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Encyclopedia > Arbil
Arbil
a.k.a. Erbil or Irbil

Arbil
Arbil's location in northern Iraq
Coordinates: 36°19′60″N 44°1′0″E / 36.33333, 44.01667
Country Iraq
Governorate Arbil
Settled 23rd century BC
Population (2005 Est.)
 - City 990,000
Time zone GMT +3 (UTC)
 - Summer (DST) GMT +4 (UTC)

Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Arabic: اربيل, Arbīl; Kurdish: هه‌ولێر, Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies eighty kilometres (fifty miles) east of Mosul. In 2005, its estimated population was 990,000 inhabitants. The city is the capital of the Kurdistan Regional Government. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 685 × 599 pixels Full resolution (800 × 700 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... ArbÄ«l (أربيل in Arabic language, Hewlêr in Kurdish , also transliterated as Irbil or Erbil) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... ... The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is an American federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the U.S. government. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Official languages: Kurdish and Arabic Capital: Erbil Prime Minister: Nechervan Idris Barzani Area about 80 000 km² Population  - Total (2005):  - Density: perhaps 5,750,000 40/km² Currency: Iraqi dinar Time zone: UTC+3 National anthem: Ey Reqîb The Kurdish Autonomous Region is a political entity established in 1970...

Contents

History

Ancient history

Urban life at Arbil can be dated back to at least the twenty-third century BC. The city's archaeological museum contains only pre-Islamic objects. The name Arbil was mentioned in the Sumerian holy writings (about 2000 B.C.) as Orbelum or Urbilum. Others believe the name derives from the Akkadian arba'ū ilū, meaning "four gods". The city was a centre for the worship of the Assyrian goddess Ishtar. In classical times, the city was known by its Aramaic name, Arbela. (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ...


After revolts of Medes led by Phraortes king of Media (522-521 BC) were put down by Darius I of Persia, the Sagartians of Arbela rebelled against Darius continuing the Median revolts. Darius sent an army led by a Median general named Takhmaspâda, and in the summer of 521 BC defeated Sagartians, led by Tritantaechmes, who claimed to be a descendant of the Great Median King Cyaxares. According to Darius, the rebel of Arbela was the last revolt of Media which he put down. These incidents are carved on the Behistun Inscription around Kermanshah. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Darius the Great (c. ...


The Battle of Gaugamela, in which Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia in 331 BC, took place about one hundred kilometres (sixty miles) west of Arbil. After the battle, Darius managed to flee to the city, and, somewhat inaccurately, the confrontation is sometimes known as the Battle of Arbela. Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] Casualties Heavy[3] In the Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) in 331 BC Alexander the Great of Macedonia defeated Darius III of Achaemenid Persia. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC - 331 BC - 330 BC 329 BC...


The name Hewlêr, is also used for this historic town of Mesopotamia by Kurdish settlers of the city and derives from Horlêr, meaning "Temple of the Sun" in the Kurdish language. This may have originated from the religions of Mithraism, Yazdanism and Zoroastrianism practiced by Kurds in which the sun and fire play a significant role (see also: Helios). Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... In Greek mythology the sun was personified as Helius (Greek Ἥλιος / ἥλιος). Homer often calls him Titan and Hyperion. ...


Arbil became, like Amida (Diyareker), part of the region disputed between Rome and Persia under the Sassanians. Under Emperor Trajan it was named the Roman province of Assyria, and after a century of independence was reoccupied by Rome. The Jewish kingdom of Adiabene (Greek form Hadyab) had its center at Arbil, and the town and kingdom are known in Jewish Middle Eastern history for the conversion of the royal family to Judaism, although the general population may have remained eclectic but with a strong eastern Christian presence. The queen of the Adiabenians apparently adopted Christianity, and it spread throughout this region, so that the area became a Christian stronghold. It served as the seat of a Metropolitan of the Church of the East. It is known from Butler's Lives of the Saints (see Martyrs of Hadiab) as the site of the Sassanian Persian martyrdom of almost 350 Christians in the year 345. Roman province of Assyria, 120 CE Assyria was a province of the Roman Empire, roughly situated in modern-day northern Iraq. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ...


