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Encyclopedia > Araucaria heterophylla
Araucaria heterophylla
Conservation status: Vulnerable

A mature Norfolk Island Pine
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Araucariaceae
Genus: Araucaria
Species: A. heterophylla
Binomial name
Araucaria heterophylla
(Salisb.) Franco

Araucaria heterophylla (synonym A. excelsa) is a distinctive conifer, a member of the ancient and now disjointly distributed family Araucariaceae. As its vernacular name Norfolk Island Pine implies, the tree is endemic to Norfolk Island, though it is not a pine. The trees grow to a height of 50-65 m, with straight vertical trunks and symmetrical branches, even in the face of incessant onshore winds that can contort most other species. Download high resolution version (400x655, 126 KB)Good example of a mature Norfolk Pine. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Families Pinaceae, pine family Araucariaceae, araucaria family Podocarpaceae, yellow-wood family Phyllocladaceae Sciadopityaceae, umbrella-pine family Cupressaceae, cypress family Cephalotaxaceae, plum-yew family Taxaceae, yew family The Order Pinales in the Division Pinophyta, Class Pinopsida comprises all the extant conifers. ... Genera Agathis Araucaria Wollemia The Araucariaceae are a very ancient family of conifers. ... Species See text Araucaria is a genus of coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ... Richard Anthony Salisbury (May 2, 1761 - 1829) was a British botanist. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Genera Agathis Araucaria Wollemia The Araucariaceae are a very ancient family of conifers. ... This article is about the ecological meaning of endemic. See also endemic (epidemiology). ... Species About 115. ...

Araucaria heterophylla foliage on a young tree
Araucaria heterophylla foliage on a young tree

The leaves are awl-shaped, 1-1.5 cm long, about 1 mm thick at the base on young trees, and incurved, 5-10 mm long and variably 2-4 mm broad on older trees, the thickest, scale-like leaves on coning branches in the upper crown. The cones are squat globose, 10-12 cm long and 12-14 cm diameter, and take about 18 months to mature. They disintegrate at maturity to release the nut-like edible seeds. Image File history File links Name Araucaria heterophylla Family Araucariaceae Image no. ... Image File history File links Name Araucaria heterophylla Family Araucariaceae Image no. ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel A nut in botany is a one-seeded (rarely two) simple dry fruit in which the ovary wall or part of it becomes very hard (stony or woody) at maturity. ... A SeeD is a term given to mercenaries trained and employed by Balamb Garden in the Final Fantasy VIII video game. ...


The scientific name heterophylla ("different leaves") derives from the variation in the leaves between young and adult plants.


Cultivation and uses

Its distinctive appearance, with widely spaced branches and a symmetrical, triangular outline, has made it a popular cultivated species, either as a single tree or in avenues. As well as in its native Norfolk Island, it is widely planted in Australia, New Zealand, Florida, Hawaii and southern California. State nickname: Sunshine State, Everglade State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ...


It grows well in deep sand, as long as it receives reliable water when young. This, and its tolerance of salt and wind, makes it ideal for coastal situations.

Post-hurricane damage to a Norfolk Island Pine
Enlarge
Post-hurricane damage to a Norfolk Island Pine

In Florida, these trees are subject to frost damage and as a result produce multiple stems with weakly attached trunks. In the 2004 hurricane season, many of these trees failed under the 160 km/h winds. Some coastal communities (e.g. Vero Beach) prohibit their use as a tree in local landscape plan approvals. Download high resolution version (480x640, 133 KB)Norfolk Island Pine damaged by freeze & hurricane. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 133 KB)Norfolk Island Pine damaged by freeze & hurricane. ... Blades of grass coated in frost. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...


Young trees are often grown as houseplants in areas where the winters are too cold for them to grow outside (they will not, for example, survive outdoors in most of the United States or Europe, but are sometimes used as Christmas trees there, as elsewhere). The timber is good for woodturning, and is extensively used by Hawaiian craftspeople. However, British explorer James Cook unsuccessfully used these trees as ship masts when exploring Norfolk Island. Large numbers of Norfolk Island Pines are produced in South Florida for the houseplant industry. The bulk of these are shipped to grocery stores, discount retailers and garden centers during November. Many of these are sprayed with a light coating of green paint prior to sale to increase their eye appeal. A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... A Christmas tree in a German home One of the most popular traditions associated with the celebration of Christmas, the Christmas tree is normally an evergreen conifer tree that is brought in the house or used in the open, and is decorated with Christmas lights and colourful ornaments during the... Woodturning is a form of woodworking, that is used to create wooden objects (e. ... A houseplant is a plant that is grown in a dwelling, such as a house or office. ...


External link

  • Gymnosperm Database: Araucaria heterophylla

The article says "The timber is good for woodturning, and is extensively used by Hawaiian craftspeople." For example: http://www.ronkent.com/RKgallery.html Taken thin, the wood is wonderfully translucent, and the red knots transmit more light than the rest of the wood, so they give the effect of red eyes. (And, no, I have no affiliation with Ron Kent. It's just that he has the best web site of Norfolk island Pine bowls.)


  Results from FactBites:
 
Araucaria description (1064 words)
heterophylla, A. cunninghamii, and the 13 New Caledonian endemics (A.
The ovule and seed of Araucaria bidwilli with discussion of the taxonomy of the genus.
Anatomy and morphology of Araucaria sphaerocarpa Carruthers from the Jurassic inferior Oolite of Bruton, Somerset.
Woods: Araucaria (3023 words)
The ovulate (seed) cones of the Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla) are similar to the Cook pine (Araucaria columnaris).
A petrified ovulate cone of Araucaria mirabilis from Patagonia, Argentina.
Jet is a semiprecious gem excavated in Europe and formed by the metamorphosis and anaerobic fossilization of araucaria wood buried under sediments in ancient seas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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