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Encyclopedia > Arbidol
Arbidol
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-methyl-2-((phenylthio)methyl)-3-
carbethoxy-4-((dimethylamino)methyl)-5-
hydroxy-6-bromindole hydrochloride
Identifiers
CAS number 131707-23-8
ATC code L03AX
PubChem 131410
DrugBank N/A
Chemical data
Formula C22H28BrClN2O4S 
Mol. mass 531.891 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability N/A
Metabolism N/A

- Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ...

Half life 17-21 hours
Excretion renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

N/A It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

N/A The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

Routes oral

Arbidol (Russian Cyrillic Арбидол) is an antiviral drug manufactured by Masterlek in Moscow, Russia. It is an alternative to Tamiflu (manufactured by Roche Pharmaceuticals) used in the fight against avian flu. Its antiviral inhibitory effect is still being tested and the current results range from being well accepted in pharmaceutical industry to accepted with a dose of suspicion. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Tamiflu manufactured by ROCHE active principle Oseltamivir Phosphate Drug Nomenclature Synonyms: GS-4104/002; Oseltamivir, fosfato de; Ro-64-0796/002 USAN: Oseltamivir Phosphate rINNM: Oseltamivir Phosphate erINNM: Fosfato de oseltamivir Chemical name: Ethyl (3R,4R,5S)-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate phosphate (1... Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd. ... For the current concern about the transmission of an avian flu to humans see Transmission and infection of H5N1. ... This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC...


Chemically, Arbidol features an indole core, functionalized at all positions but one with different substituents. The drug has mainly been tested in Russia and China, and has been shown to be effective against avian flu, suggesting it might be a more affordable and cost-effective drug than the widely used Tamiflu. Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ...

Contents

Mechanism of action

According to the manufacturer, the drug exhibits immunomodulation as well as a specific anti-influenza action against the influenza A and influenza B viruses. It prevents contact between the virus and host cells and penetration of virus particles into the cell by inhibiting the fusion of the virus lipid shell to the cell membranes. It possesses interferon inducing action, by stimulating the humoral reaction and the phagocytic function of macrophages. Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of a family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... // The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... Humoral immunity (HIR) is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... Phagocytosis is a form of endocytosis wherein large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ...


Dosage forms

The drug is manufactured in the form of tablets and capsules, each tablet containing Arbidol® as its active ingredient (50 mg and 100 mg). This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word capsule (from the Latin capsula, a small box), has many similar meanings in English: In botany, a capsule is a type of dry fruit as in the poppy, iris, foxglove, etc. ... An active ingredient, also active pharmaceutical ingredient (or API), is the substance in drug that is pharmaceutically active. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


Pharmacokinetics and usage

An orally administered dose of 50 mg reaches its maximum concentration in the blood in about 1 h, and a dose of 100 mg reaches its maximum concentration within 1.5 h. It is metabolized in the liver. The period of half-life is about 17-21 h. Both the tablet and capsule forms should be taken before a meal. Dosage for children of ages 2-6 is 50 mg daily, for 6-12 years of age 100 mg daily, and 12 years and older should take 200 mg daily. Side effects in children include sensitization to the drug. No known overdose cases have been reported and allergic reactions are limited to people with hypersensitivity. Dose can refer to: Dose (album), an album by the jam band Govt Mule Dose (song), a song by the band Filter Dose (magazine), a free daily Canadian magazine In medicine: Effective dose, the smallest amount of a substance required to produce a measurable effect on a living organism... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ...


References

  • "Мастерлек" Pharmaceuticals, Moscow, Russia. Patent number № 2033157, Registry number № 003610/01.
  • Sensitivity of various influenza virus strains to arbidol. Influence of arbidol combination with different antiviral drugs on reproduction of influenza virus A Published by PubMed (USA) and Terapevticheski arkhiv (Russia)
  • Efficacy and safety of arbidol in treatment of naturally acquired influenza Published by PubMed (USA) and Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao (China)
  • English translations of Russian and Chinese clinical studies can be read at *http://www.arbidol.org

External links


 
 

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