Until 10th century Arbil was populated by Hadhabani (Adiabeni) Kurds who gradually migrated northward. It had also a significant Aramaic speaking Assyrian population until its destruction by the forces of Timurlane in 1397[citation needed]. From its Christian period come many church fathers and well-known authors in Syriac, the classical language off-shoot of Aramaic. The 13th century Syriac writer Gewargis Warda Arbillaya [from Arbil] identifies the Christian population of Arbil and neighboring areas as Assyrians in a prayer dedicated to the Rogation of the Ninevites. In the wake of Timur's raids, when only one Christian village is alleged to have survived, Arbil increasingly became a Muslim-dominated town. As is attested in the region in general, those who converted to Islam became enfolded into the ethnic Muslim culture of the region, whether Turkish, Arab, Persian or Kurdish. Arbil is also the birth place of the famous Muslim historian and writer of 13th century, Ibn Khallikan. Hadhabani (also: Hadhbani) was an 11th century Kurdish dynasty centered at Ushnu. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Assyrian may refer to: List of Assyrian settlements Anything from Assyria, an ancient empire in Mesopotamia Anything from Assyria (Roman province), a province of the Roman Empire Assyrian people, a present-day Middle Eastern ethnic group Several Christian denominations: Assyrian Church of the East Assyrian Church of the Easts... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Abu-l ‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Khallikan was a Muslim scholar of the 13th century. ...


The modern town of Arbil stands on a tell topped by an Ottoman fort. During the Middle Ages, Arbil became a major trading centre on the route between Baghdad and Mosul, a role which it still plays today with important road links to the outside world. A small population of Assyrian Christians (about 15,000) live mostly in suburbs such as Ankawa. Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Church of Ankawa Second Church of Ankawa Ankawa is an Iraqi town of about 15,000 people, which lies in the Northern Kurdish region. ...


The Kurdish name for the city is Hawler meaning the place where sun is worshipped. The name is thought to derive from the Kurdish name helio(sun)[4].


Modern history

The parliament of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region was established in Arbil in 1970 after negotiations between the Iraqi government and the Kurdish militants, but was effectively controlled by Saddam Hussein until the Kurdish uprising at the end of the 1991 Gulf War. The legislature ceased to function effectively in the mid-1990s when fighting broke out between the two main Kurdish factions, the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). The city was captured by the KDP in 1996 with the assistance of the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein. The PUK then established an alternative Kurdish government in Sulaimaniyah. Official languages: Kurdish and Arabic Capital: Erbil Prime Minister: Nechervan Idris Barzani Area about 80 000 km² Population  - Total (2005):  - Density: perhaps 5,750,000 40/km² Currency: Iraqi dinar Time zone: UTC+3 National anthem: Ey Reqîb The Kurdish Autonomous Region is a political entity established in 1970... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Peshmerga, pesh merga, peshmarga or peshmerge Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf, Peter de la Billière, Khalid bin Sultan, Saleh Al-Muhaya, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded see section below The Gulf War or the Persian Gulf War (16 January 1991... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Founded by Mustafa Barzani, the legendary Kurd who fought numerous revolts against Baghdad with success. ... The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (est 1975) (Kurdish: Yakêtî Nîştimanî Kurdistan) is a Sunni political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Obtaining assistance from Saddam Hussein to fight fellow Kurds, still hangs over Mesud Barzani, the leader of the PDK. Furthermore, while the forces of Saddam Hussein ransacked Arbil, many NGO's and International Organizations fled Erbil. These same organizations were able, with the assistance of the United States and other countries, to accept many Kurds as refugees. Many bound to the US were first taken to Guam. Massoud Barzani (Kurdish: Mesûd Barzanî, Arabic: مسعود بارازاني) (born August 16, 1946) is the President of the Autonomous Kurdish Government in Iraq and leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Kurdish Parliament in Arbil reconvened after a peace agreement was signed between the Kurdish parties in 1997, but had no real power. The Kurdish government in Arbil had control only in the western and northern parts of the autonomous region.


