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Encyclopedia > Arbella Stuart
Arbella Stuart.
Arbella Stuart.

Arbella Stuart (or "Arabella" and/or "Stewart") (1575 - 27 September 1615) was an English Renaissance noblewoman who was for some time considered a possible successor to Queen Elizabeth I on the English throne. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


Arbella Stuart was a direct descendant of King Henry VII of England. As the only child of Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox and Elizabeth Cavendish, she was a grandchild of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, who was, in turn, the daughter of Margaret Tudor, widow of James IV of Scotland, mother of James V of Scotland, and daughter of England's Henry VII. Margaret Douglas was the product of Margaret Tudor's second marriage to Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus. Henry VII may refer to: Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor (c. ... Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox (1555–1576), was the second son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox and of Margaret Douglas, granddaughter of Margaret Tudor. ... Elizabeth Stuart, Countess of Lennox, née Elizabeth Cavendish (died 1581), was the mother of Arbella Stuart. ... Matthew Stewart (1516-1571) was the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. ... Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (October 8, 1515 – March 7, 1578) was the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Arbella's paternal grandparents, the 4th Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, had two sons: Arbella's father Charles and his older brother, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who became the second husband of Mary I of Scotland, also called Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of James I of Great Britain. Arbella's maternal grandparents were Sir William Cavendish and Bess of Hardwick. Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... Sir William Cavendish (1505 - 25 October 1557) was an English courtier who became one of Thomas Cromwells visitors of the monasteries when King Henry VIII annexed the property of the Catholic Church at the end of the 1530s, in the dissolution of the monasteries. ... Bess of Hardwick, Countess of Shrewsbury by Rowland Lockley, 1592. ...


In her final days, as a prisoner in the Tower of London, Lady Arabella Seymour (her married name), refusing to eat, fell ill, and died on September 27, 1615. She was buried in Westminster Abbey on September 29, 1615. She is considered to have brought misfortune on herself by her unworldlyness[citation needed]. She did not aspire to the English throne.[1] For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ...

Contents

Childhood

Arbella Stuart as a child

Arbella's father died in 1576 when she was still an infant. She was raised by her mother Elizabeth Cavendish until 1581. The death of her mother left six-year-old Arbella an orphan, whereupon she became the ward of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley. lady arbella stuart at age 23 months This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... lady arbella stuart at age 23 months This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Events May 5 - Peace of Beaulieu or Peace of Monsieur (after Monsieur, the Duc dAnjou, brother of the King, who negotiated it). ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ... In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ...


During most of her childhood she lived in the protective isolation of Hardwick Hall with her maternal grandmother, the redoubtable Bess of Hardwick, who had been married in 1568 to George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury. There were, apparently, periodic visits to the court of Elizabeth I of England and to London, including one that lasted for a few years, from September 1589 to July 1592. Historian David Durant has suggested that, during this period, "In effect Bess was moving the operational centre of her business empire from Derbyshire to London".[2] Hardwick Hall, built 1590–1597 Hardwicks long gallery in the 1890s. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


An extant note in French, written to Lord Burghley in Arbella's Italic hand and addressed on the eve of the Spanish Armada battles, was dated 13 July 1588 and "postmarked" from the Talbots' Coleman Street Residence in London. It is certain proof of the London visits.[3] William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1521–4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign. ... Look up Italic, italic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ...


About 1589, one "Morley" became Arbella's "attendant" and "reader," as reported in a dispatch from Bess of Hardwick to Lord Burghley, dated 21 September 1592.[4] Bess recounts "Morley's" service to Arbella over "the space of three years and a half." She also notes he requested a lifetime stipend from Arbella based on the fact he had "been much damnified by leaving the University"; this has led to speculation that 'Morley' was the poet Christopher Marlowe.[5] Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the English dramatist. ...


Heiress to the English throne

For some time before 1592, Arbella was considered one of the natural candidates for succession to the English crown, after her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I (Marshall, 601). However, between the end of 1592 and the spring of 1593, the influential Cecils, Elizabeth's Secretaries of State Lord Burghley and his son Sir Robert Cecil) turned their attention away from Arbella towards James VI of Scotland, regarding him as a preferable successor.[6] Burghley wrote "If my hand were free from pain I would not commit this much to any other man's hand".[citation needed] Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... ] The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 1563–24 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ...


In 1603, after James's ascension to the English throne, there was a plot (in which Sir Walter Raleigh was alleged to being involved) to overthrow him and put Arbella on the throne; but when she was invited to participate by agreeing in writing to Philip III of Spain, she reported the plan to James.[citation needed] Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ...


