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Encyclopedia > Aral Sea
Aral Sea
Aral Sea - 1989 and 2003
1989 and 2003
Location Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (Central Asia)
Coordinates 45° N 60° ECoordinates: 45° N 60° E
Lake type endorheic
Primary inflows Amu Darya, Syr Darya
Basin countries Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan
Surface area 17,160 km² (2004)
28,687 km² (1998)
68,000 km² (1960)
Settlements (Aral)

The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: Orol dengizi, Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. The name roughly translates as "Sea of Islands", referring to more than 1,500 islands of one hectare or more that dotted its waters. Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Drainage basin. ... Former harbor area in downtown Aral Aral, also known as Aralsk or Aralsk, (Kazakh: Арал, Russian: Аральск) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast of Qyzylorda. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Tajikmay refer to: Tajiks, an ethnic group living in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and China The Tajik language, the official language of Tajikistan The Arabic-schooled, ethnically Persian administrative caste of the Turco-Persian society. ... Farsi redirects here. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water (either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or permeable material). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Image:Biz-Center 1, Aktobe. ... The Syr Darya River, in Qyzylorda. ... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ...

Contents

Background

Map: lake boundaries c. 1960 with present-day political boundaries. Countries with any land draining into the lake are in yellow.
Map: lake boundaries c. 1960 with present-day political boundaries. Countries with any land draining into the lake are in yellow.

Once the world's fourth-largest inland sea with an area of 68,000 km², the Aral Sea has been steadily shrinking since the 1960s, after the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya that fed it were diverted by Soviet Union irrigation projects. By 2004, the sea had shrunk to 25% of its original surface area, and a nearly fivefold increase in salinity had killed most of its natural flora and fauna. By 2007 it had declined further to 10% of its original size, splitting into three separate lakes, two of which are too salty for fish to live in.[1] The once prosperous fishing industry has been virtually destroyed, and former fishing towns and villages along the sea's original shores have become desolate ship graveyards. With this collapse has come unemployment and economic hardship. Image File history File links Aral_map. ... Image File history File links Aral_map. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ...


The Aral Sea is also heavily polluted, largely as the result of weapons testing, industrial projects, pesticides and fertilizer runoff. Wind-blown salt from the dried-out seabed damages crops, and polluted drinking water and salt- and dust-laden air cause serious public health problems. The retreat of the sea has reportedly also caused local climate change, with summers becoming hotter and drier, and winters colder and longer.[2] Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... For other uses of this term, see Industry (disambiguation) Industrial redirects here. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


The plight of the Aral Sea is frequently described as an environmental catastrophe. There is now an ongoing effort in Kazakhstan to save and replenish what remains of the northern part of the Aral Sea (the Small Aral). A dam project completed in 2005 has raised the water level of this lake by two metres. Salinity has dropped, and fish are again found sufficient numbers for some fishing to be viable. The outlook for the far larger southern part of the sea (the Large Aral) remains bleak.


Ecological problems

The shrinking of the Aral Sea

History

Aral Sea from space, August 1964
Aral Sea from space, August 1964
Aral Sea from space, August 1985
Aral Sea from space, August 1985
Aral Sea from space, March 2008

In 1918, the Soviet government decided that the two rivers that fed the Aral Sea, the Amu Darya in the south and the Syr Darya in the northeast, would be diverted to irrigate the desert, in order to attempt to grow rice, melons, cereals, and cotton. This was part of the Soviet plan for cotton, or "white gold", to become a major export. This did eventually end up becoming the case, and today Uzbekistan is one of the world's largest exporters of cotton.[3] Image File history File links AralSeaAug1964-keyhole. ... Image File history File links AralSeaAug1964-keyhole. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Aral_sea_1985_from_STS.jpg‎ Aral Sea - August 1985 image description here File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aral Sea Geography of the Soviet Union Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Aral_sea_1985_from_STS.jpg‎ Aral Sea - August 1985 image description here File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aral Sea Geography of the Soviet Union Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... For most of the history of the Soviet Union, its political system was characterized by divergence between the formal system as expressed in the Constitution of the Soviet Union and actual practice. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Melon (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


The irrigation canals began to be built on a large scale in the 1940s. Many of the irrigation canals were poorly built, letting water leak out or evaporate; from the Qaraqum Canal, the largest Central Asia, perhaps 30 to 75% of the water went to waste. Today only 12% of Uzbekistan's irrigation canal length is waterproofed. For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... The Qaraqum Canal (formerly called the Karakumsky Kanal) is the largest irrigation and water supply canal in the world. ...


