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Encyclopedia > Aramaeans

The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. Aramaeans have never had a unified empire; they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East. Yet to these by successive empires, including the Assyrians and Babylonians. Scholars even have used the term 'Aramaization' for the Syro-Mesopotamian peoples, languages and cultures that have been made 'Aramean'[citation needed]. In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...

Contents

Language

Main article: Aramaic language

Aramaeans are mostly defined by their use of the Aramaic language, first written using the Phoenician alphabet slightly modified. Their language, namely Aramaic, belongs -- like Hebrew, Ammonite and others -- to the north-western group of Semitic dialects. As early as the 8th century BC, Aramaic language and writing competed with the Akkadian language and script (cuneiform) in Assyria, and thereafter it spread throughout the Orient. Around 500 BC, when the Achaemenid monarchs looked for a tongue that could be understood by all their subjects, they chose Aramaic, which became the lingua franca of their vast empire. It was not until Greek emerged several centuries later that Aramaic lost its prestige as the most sophisticated language; but it remained unchallenged as the common dialect of all peoples of the Near East and was to remain so until the Arab invasion (7th century AD). Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... It became one of the most widely used writing systems, and was spread by traders of Phoenicia across Europe and the Middle East, where it became used for a variety of languages and spawned many subsequent scripts. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Ammon or Ammonites (עַמּוֹן People, Standard Hebrew ʻAmmon, Tiberian Hebrew ʻAmmôn), also referred to in the Bible as the children of Ammon, were a people living east of the Jordan river who along with the Moabites traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and who were... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to...


The according to the linguist Klaus Beyer, the history of the Aramaic language is broken down into three broad periods:

  • Old Aramaic (1100 BC–AD 200), including:
    • The Biblical Aramaic of the Hebrew Bible.
    • The Aramaic of Jesus.
    • The Aramaic of the Targums.

The turning point of Old Aramaic was about 500 BC when it shifted to Imperial Aramaic, the lingua franca of the Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian Empires.

  • Middle Aramaic (200–1200), including:
    • Literary Syriac.
    • The Aramaic of the Talmuds and Midrashim.

In this period the Nabataeans 'l' is often turned into 'n', and there are a few Arabic loan words. Some Nabataean Aramaic inscriptions exist from the early days of the kingdom, but most are from the first four centuries. The language is written in a cursive script that is the precursor to the modern Arabic alphabet. The number of Arabic loan words increases through the centuries, until, in the fourth century, Nabataean merges seamlessly with Arabic.

  • Modern Aramaic (1200 – present), including:
    • Various modern vernaculars.

These languages are not all mutually understandable, for instance Eastern Syriac is called Chaldean or Assyrian and is very different from the language of the few Mandaeans living in the province of Khuzestan in Iran who speak Modern Mandaic. Very little remains of Western Aramaic, which today is only now spoken in the Christian village of Ma'lula in Syria and the Muslim villages of Bakh`a and Jubb`adin in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Maloula Church St-Thecla Church Ma`loula (Arabic: , from the Aramaic word ܡܥܠܐ, ma`lā, meaning entrance) is a town in Syria. ...


History

Fertile Crescent
myth series
Mesopotamian
Levantine
Arabian
God in Hebrew
Mesopotamian religion
Yezidism
The Levant
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The origin of the Aramaeans is still uncertain, arising from the limited amount of evidence regarding the mention of Aramaeans in Mesopotamian inscriptions. The appearance of the Aramaeans is retraced to two different dates: the 14th and the 12th centuries depending upon the acceptance of some kind of relationship between the Aramaeans and the Ahlamû. The Arameans are believed to have originated in Syria and Upper Mesopotamia. Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... Image File history File links Palm_tree_symbol. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Arabic Mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Ä’l (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Ely... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Adonis is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity in Greek mythology, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... The Palmyran god of the evening star. ... It has been suggested that Asherah pole be merged into this article or section. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... Azizos or Aziz; the Palmyran god of the morning star. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... {{Fertile Crescent myt==External links== [http://depts. ... Other deities worshipped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith. ... Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, reportedly a god of grain and agriculture, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla and Ugarit, and a major god, perhaps the chief god, of the Biblical Philistines, enemies of the ancient nation of Israel. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun) was a northwestern Semitic god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. ... See Kug-Baba for the sumerian queen. ... Liluri was an old Syrian goddess of mountains. ... Manuzi was an old Syrian weather god. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shalim is the god of dusk in the pantheon of Ugarit, the counterpart of Shahar the god of dawn. ... Phoenician silver drachm from ca. ... Yam is the name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. ... Yarikh, in Canaanite mythology, is a god of the moon whose epithets are Illuminator of the Heavens, Illuminator of the Myriads of Stars, and Lord of the Sickle (the latter may come from the appearance of the crescent moon). ... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ...


