ... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... Jean-Pierre Cortot (1787 – 1843, both Paris) was a French sculptor. ... Antoine Étex (March 20, 1808 - July 14, 1888), French sculptor, painter and architect, was born in Paris. ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural program of the Arc de Triomphe. ... François Rude: 1888 engraving François Rude (June 4, 1784 - November 3, 1855) was a French sculptor. ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ...


In the attic above the richly sculptured frieze of soldiers are 30 shields engraved with the names of major Revolutionary and Napoleonic military victories. (The Battle of Fuentes de Onoro is described as a French victory, instead of the defeat actually suffered). The inside walls of the monument list the names of 558 French generals; the names of those who died in battle are underlined. Also inscribed, on the shorter sides of the four supporting columns, are the names of the major battles of the Napoleonic Wars. The battles which took place in the period between the departure of Napoleon from Elba and his final defeat at Waterloo are not included. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... // In the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro (May 3 - 5, 1811) the British army under Sir Arthur Wellesley checked an attempt by French troops under Marshall André Masséna to relieve the besieged city of Almeida. ... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... Waterloo The top of the knoll and the famous lion. ...


Les "Grandes Guerres" and the Unknown Soldier

The sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off, on the day, it is said, that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916. The relief was immediately hidden by tarpaulins to conceal the accident and avoid any undesired ominous interpretations. Famous victory marches past the Arc included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1918, the Germans in 1940 [1], and the French and Allies in 1944 [2] and 1945. Charles de Gaulle survived an attack upon him at the Arc during a parade. Belligerents France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties and losses 378,000; of whom 163,000 died. ... Belligerents Free French Forces Germany Commanders Philippe Leclerc Raymond Dronne Henri Rol-Tanguy Jacques Chaban-Delmas Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, French resistance 5,000 Inside Paris, 15,000 At outskirts Casualties and losses 1,500 dead French resistance 71 dead, 225 wounded Free French Forces[1] 3... This article is about the person. ...

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe, Paris
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe, Paris

Beneath the Arc is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from the First World War. Interred here on Armistice Day 1920, it has the first eternal flame lit in Western and Eastern Europe since the Vestal Virgins' fire was extinguished in the year 391. It burns in memory of the dead who were never identified (now in both World Wars). France took the example of the United Kingdom's tomb of The Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey. A ceremony is held there every 11 November on the anniversary of the armistice signed between France and Germany in 1918. It was originally decided in 12 November 1919 to bury the unknown soldier's remains in the Panthéon, but a public letter-writing campaign led to the decision to bury him beneath the Arc. The coffin was put in the chapel on the first floor of the Arc on 10 November 1920, and put in its final resting place on 28 January 1921. The slab on top carries the inscription ICI REPOSE UN SOLDAT FRANÇAIS MORT POUR LA PATRIE 1914–1918 ("Here lies a French soldier who died for his fatherland 1914–1918"). Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe, Paris. ... Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe, Paris. ... The Landsoldaten (foot soldier) statue in Fredericia, Denmark. ... The Landsoldaten (foot soldier) statue in Fredericia, Denmark. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Armistice Day Celebrations in Toronto, Canada - 1918 Armistice Day is the anniversary of the official end of World War I, November 11, 1918. ... The eternal flame at the Monument to the Unknown Soldier in Sofia, Bulgaria Eternal Flame is also a song originally performed by The Bangles. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... The British tomb of The Unknown Warrior holds an unidentified British soldier killed on a European battlefield during World War I.[1] He was buried in Westminster Abbey, London on November 11, 1920, the earliest such tomb honouring the unknown dead of World War I. Even the battlefield the Warrior... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Arc de Triomphe at night
Arc de Triomphe at night