By 1960, somewhere between 20 and 60 cubic kilometers of water were going each year to the land instead of the sea. Thus, most of the sea's water supply had been diverted, and in the 1960s the Aral Sea began to shrink. From 1961 to 1970, the Aral's sea level fell at an average of 20 cm a year; in the 1970s, the average rate nearly tripled to 50–60 cm per year, and by the 1980s it continued to drop, now with a mean of 80–90 cm each year. After seeing this, the rate of water usage for irrigation continued to increase: the amount of water taken from the rivers doubled between 1960 and 2000; cotton production nearly doubled in the same period.


The Aral Sea fishing industry, which in its heyday had employed some 40,000 workers and reportedly produced one-sixth of the USSR's entire fish catch, pretty much disappeared; so did the muskrat trapping in the deltas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya, which used to yield as much as 500,000 muskrat pelts a year.[4] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Muskrat range (native range in red, introduced range in green) The muskrat or musquash (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra, is a medium-sized semi-aquatic rodent native to North America, and introduced in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ...


The disappearance of the lake was no surprise to the Soviets; they expected it to happen long before. As early as in 1964, Aleksandr Asarin at the Hydroproject Institute pointed out that the lake was doomed explaining, "It was part of the five-year plans, approved by the council of ministers and the Politburo. Nobody on a lower level would dare to say a word contradicting those plans, even if it was the fate of the Aral Sea."[4] Five-Year Plan refers to a national economic development plan, lasting five years. ... For most of the history of the Soviet Union, its political system was characterized by divergence between the formal system as expressed in the Constitution of the Soviet Union and actual practice. ... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


The reaction to the predictions varied. Some Soviet experts apparently considered the Aral to be "nature's error", and a Soviet engineer said in 1968 that "it is obvious to everyone that the evaporation of the Aral Sea is inevitable."[5] On the other hand, starting in the 1960s, a large scale project was contemplated to redirect part of the flow of the rivers of the Ob basin to Central Asia over a gigantic canal system. Refilling of the Aral Sea was considered as one of the project's main goals. However, due to its staggering costs and the negative public opinion in Russia proper, the federal authorities abandoned the project by 1986.[6] lauren rocks my world The river splits into more than one arm, especially after joining the large Irtysh tributary at about 69° E. Originating in China, the Irtysh is actually longer than the Ob from their sources to the point of their confluence. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the former...


Current situation

Aral Sea seen by SPOT satellite[clarify—discuss]
Aral Sea seen by SPOT satellite[clarify—discuss]
Comparison of the North Aral Sea before (below) and after (above) the construction of Dike Kokaral completed in 2005
Comparison of the North Aral Sea before (below) and after (above) the construction of Dike Kokaral completed in 2005
Abandoned ship near Aral, Kazakhstan
Abandoned ship near Aral, Kazakhstan
A former harbor in the city of Aral, Kazakhstan
A former harbor in the city of Aral, Kazakhstan