14th century BC

Nomadic pastoralists have always been a feature of the Middle East, but their numbers seem to vary according to climatic conditions and the force of neighbouring states inducing permanent settlement. The period of the Late Bronze Age seems to have been one of increasing aridity, weakening neighbouring states, and inducing transhumance pastoralists to spend longer and longer periods with their flocks. Urban settlements diminished in size, until eventually fully nomadic pastoralist lifestyles came to dominate the region. These highly mobile, competitive tribesmen with their sudden raids were a continued threat to long distance trade and interfered with the collection of taxes and tribute. In the early 14th century BC, much of Israel was under Aramaean rule for eight years according to the Biblical Book of Judges until Othniel defeated the forces led by Chushan-Rishathaim, the King of Aram-Naharaim. Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Chushan-Rishathaim was king of Aram Naharaim or Northwest Mesopotamia. ... See Aramaea and Arameans. ...


The Ahlamû (= wanderers) are first mentioned in the el-Amarna letters alluding to the king of Babylon; the presence of the Ahlamû are also attested in Assyria, Nippur and even at Dilmun (Bahrain); Shalmaneser I (1274-1245 BC) defeated the Shattuara, King of Mitanni and his Hittite and Ahlamû mercenaries are mentioned in the Jazirah. The term appears equivalent to the Egyptian term Shasu (Shsw = wanderer), who replaced the outlaw 'Apiru (Akkadian SA.GAZ) as the major source of instability in the Egyptian Levantine empire from the reign of Tutankhamun onwards. In the following century, the Ahlamû cut the road from Babylon to Hattusas, and Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244-1208 BC) claims that he conquered Mari, Hana and Rapiqum on the Euphrates and "the mountain of the Ahlamû", apparently the region of Jebel Bishri. EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ... King Shalmaneser I, pouring out Dust of a Conquered City in front of an Assyrian Temple after returning victorious. ... Shattuara, also spelled Å attuara, was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Hanigalbat in the thirteenth century BC. Shattuara was a vassal of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari I (1295-1233 BC). ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... The term Jazirah is island or peninsula in Arabic language and may refer to Al Jazirah, Mesopotamia Al Gezira, Sudan Gezira, of Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt Algeciras a city in Southern Spain Al Jazeera, Arabic television channel, Qatar. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Hattush) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... Tukulti-Ninurta I was a king of Assyria from 1244 BC to 1208 BC. Categories: Royalty stubs | Assyrian kings ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and ÇirmeÅŸ in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ... Hana can be: A Jewish variant transliteration of Hannah. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other...


12th century BC

For the first time, an inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I (1115-1077 BC) refers to the ‘Ahlamû-Aramaeans’ (Ahlame Armaia) and from then on, the Ahlamû rapidly disappear from Assyrian annals -- to be replaced by the Aramaeans (Aramu, Arimi). ‘Ahlamû-Aramaeans’ would consider the Aramaeans as an important and in time dominant faction of the Ahlamû tribes, however it is possible that the two peoples had nothing in common, but operated in the same area. It is conceivable that the name 'Arameans' was a more accurate form of the earlier ethnonym Martu (Amorites, westerners) in the Assyrian tablets. Tiglath-Pileser I (the Hebraic form of Tukulti-apil-Esharra, my trust is in the son of Esharra) was King of Assyria (1115 BC - 1076 BC). ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ...


11th century BC

The Aramaeans were, in the 11th century BC, established in Syria. The Bible tells us that Saul, David and Solomon (late 11th to 10th centuries) fought against the Aramaeans kingdoms across the northern frontier of Israel: Aram-Sôvah in the Beq’a, Aram-Bêt-Rehob and Aram-Ma’akah around Mount Hermon, Geshur in the Hauran, and Damascus. Farther north, the Aramaeans were in possession of Hamath on the Orontes and were soon to become strong enough to dissociate with the Neo-Hittite block. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Saul (Hebrew Shaul meaning demanded) is: 1. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... Artists depiction of Solomons court (Ingobertus, c. ... Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Hama is a province of Syria with currently approximately 350,000 inhabitants. ... The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC The so-called Neo-Hittite or post-Hittite states were Luwian-speaking political entities of Iron Age Syria that arose after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC, the time of...


10th – 9th centuries BC

The Aramaeans conqueredstate of Bit-Gabari, sandwiched between the Neo-Hittite states of Carchemish, Gurgum, Tabal, Khattina and Unqi. Whilst these later states maintained a Neo-Hittite hieroglyphic for official communication, it would seem that the population of these small states was progressively Aramaeanised. The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC The so-called Neo-Hittite or post-Hittite states were Luwian-speaking political entities of Iron Age Syria that arose after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC, the time of... Carchemish (pr. ...