During the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, a United States special forces task force was headquartered just outside of Arbil. The city was the scene of rapturous celebrations on April 10, 2003 after the fall of Baghdad. The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein, only isolated, sporadic violence has hit Arbil, unlike many other areas of Iraq. Parallel bomb attacks against the Eid celebrations arranged by the PUK and KDP killed 109 people on February 1, 2004. Responsibility was claimed by the Islamist group Ansar al-Sunnah, which was said to be in solidarity with the Kurdish Islamist faction Ansar al-Islam. Another bombing on May 4, 2005 killed 60 civilians. Despite these bombings the population generally feels safe. February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jaish Ansar al-Sunna or Army of the Protectors of the Sunna (faith) (Arabic: جيش أنصار السنه ) , is an Islamist militant group in Iraq that fought the US-led occupation and US-backed interim government of Iyad Allawi, and continues to fight the new ruling government of Jalal Talabani. ... Ansar al-Islam (Arabic: انصار الاسلام, Supporters or Partisans of Islam) is a Kurdish Sunni Islamist group, promoting a radical interpretation of Islam and holy war. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The new Iraqi constitution of 2005, explicitly recognizes the Kurdistan Regional Government, and the two parallel administrations, in January 2006, signed an agreement to unify the administration of the entire Kurdish region under a new multi-party government in Arbil. In May 2006 the unitary government of the Kurdistan region was formally presented. [5]


Communications

Arbil has been a center of communications for many centuries. It was a major stop on the Silk road. The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...


Korek Telecom, began operations in 2004.


Travel

A new international airport Erbil International Airport flying the Kurdish, but not the Iraqi flag, was opened in autumn of 2005, with portraits of Kurdish leaders Jalal Talabani, and Masoud Barzani. It has scheduled flights to a number of airports in Europe and the Middle East, with Austrian Airlines being the first IATA airline company to operate scheduled flights from December 11, 2006, to its hub in Vienna, Austria. Erbil International Airport (IATA: EBL, ICAO: ORER) is an airport 10 kilometers outside of the city of Arbil (Erbil), a city with more than 1 million inhabitants, in the northern Iraqi Kurdistan region. ... Kurdish may refer to: The Kurdish people The Kurdish language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Massoud Barzani (born August 16, 1946) is the leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. ... Austrian Airlines AG is the flag carrier airline of Austria, with its headquarters in Vienna. ... The International Air Transport Association is an international trade organization of airlines headquarted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... “Wien” redirects here. ...


Moreover, the KRG is building a new $300 million airport adjacent to the existing terminal, which will have the capacity to accept the largest aircraft in the world, including the Russian Antonov 225 cargo plane and the American C-5 Galaxy. It is scheduled for completion in 2008. An-225 carrying a Buran shuttle The Antonov An-225 Mriya (NATO reporting name: Cossack) is a strategic airlift transport airplane that was built by Antonov (ASTC). ... The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is a military transport aircraft designed to provide strategic heavy airlift over intercontinental distances. ...


Visa Information

Visas on arrival are available for Citizens of the United States and the European Union. Other nationalities must obtain a visa before arrival. As of Spring 2007, the enforecement of this policy became more strict. A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit. ...


Healthcare

Famous writers of Arbil

Abu-l ‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Khallikan was a Muslim scholar of the 13th century. ... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Abdulla Pashew, or Ebdulla Peşêw, is a well known Kurdish poet. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Historical landmarks

The Citadel of Arbil is an ancient citadel located in northern Mesopotamia, (northern modern Iraq), Kurdistan Region, in center of city of Arbil (Hewler). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Villages and towns

Armota (Harmota in Kurdish) is Chaldean village that is outside the town of Koy Sinjaq in the Iraqi providence of Arbil. ...

Views of Arbil

Media

Coordinates: 36°10′60″N, 44°1′0″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Article about "Arbil" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (431 words)
Arbil (أربيل, also transliterated as Irbil or Erbil) is one of the provinces of Iraq.
The province of Arbil covers an area of 14,428 km² 5,570 miles² in the north of Iraq, with an estimated population (in 2001) of 1,134,300 people.
Arbil is one of Iraq's larger cities, located at 36.12N 44.01E about 80km (50 miles) east of Mosul.
Arbil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (991 words)
Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; Arabic: اربيل‎, Arbīl; Kurdish: هه‌ولێر, Hewlêr) is believed by many to be the oldest continuously-inhabited city in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3].
Arbil is also the birth place of the famous Islamic Kurdish historian and writer of 13th century, Ibn Khallikan.
The parliament of the Kurdish Autonomous Region was established in Arbil in 1970 after negotiations between the Iraqi government and the Kurdish militants, but was effectively controlled by Saddam Hussein until the Kurdish uprising at the end of the 1991 Gulf War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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