The sea's surface area shrank by approximately 60%, and its volume by 80%. In 1960, the Aral Sea was the world's fourth-largest lake, with an area of approximately 68,000 km² and a volume of 1100 km³; by 1998, it had dropped to 28,687 km², and eighth-largest. The amount of water it has lost is the equivalent of completely draining Lakes Erie and Ontario. Over the same time period its salinity has increased from about 10 g/L to about 45 g/L. As of 2004, the Aral Sea's surface area was only 17,160 km², 25% of its original size, and still contracting.[citation needed] By 2007 the sea's area shrunk to 10% of its original size, and the salinity of the remains of the southern part of the sea (the Large Aral) increased to to levels in excess of 100 g/L.[1] By comparison, the salinity of ordinary seawater is typically around 35 g/L; the Dead Sea's salinity varies between 300 and 350 g/L. SPOT (Satellite Pour lObservation de la Terre) refers to a series of commercial earth observation satellites launched by the French Space Agency CNES (Centre National dEtudes Spatiales). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (540x704, 105 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Aral Sea ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (540x704, 105 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Aral Sea ... Comparison of the North Aral Sea before (below) and after (above) the construction of Dike Kokaral. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 526 KB)Orphaned ship in former Aral sea, near Aral, Kazakhstan. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 526 KB)Orphaned ship in former Aral sea, near Aral, Kazakhstan. ... Former harbor area in downtown Aral Aral, also known as Aralsk or Aralsk, (Kazakh: Арал, Russian: Аральск) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast of Qyzylorda. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 403 KB)Waterfront of Aral, Kazakhstan, formerly on the banks of the Aral sea. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 403 KB)Waterfront of Aral, Kazakhstan, formerly on the banks of the Aral sea. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... A milligram per litre or milligram per liter (mg/L) is a measurement of concentration used to measure the how many milligrams of a certain substance there are present in one litre of liquid. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... The Dead Sea (Arabic: ‎, , Dead Sea;Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt) is a salt lake between Israel and the West Bank to the west, and Jordan to the east. ...


Even the recently discovered inflow of sublacustric[clarify] groundwater discharge into the Aral Sea will not in itself be able to stop the desiccation. This inflow of about 4 billion cubic meters per year is larger than previously estimated. This groundwater originates in the Pamirs and Tian Shan mountains and seeks its way through geological layers to a fracture zone at the bottom of the Aral Sea. Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ...


In 1987, the continuing shrinkage split the lake into two separate bodies of water, the North Aral Sea (the Lesser Sea, or Small Aral Sea) and the South Aral Sea (the Greater Sea, or Large Aral Sea); an artificial channel was dug to connect them, but that connection was gone by 1999 as the two seas continued to shrink. In 2003, the South Aral further divided into eastern and western basins; the loss of the North Aral has since been partially reversed (see below). Shrinkage of the lake also created the Aral Karakum, a desert on the former lakebed The North Aral sea is the portion of the original Aral Sea that is fed by the Syr Darya river. ... The Aral Karakum desert lies north of the Aral Sea in Kazakhstan. ...


Work is being done to restore in part the North Aral Sea. Irrigation works on the Syr Darya have been repaired and improved to increase its water flow, and in October 2003, the Kazakh government announced a plan to build Dike Kokaral, a concrete dam separating the two halves of the Aral Sea. Work on this dam was completed in August 2005; since then the water level of the North Aral has risen, and its salinity has decreased. As of 2006, some recovery of sea level has been recorded, sooner than expected.[7] "The dam has caused the small Aral's sea level to rise swiftly to 38 m (125 ft), from a low of less than 30 m (98 ft), with 42 m (138 ft) considered the level of viability."[8] Economically significant stocks of fish have returned, and observers who had written off the North Aral Sea as an environmental catastrophe were surprised by unexpected reports that in 2006 its returning waters were already partly reviving the fishing industry and producing catches for export as far as Ukraine. The restoration reportedly gave rise to long absent rain clouds and possible microclimate changes, bringing tentative hope to an agricultural sector swallowed by a regional dustbowl, and some expansion of the shrunken sea.[9] "The sea, which had receded almost 100 km south of the port-city of Aral, is now a mere 25 km away." There are plans to build a new canal to reconnect Aralsk with the sea. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2009, by which time it is hoped the distance to be covered will be only 6 km. A new dam is to be built based on a World Bank loan to Kazakhstan, with the start of construction also slated for 2009 to further expand the shrunken Northern Aral eventually to the withered former port of Aralsk.[10][11] Comparison of the North Aral Sea before (below) and after (above) the construction of Dike Kokaral. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... “Sandstorm” redirects here. ... Former harbor area in downtown Aral Aral, also known as Aralsk or Aralsk, (Kazakh: Арал, Russian: Аральск) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast of Qyzylorda. ...