Marriage negotiations

Owing to Arbella's status as a possible heir to the throne, there was discussion of an appropriate marriage for her throughout her childhood. It would have suited the Roman Catholic Church for her to marry a member of the House of Savoy and then take the English throne. A marriage was also mooted with Ranuccio, eldest son of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma and Maria of Portugal. According to the Curiosities of Literature by Isaac D'Israeli, this scheme originated with the Pope, who eventually settled on his own brother, a Catholic Cardinal, as a suitable husband for Arbella; the Pope defrocked his brother, freeing him to marry "Arbelle" (as the Italians spelled her name) and thus claim the Kingdom of England. Nothing came of this plan, and in fact there is no direct evidence that Arbella was either a believing Catholic or a Protestant. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Ranuccio Farnese (March 28, 1569 — March 5, 1622) or Ranuccio I, was the fourth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1592 until his death. ... Alexander Farnese Portrait by Otto Vaenius (ca 1585). ... Maria of Portugal (August 12, 1538,Lisbon-September 7, 1577, Parma, Italy) Princess of Portugal, she was the daughter of Prince Duarte, 4th Duke of Guimarães (son of Portuguese King Manuel I), and Isabel of Braganza. ... Isaac DIsraeli in a portrait from 1797. ... A cardinal is an official of the second-highest rank of the Roman Catholic Church, inferior in rank only to the Pope. ... To defrock a priest is to deprive him of the right to exercise the functions of the priestly office. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


In the closing months of Elizabeth's reign, Arbella fell into trouble via reports that she intended to marry Edward Seymour, a member of the prominent Seymour family.[citation needed] This was reported to the Queen by the supposed groom's grandfather, Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford. Arbella denied having any intention of marrying without the Queen's permission, which she would have required for any marriage to be legal. Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford (1539–1621) was the son of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, by his second wife Anne Stanhope. ...


In 1588, it was proposed to James VI of Scotland that Esme Stewart, 2nd Duke of Lennox should be married to Arbella, but nothing seems to have come of this suggestion.[7] In 1604, Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland sent an ambassador to England to ask for Arbella to be his queen. This offer was rejected.[citation needed] 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: ) (20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he was known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599. ... Mieszko I. Bolesław I Chrobry. ...


There are some indications that Arbella tried to elope in about 1604 and that she fell out of favour with King James I as a result; she was certainly out of sight until 1608, when she was restored to the King's good graces.[citation needed] Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ...


Marriage to William Seymour

In 1610, Arbella was in trouble again for planning to marry William Seymour, grandson of Lady Catherine Grey, a younger sister of Lady Jane Grey and a granddaughter of Mary Tudor, younger sister of King Henry VIII and Arbella's ancestress, Margaret Tudor. Although the couple at first denied that any arrangement existed between them, they later married in secret on 22 June 1610 at Greenwich Palace. For marrying without his permission, King James imprisoned them: Arbella in Sir Thomas Perry's house in Lambeth and Seymour in the Tower of London. The couple had some liberty within those buildings, and some of Arbella's letters to Seymour and to the King during this period survive. When the King learned of her letters to Seymour, however, he ordered Arbella's transfer to the custody of William James, Bishop of Durham. Arbella claimed to be ill, so her departure for Durham was delayed. // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset (1588–October 24, 1660) was the son of Edward Seymour and Honora Rogers. ... Lady Catherine Grey (sometimes spelled Katherine) (~1539 – January 1568), Countess of Hertford, was the second surviving daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Mary Tudor can refer to any of the following: Mary Tudor (queen consort of France) Mary I of England Category: ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... On a site lying to the south of the river Thames, can be found an ancient royal palace acquired by King Henry V in 1414 when he confiscated the endowments of the alien priories. ... Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham in North East England. ...


The couple used that delay to plan their escape. Arbella dressed as a man and escaped to Lee (in Kent), but Seymour did not meet her there before their getaway ship was to sail for France. Sara Jayne Steen records that Imogen, the virtuous, cross-dressed heroine of William Shakespeare's play Cymbeline (1610-1611) has sometimes been read as a reference to Arbella.[8] Seymour did escape from the Tower, but by the time he reached Lee, Arbella was gone, so he caught the next ship to Flanders. Arbella's ship was overtaken by King James's men just before it reached Calais, France, and she was returned to England and imprisoned in the Tower of London. She never saw her husband again and died in the Tower in 1615. For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Imogen This article is about Shakespeares play. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


Literary legacy

Over one hundred letters written by Arbella have survived. In 1993, a collection of them was published, edited by Sara Jayne Steen, providing details of her activities and ideas. Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Aemilia Lanier's poem Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum is dedicated to Arbella. Lanier recalls a former personal friendship with Arbella that was unrequited; she addresses her as "Great learned Ladie ... whom long I have known "but not known so much as I desired". Emilia Lanier, also spelled Aemilia Lanyer, (1569-1645) was the first Englishwoman to assert herself as a professional poet through her single volume of poems, Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum (1611). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Rosalind K. Marshall, ‘Stuart , Lady Arabella (1575–1615)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 3 March 2008
  2. ^ David N. Durant, Bess of Hardwick Portrait of an Elizabethan Dynast, Atheneum, 1978, p. 166.
  3. ^ BL Lansdowne MS 34, ff. 145-46.
  4. ^ (BL Landdowne MS 71,f.3.)
  5. ^ John Baker, letter to Notes and Queries 44.3 (1997), pp. 367-8
  6. ^ Handover, The Second Cecil, 55-6; 297; Read, Lord Burghley, 484
  7. ^ Durant, 161
  8. ^ Steen, 96

References

  • Marshall, Rosalind. "Arabella Stuart." Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

External links

  • Website theorizing Christopher Marlowe was Arbella's tutor

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