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy of the United States paid their respects at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, accompanied by French President de Gaulle. After the 1963 assassination of President Kennedy, Mrs. Kennedy remembered the eternal flame at the Arc de Triomphe and requested that an eternal flame be placed next to her husband's grave at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. President de Gaulle went to Washington to attend the state funeral, and he was able to witness Jacqueline Kennedy lighting the eternal flame that was inspired by her visit to France. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 553 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3929 × 4260 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 553 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3929 × 4260 pixel, file size: 5. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... First official White House portrait. ... Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Maintenance

By the early 1960s the monument had grown very blackened from coal soot, and during 1965–1966 the Arc de Triomphe was thoroughly cleaned through sandblasting. By 2007 some darkening was again apparent. The arc will soon be sandblasted again, around 2011. Man sandblasting a stone wall Device used for adding sand to the compressed air (top of which is a sieve for adding the sand) Diesel powered compressor used as an air supply for sandbasting Sandblasting or bead blasting[1] is a generic term for the process of smoothing, shaping and...


Access

Pedestrian access to the Arc de Triomphe is via an underpass. Dodging the Paris traffic on the roundabout that surrounds the arc is dangerous and is not recommended. The Arc has one lift, to the level underneath the exterior observation level. Visitors can either climb 284 steps to reach the top of the Arc or take the lift and walk up 46 steps. From the top there is a panoramic view of Paris, of twelve major avenues leading to the Étoile and of the exceptionally busy roundabout in which the Arc stands. The Arc de Triomphe is accessible by the RER and Métro at the Charles de Gaulle—Etoile stop. The RER (Réseau Express Régional, IPA , Regional Express Network) is an urban rail network in the ÃŽle-de-France région, notably Paris and its agglomeration. ... Métro redirects here. ... List of stations of the Paris Métro Charles de Gaulle – Étoile is a station of the Paris Métro and of the RER urban rail network. ...


Notes

  1. ^ North Korea built a slightly larger Arch of Triumph in 1982 for the 70th birthday of Kim Il-Sung.
  2. ^ Melville Wallace, La vie d'un Pilote de Chasse en 1914–1918, 1978. The film clip is included in The History Channel's Four Years of Thunder.

This is the biggest Arch of Triumph in the world. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile
  • Inscriptions on the Arc de Triomphe
  • The Names of 660 persons inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe
  • Photos of the Arc de Triomphe

Coordinates: 48.8738° N 2.2950° E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Paris. ... The Sacré-CÅ“ur Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-CÅ“ur, Basilica of the Sacred Heart) is a Roman Catholic basilica and popular landmark in Paris, France, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the IVe arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles and the Marais. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The Conciergerie (French: La Conciergerie) is a former prison in Paris, located on the west of the ÃŽle de la Cité, near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... Grand Palais in 2004 The Grand Palais (Grand Palace) is a large glass exhibition hall that was built for the Paris Exhibition of 1900. ... People relaxing in front of the Luxembourg Palace The Jardin du Luxembourg (familiar nickname Luco) is a 224,500 m² public park and the largest in the city located in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... , The church at the Invalides Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings original purpose. ... This article is about the museum. ... , The Musée dOrsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine, housed in the former railway station, the Gare dOrsay. ... The Palais Garnier, Paris The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier or Grand Opera House[1], but more commonly as the Paris Opéra, is a 2,200 seat opera house in Paris, France. ... Looking down the hill at Père-Lachaise. ... Image File history File links Paris-metropolitan-area-symbol. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arc de Triomphe - France.com (879 words)
The Arc de Triomphe is a monument in Paris that stands in the centre of the Place de l'Étoile, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées.
Major academic sculptors of France are repesented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe: Cortot, Rude, Etex, Pradier and Lemaire.
Famous victory marches past the Arc included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1918, the Germans in 1940, and the French and Allies in 1944 and 1945.
Arc de Triomphe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1311 words)
Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe: Cortot, Rude, Étex, Pradier and Lemaire.
Famous victory marches past the Arc included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1918, the Germans in 1940 [1], and the French and Allies in 1944 [2] and 1945.
Kennedy remembered the eternal flame at the Arc de Triomphe and requested that an eternal flame be placed next to her husband's grave at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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