The South Aral Sea, which lies largely in poorer Uzbekistan, was largely abandoned to its fate. Projects in the North Aral at first seemed to bring glimmers of hope to the South as well: "In addition to restoring water levels in the Northern Sea, a sluice in the dike is periodically opened, allowing excess water to flow into the largely dried-up Southern Aral Sea."[12] Discussions had been held on recreating a channel between the somewhat improved North and the desiccated South, along with uncertain wetland restoration plans throughout the region, but political will is lacking.[7] Uzbekistan shows no interest in abandoning the Amu Darya river as an abundant source of cotton irrigation, and instead is moving toward oil exploration in the drying South Aral seabed.[11] Vast salt plains exposed with the shrinking of the Aral have produced dust storms, making regional winters colder and summers hotter.[13][14][15][16] Attempts to mitigate these effects include planting vegetation in the newly exposed seabed. In the Northern Aral, recently higher sea levels have slightly moderated these effects in some areas, and the spring season now sees long-missing rainfall.[11] “Sandstorm” redirects here. ...


As of summer 2003, the South Aral Sea was vanishing faster than predicted. In the deepest parts of the sea, the bottom waters are saltier than the top, and not mixing. Thus, only the top of the sea is heated in the summer, and it evaporates faster than would otherwise be expected. Based on the recent data, the western part of the South Aral Sea is expected to be gone within 15 years; the eastern part could last indefinitely.


The ecosystem of the Aral Sea and the river deltas feeding into it has been nearly destroyed, not least because of the much higher salinity. The receding sea has left huge plains covered with salt and toxic chemicals, which are picked up and carried away by the wind as toxic dust and spread to the surrounding area. The land around the Aral Sea is heavily polluted and the people living in the area are suffering from a lack of fresh water and other health problems, including high rates of certain forms of cancer and lung diseases. Crops in the region are destroyed by salt being deposited onto the land. The town of Moynaq in Uzbekistan had a thriving harbor and fishing industry that employed approximately 60,000 people; now the town lies miles from the shore. Fishing boats lie scattered on the dry land that was once covered by water, many have been there for 20 years. The only significant fishing company left in the area has its fish shipped from the Baltic Sea, thousands of kilometres away. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In medicine, pulmonology is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... Moynaq (Uzbek: Maynoq; Russian Muynak), is a city in northern Karakalpakstan in western Uzbekistan. ... For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


The tragedy of Aral coast was portrayed in the 1989 film, Psy ("Dogs"), by Soviet director, Dmitriy Svetozarov.[citation needed] The film was shot on location in the actual ghost town, showing scenes of abandoned buildings and scattered vessels. More recently, in 1999, German filmmaker Joachim Tschirner has produced the documentary "Der Aralsee" for the channel Arte. For other uses, see Ghost town (disambiguation). ... The Arte building in Strasbourg Arte (Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne) is a Franco-German TV network, which aims to promote quality programming related to the world of arts and culture. ...


On 9/10 June 2007 BBC World broadcast a documentary called 'Back From The Brink?' made by Borna Alikhani and Guy Creasey that showed some of the changes in the region since the introduction of the Aklak Dam. World News bulletins form the main part of the channels daily schedule. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...