From 8th century BC

Aramaean kingdoms were subjugated by Adad-nirari II, Ashurnasirpal II, and his son Shalmaneser III, who destroyed many of the small tribes, and gave control of Syria and local trade and natural resources to the Assyrians. Some Assyrian kings even took Aramaean wives. Though without a state, Arameans continued their presence in the Near East. Adad-nirari II is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period. ... Ashurnasirpal II, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California Ashurnasirpal II was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC. Ashurnasirpal succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 884 BC. He conquered Mesopotamia and the territory of what is now the Lebanon, adding them to the growing Assyrian empire. ... Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašarēdu, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ...


Religion and art

See also Canaanite gods.

It appears from their inscriptions as well as from their names, that Aramaeans worshipped Sumero-Akkadian and Canaanite gods, such Haddad, (Adad), the storm-god, El, the supreme deity of Canaan, Sin, Ishtar (whom they called ‘Attar), the Phoenician goddess Anat (‘Atta) and others. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Originating from the ancient Phoenician and Canaanite god of storms, who was subsumed into an aspect of Baal, see Hadad. ... EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ...


The Aramaeans apparently followed the traditions of the country where they settled. The King of Damascus, for instance, employed Phoenician sculptors and ivory-carvers. In tell Halaf-Guzana, the palace of Kapara, an Aramaean ruler (9th century B.C.), was decorated with orthostats and with statues that display a mixture of Mesopotamian, Hittite and Hurrian influences. Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ...


Modern

Flag of the Aramaeans

Modern Arameans, also known as Syriacs, are Christians. Modern Arameans are the original Syrians, but because of the large modern-day Arab population with this appellation, the term Syriacs is used to refer to more recent Aramaic-speaking peoples. [1] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


Since Christianization, Oromoyo/Ārāmāyā began to bear the connotation "pagan", whereas Suryoyo/Suryāyā (literally "Syrian") was used to refer only to the Christianized Aramaeans. Today, "Aramaean" is used primarily in Northern Europe, by Syriac-speaking people, who were originally from the Turkish area of Tur Abdin. They are primarily followers of the Syriac Catholic and Syriac Orthodox faiths. World map showing the location of Europe. ... An old church in Midyat Tur Abdin is a hilly region of south east Turkey incorporating the eastern half of Mardin Province, and Sirnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria. ... The Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant in full communion with the pope having practices and rites in common with the Jacobites. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...


See also

See Aram-Naharaim and Arameans. ... Since the early ‘60s, but increasingly so since the late ’70s and early ’80s of the past century, the Aramaean people found a new home in the Netherlands after fleeing from Turkey. ...

External references

References

  • S. Moscati, 'The Aramaean Ahlamû', FSS, IV (1959), pp. 303-7;
  • M. Freiherr Von Oppenheim, Der Tell Halaf, Leipzig, 1931 pp. 71-198;
  • M. Freiherr Von Oppenheim, Tell Halaf, III, Die Bauwerke, Berlin, 1950;
  • A. Moortgat, Tell Halaf IV, Die Bildwerke, Berlin, 1955;
  • B. Hrouda, Tell Halaf IV, Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit, Berlin, 1962;
  • G. ROUX, Ancient Iraq, London, 1980.
  • Beyer, Klaus (1986). "The Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions". (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht). ISBN 3-525-53573-2.
ܣܘܖ̈ܝܝܐ
Syriac Christianity

Self-appellations
Aramaeans · Assyrians · Chaldeans · Syriacs · Maronites
Aramaic languages - Syriac
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic · Bohtan Neo-Aramaic · Chaldean Neo-Aramaic · Hértevin · Koy Sanjaq Surat · Garshuni · Mlahsô · Senaya · Turoyo
Churches
Ancient Church of the East · Assyrian Church of the East · Chaldean Catholic · Maronite Church · Syriac Catholic · Syriac Orthodox Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x836, 41 KB)O JESUS WHAT DID U DO NOW! // Cristo de Velázquez. ... Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Look up Chaldean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Bohtan Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Hértevin language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Koy Sanjaq Surat is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Garshuni, also Karshuni, is a term referring to writings in the Arabic language written in the Syriac alphabet. ... Mlahsô is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... The Ancient Church of the East is an offshot of the Assyrian Church of the East; it was formed in resistance to certain reforms and separated due to the question of hereditary succession of bishops and calendar changes in 1964. ... The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ) under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... The Chaldean Catholic Church aka the Chaldean Church of Babylon (Arabic: ‎, ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris (autonomous) particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
History (5344 words)
Threat to the Aramaean kingdoms came from the east, where the Assyrians of Mesopotamia were trying to expand their territory.
It is most probable that the remains of the Aramaean town lie buried under the eastern part of the old walled city.
The Romans incorporated the Aramaean and Greek sectors of the city to form into a uniform city plan and built a broad wall encircling the whole area.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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