FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aramaic of Hatra
Jump to: navigation, search

In 1912, W. Andrae published some inscriptions from the site of Hatra, which were studied by S. Ronzevalle and P. Jensen. The excavations undertaken by the Iraqi Department of Antiquities brought to light more than 100 new texts, the publication of which was undertaken by F. Safar in the journal Sumer. The first four series were the subject of reviews in the journal Syria. The texts range in date from the 2nd or 3rd century BCE to the destruction of the city ca. 240 CE; the earliest dated text provides a date of 98 BCE. Jump to: navigation, search Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ...


For the most part, these inscriptions are short commemorative graffiti with minimal text. The longest of the engraved inscriptions does not have more than 13 lines. It is therefore difficult at the moment to identify more than a few features of the Aramaic dialect of Hatra which, all things considered, shows the greatest affinity to Syriac. Jump to: navigation, search Graffiti on the banks of the Tiber river in Rome, Italy. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


The stone inscriptions bear witness to an effort to establish a monumental script. This script is little different from that of the Aramaic inscriptions of Assur (possessing the same triangular š, and the use of the same means to avoid confusion between m, s, and q). The ds and the rs are not distinguished from one another, and it is sometimes difficult not to confuse w and y. Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The city of Asshur (or Assur or Ashur) on the Tigris was originally a colony of Babylonia, and later became the first capital city of Assyria, to which it gave its name. ...

Contents


Grammatical Sketch

Orthography

The dialect of Hatra is no more consistent than that of Palmyra in its use of matres lectiones to indicate the long vowels ō and ī; the pronominal suffix of the 3rd person plural is written indiscriminantly, and in the same inscription one finds hwn and hn, the quantifier kwl and kl "all", the relative pronoun dy and d, and the word byš and "evil". Jump to: navigation, search Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... Palmyra was the name of an ancient city in Syria, now called Tadmor. ...


Phonology

The following features are attested:


Lenition

A weakening of the laryngeal ‘ayn; in one inscription, the masculine singular demonstrative adjective is written ‘dyn (‘dyn ktb’ "this inscription") which corresponds to Mandaic and Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic hādēn. Similar demonstratives, ‘adī and ‘adā, are attested in Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic. The laryngeals were three consonant sounds that appear in most current reconstructions of the Proto-Indo-European language. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ...


Dissimilation

  • The surname ’kr’ "the court" (qr) and the proper name ky’, which resembles the Nabataean qyw and the Safaitic qyt, demonstrate a regressive dissimilation of emphasis, examples of which are found already in Old Aramaic, rather than a loss of the emphasis of q, which is found in Mandaic and Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic.
  • Dissimilation of geminate consonants through n-insertion: the adjective šappīr "beautiful" is regularly written šnpyr; likewise, the divine name gadd "Tyché" is once written gd, but more commonly appears as gnd. This is a common phenomenon in Aramaic; Brockelmann, however, claims that it is a characteristic feature of the northern dialect to which Armenian owes its Aramaic loans.

Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...

Vocalism

The divine name Nergal, written nrgl, appears in three inscriptions. The pronunciation nergōl is also attested in the Babylonian Talmud (Sanhedrin, 63b) where it rhymes with tarnəgōl, "cock." The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ...


Syntactic Phonology

The Hatran b-yld corresponds to the Syriac bēt yaldā "anniversary". The apocope of the final consonant of the substantive bt in the construct state is not attested in either Old Aramaic or Syriac; it is, however, attested in other dialects such as Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic and Western Jewish Aramaic. Apocope, in linguistics, refers to the loss or leaving out, or elision, of the last sound, syllable, or part of a word. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Morphology

Verbal Morphology

  • The Perfect: The first person singular of the perfect appears only in one inscription: ’n’ ... ktbyt "I ... wrote"; this is the regular vocalization elsewhere among those Aramaic dialects in which it is attested.
  • The causative perfect of qm "demand" should be vocalized ’ēqīm, which is evident from the written forms ’yqym (which appears beside ’qym), the feminine ’yqymt, and the third person plural, ’yqmw. This detail distinguishes Hatran as well as Syriac and Mandaic from the western Jewish and Christian dialects. The vocalization of the preformative poses the same problem as the Hebrew hēqīm.
  • The Imperfect: The third person of the masculine singular is well attested; it consistently has the preformative l-.
  1. In the jussive: lb bcšym "that Bacl Šemēn may announce it" (Syriac ’aeb(b)), l’ ldbrhn ... bqyr’ "that he not oppress them" (Syriac dəbar baqəīrā "to oppress," lit. "to carry away with force").
  2. In the indicative: mn dy lšqh "whoever strikes him" (Syriac šəaq), mn dy lqrhy wl’ ldkrhy "whoever reads it and does not make mention of it", mn dlcwl mhk’ bmšn "whoever goes from here to Mesene", kwl mn dlcbwr ... wlktwb lclyh "whoever passes ... and writes over".
  3. The preformative l- is employed identically in the Aramaic of Assur. The dialect of Hatra is thus further distinguished from Syriac (which uses an n- preformative) and also from Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic, in which the use of the l- preformative for the indicative is not consistent.

Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... The word Hebrew can variously mean: Hebrew, a Semitic language spoken mainly in Israel The ancient Hebrews, or their descendants the Jews The New Testament book Hebrews The term Hebrew is sometimes used by certain Christian groups to distinguish the Jews in ancient times (before the birth of Jesus) from... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The city of Asshur (or Assur or Ashur) on the Tigris was originally a colony of Babylonia, and later became the first capital city of Assyria, to which it gave its name. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...

Nominal Morphology

The distinction between the three states is apparent. As in Syriac, the masculine plural form of the emphatic state has the inflection , written -’. The confusion of this form with that of the construct state may explain the constructions bn’ šmšbrk "sons of Š." and bn’ ddhwn "their cousins." The absolute state is scarcely used: klbn "dogs" and dkyrn "(that they may be) remembered." Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Numbers

The ancient Semitic construction, according to which the counted noun, in the plural, is preceded by a numeral in the construct state, with an inversion of genders, is attested by one inscription: tltt klbn "three dogs." This same construction has been discovered in Nabataean: tltt qysrym "the three Caesars." Jump to: navigation, search Semitic is a linguistic term referring to a subdivision of largely Middle Eastern Afro-Asiatic languages, cultures, and ethnicities. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ...


Syntax

As in Syriac, the analytical construction of the noun complement is common. The use of the construct state appears to be limited to kinship terms and some adjectives: bryk’ ch’. In the analytical construction, the definite noun is either in the emphatic state followed by d(y) (e.g. lm’ dy... "statue of...", spr’ dy brmryn’ "the scribe of (the god) Barmarēn") or is marked by the anticipatory pronominal suffix (e.g. qnh dy rc "creator of the earth," cl yyhy d ... ’yhy "for the life of his brother," cl zmth dy mn dy... "against the hair (Syriac zemtā) of whomever..."). The complement of the object of the verb is also rendered analytically: ...l’ ldkrhy lnšr qb "do not make mention of N.", mn dy lqrhy lcdyn ktb’ "whoever reads this inscription." Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Likewise, the particle d(y) can have a simple declarative meaning: ...l’ lmr dy dkyr lb "(a curse against whomever) does not say, 'may he be well remembered'" which can be compared with l’ lmr dy dkyr.


Vocabulary

Practically all of the known Hatran words are found in Syriac, including words of Akkadian origin, such as ’rdkl’ "architect" (Syriac ’ardiklā), and Parthian professional nouns such as pšgryb’ / pzgryb’ "inheritor of the throne" (Syriac pgryb’); three new nouns, which appear to denote some religious functions, are presumably of Iranian origin: hdrp (which Safar compares with the Pahlavi hylpt’ hērbed "teacher-priest"), and the enigmatic terms brpdmrk’ and qwtgd/ry’. Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Akkadian language city of Akkad or Agad Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad the Amarna letters and Amarna Letters EA 296(Yahtiru) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ...


Final Observations

Many "irregularities" revealed by the texts of Hatra (e.g. the use of the emphatic state in place of the construct state, use of the construct state before the particle dy, inconsistent use of the matres lectiones, etc.) are found systematically in other Aramaic inscriptions throughout the duration of the Arsacid epoque, between the 3rd c. BCE and the 3rd c. CE (previously, in part, at Kandahar, but primarily at Nisa, Avromân, Armazi, Tang-i Sarvak, etc.). We could therefore legitimately ask ourselves if, instead of speaking of "irregularities," which would be due, following each instance, to "scribal negligence," " archaisms of the language," and "orthographic indecision," etc., we should rather speak of the characteristics of these Aramaic dialects in their progressive developments (varying according to each region), which one could label "vernacular Aramaic" to distinguish them from "classical Aramaic." Jump to: navigation, search Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Kandahār (or Qandahār) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nisa may refer to these following topics: Nisa (village) - an ancient village in the country of Turkmenistan A rare female human name, e. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


References

  • Caquot, André. "L'araméen de Hatra." Comptes rendus du groupe linguistique d'études Chamito-Sémitiques 9 (1960-63): 87-89.

External links

Wikipedia
Aramaic of Hatra edition of Wikipedia

  Results from FactBites:
 
A Bird's Eye View of the Syriac Language and Literature (2354 words)
Syriac belongs to the Semitic family of languages, and is a dialect of Aramaic.
The history of Aramaic goes back to the second millennium B.C. It was "first attested in written form in inscriptions of the tenth century B.C., it still continues to be spoken and written in the late twentieth century A.D. by a variety of communities in the Middle East and elsewhere.
Aramaic continued to be in use among the Assyrian populations of Syria and Mesopotamia despite being dominated by Greek and Parthian/Persian rulers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m