Possible solutions

Many different solutions to the different problems have been suggested over the years, ranging in feasibility and cost, including the following:

  • Improving the quality of irrigation canals;
  • Installing desalination plants;
  • Charging farmers to use the water from the rivers;
  • Using alternative cotton species that require less water;
  • Using fewer chemicals on the cotton
  • Redirecting water from the Volga, Ob and Irtysh rivers. This would restore the Aral Sea to its former size in 20-30 years at a cost of US$30-50 billion.[17]

In January 1994, the countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan signed a deal to pledge 1% of their budgets to helping the sea recover. By 2006, the World Bank's restoration projects especially in the North Aral were giving rise to some unexpected, tentative relief in what had been an extremely pessimistic picture.[18] Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... “Volga” redirects here. ... lauren rocks my world The river splits into more than one arm, especially after joining the large Irtysh tributary at about 69° E. Originating in China, the Irtysh is actually longer than the Ob from their sources to the point of their confluence. ... Irtysh (Иртыш ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Central Asia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ...


Bioweapons facility on the Vozrozhdeniya Island

Main article: Vozrozhdeniya Island

In 1948, a top-secret Soviet bioweapons laboratory was established on the island in the center of the Aral Sea which is now disputed territory between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The exact history, functions and current status of this facility have not yet been disclosed. The base was abandoned in 1992 following the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Scientific expeditions proved that this had been a site for production, testing and later dumping of pathogenic weapons. In 2002, through a project organized by the United States and with Uzbekistan assistance, 10 anthrax burial sites were decontaminated. According to the Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Infections, all burial sites of anthrax were decontaminated.[19] This article is about the island. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ...


Development of the Aral Sea

Ergash Shaismatov, the Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan, announced on August 30, 2006, that the Uzbek government and an international consortium consisting of state-run Uzbekneftegaz, LUKoil Overseas, Petronas, Korea National Oil Corporation, and China National Petroleum Corporation signed a production sharing agreement to explore and develop oil and gas fields in the Aral Sea, saying, "The Aral Sea is largely unknown, but it holds a lot of promise in terms of finding oil and gas. There is risk, of course, but we believe in the success of this unique project." The consortium was created in September 2005.[20] Ergash Shaismatov is the current Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan. ... According to the Constitution of Uzbekistan, the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan and the deputy ministers are appointed by the president. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Politics of Uzbekistan takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Uzbekistan is both head of state and head of government. ... Uzbekneftegaz is a state-owned holding company of Uzbekistans oil and gas industry. ... LUKOIL (RTS:LKOH LSE: LKOD NASDAQ: LUKOY) (Russian: ; pronounced Luke-Oil) is Russias largest oil company and its largest producer of oil. ... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Philip Micklin; Nikolay V. Aladin. "Reclaiming the Aral Sea", Scientific American, March 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  2. ^ U.S. Geological Survey (2007-05-01). Earthshots: Aral Sea. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  3. ^ USDA-Foreign Agriculture Service (2008). Cotton Production Ranking. National Cotton Council of America. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  4. ^ a b Michael Wines. "Grand Soviet Scheme for Sharing Water in Central Asia Is Foundering", The New York Times, 2002-12-09. Retrieved on 2008-03-08. 
  5. ^ Bissell, Tom (2002). Eternal Winter: Lessons of the Aral Sea Disaster. Harper's, pp. 41–56. 
  6. ^ Glantz, Michael H. (1999). Creeping Environmental Problems and Sustainable Development in the Aral Sea.... Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 174. ISBN 0521620864. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  7. ^ a b Ilan Greenberg. "A vanished Sea Reclaims its form in Central Asia", The International Herald Tribune, 2006-04-07. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  8. ^ Ilan Greenberg. "As a Sea Rises, So Do Hopes for Fish, Jobs and Riches", The New York Times, 2006-04-06. Retrieved on 2008-05-16. 
  9. ^ Miraculous Catch in Kazakhstan's Northern Aral Sea. The World Bank (June 2006). Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  10. ^ North Aral Sea Recovery. The Earth Observatory. NASA (2007). Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  11. ^ a b c Martin Fletcher. "The return of the sea", The Times, 2007-06-23. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  12. ^ Saving a Corner of the Aral Sea. The World Bank (2005-09-01). Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  13. ^ Godwin O. P. Obasi, Challenges and Opportunities in Water Resource Management, World Meteorological Organization (Lecture at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, February 11, 2003)
  14. ^ "Aral Sea". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  15. ^ Dust Storm, Aral Sea, NASA Earth Observatory image, June 30, 2001
  16. ^ Whish-Wilson, Phillip (2002). "The Aral Sea environmental health crisis". Journal of Rural and Remote Environmental Health 1 (2): 30. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.35.031306.140120<br (inactive 2008-06-26). Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  17. ^ Ed Ring (2004-09-27). Release the Rivers: Let the Volga & Ob Refill the Aral Sea. Ecoworld. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  18. ^ "A Witch's Brew", BBC News, July 2006. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.  A Witch's Brew, Part Two: Regeneration (MP3) [Video]. BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  19. ^ Khabar Television/BBC Monitoring. "Kazakhstan: Vozrozhdeniya Anthrax Burial Sites Destroyed", Global Security Newswire, Nuclear Threat Initiative, 2002-11-20. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  20. ^ Uzbekistan, intl consortium ink deal on exploring Aral Sea ITAR-Tass

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WMO flag The World Meteorological Organization (WMO, French: , OMM) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 188 Member States and Territories. ... The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA Earth Observatory is an online publication of NASA where the public can access satellite imagery and scientific information about our planet for free. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Micklin, Philip (2007). "The Aral Sea Disaster". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 35 (4): 47–72. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.35.031306.140120. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  • Bissell, Tom. "Eternal Winter: Lessons of the Aral Sea Disaster", Harper's, April 2002, pp. 41-56. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  • Bissell, Tom (2004). Chasing The Sea: Lost Among the Ghosts of Empire in Central Asia. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 9780375727542. 
  • Ellis, William S. "A Soviet Sea Lies Dying", National Geographic, February 1990, pp. 73-93. 
  • Ferguson, Rob (2003). The Devil and the Disappearing Sea. Vancouver: Raincoast Books. ISBN 1551925990. 
  • Kasperson, Jeanne; Kasperson, Roger; Turner, B.L (1995). The Aral Sea Basin: A Man-Made Environmental Catastrophe. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 92. ISBN 9280808486. 
  • Bendhun, François; Renard, Philippe (2004). "Indirect estimation of groundwater inflows into the Aral sea via a coupled water and salt mass balance model". Journal of Marine Systems 47 (1-4): 35–50. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2003.12.007. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Aral Sea
  • Maps and Data of the Aral Sea Basin
  • Kazakhstan Government and World Bank Project for Saving Aral Sea, 14 December 2006*
  • BBC article by David Shukman on a study that finds high levels of DNA damage that could explain the region's abnormally high cancer rate; Muynak, Uzbekistan, 29 June 2004
  • New Scientist article, 21 July 2003
  • BBC article on planned dam, 29 October 2003
  • BBC article on approved loan from World Bank, 09 April 2007
  • EcoWorld article "Arctic to Aral", 6 November 2005
  • Satellite images of the Aral Sea on NASA's Visible Earth website
  • Earth Observatory: Rebirth island joins the mainland
  • www.american.edu: Aral Sea Loss and Cotton
  • Anthrax 'time bomb' ticking in Aral Sea, researchers say - CNN's report on bioweapons dump on Vozrozhdeniya Island
  • Atlas of Our Changing Environment - United Nations Environment Programme.
  • aral2006
  • http://www.kazakhstanlive.com - Information Centre for Kazakhstan with Infos on Aral Sea

is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aral Sea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1719 words)
The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Uzbek: Orol dengizi) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south.
The Aral Sea is heavily polluted, largely as the result of weapons testing, industrial projects, and fertilizer runoff before and after the breakup of the Soviet Union.
In 1960, the Aral Sea was the world's fourth-largest lake, with an area of approximately 68,000 km² and a volume of 1100 km³; by 1998, it had dropped to 28,687 km², and eighth-largest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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